75 relations: Acarbose, Acid, Afegostat, Alpha-amylase, Alpha-Mannosidase, Amylase, Anomer, Anti-diabetic medication, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial, Antiviral drug, Base (chemistry), Beta-galactosidase, Beta-glucosidase, Biofilm, Biomass, Biosynthesis, Carboxylate, Castanospermine, Catalysis, Cellulase, Cellulose, Chitinase, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endothelium, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Ethanol, Extracellular polymeric substance, Food industry, Gastrointestinal tract, Glucosidases, Glycogen, Glycoprotein, Glycoside hydrolase family 1, Glycoside hydrolase family 5, Glycosidic bond, Glycosyltransferase, Glycosynthase, Golgi apparatus, Hemicellulose, Hyaluronidase, Hydrolysis, In vitro, In vivo, Invertase, Lac operon, Lactase, Lactose, Lactose intolerance, ..., Lysosome, Lysozyme, Maltase, Migalastat, Miglitol, Mucopolysaccharidosis, Natural product, Neuraminidase, Nucleophile, Organic chemistry, Oseltamivir, Pathogenesis, Polysaccharide, Prokaryote, Saliva, Starch, Stereochemistry, Sucrase, Sucrose, Swainsonine, Trehalose, Walden inversion, Xylanase, Zanamivir, 1-Deoxynojirimycin. Expand index (25 more) » « Shrink index
Acarbose (INN) is an anti-diabetic drug used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2 and, in some countries, prediabetes.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Afegostat (INN; also known as isofagomine; planned trade name Plicera) was an experimental drug for the treatment of certain forms of Gaucher's disease that was being developed by Amicus Therapeutics and Shire plc until a failed clinical trial in 2009 led to termination of its development.
α-Amylase is a protein enzyme that hydrolyses alpha bonds of large, alpha-linked polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, yielding glucose and maltose.
alpha-Mannosidase (alpha-D-mannosidase, p-nitrophenyl-alpha-mannosidase, alpha-D-mannopyranosidase, 1,2-alpha-mannosidase, 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase, exo-alpha-mannosidase) is an enzyme involved in the cleavage of the alpha form of mannose.
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
An anomer is a type of geometric variation found in at certain atoms in carbohydrate molecules.
Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
β-galactosidase, also called lactase, beta-gal or β-gal, is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosides into monosaccharides through the breaking of a glycosidic bond.
Beta-glucosidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bonds to terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides and oligosaccharides, with release of glucose.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.
Castanospermine is an indolizidine alkaloid first isolated from the seeds of Castanospermum australe.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Chitinases (chitodextrinase, 1,4-beta-poly-N-acetylglucosaminidase, poly-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-1,4-poly-N-acetyl glucosamidinase, poly glycanohydrolase, (1->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan glycanohydrolase) are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) are natural polymers of high molecular weight secreted by microorganisms into their environment.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Glucosidases are glycoside hydrolase enzymes categorized under the EC number 3.2.1.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Glycoside hydrolase family 1 is a family of glycoside hydrolases.
In molecular biology, glycoside hydrolase family 5 is a family of glycoside hydrolases.
In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
Glycosyltransferases (GTFs, Gtfs) are enzymes (EC 2.4) that establish natural glycosidic linkages.
The term Glycosynthase refers to a class of proteins that have been engineered to catalyze the formation of a glycosidic bond.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all plant cell walls.
Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes that catalyse the degradation of hyaluronic acid (HA).
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar) into fructose and glucose.
The lac operon (lactose operon) is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and many other enteric bacteria.
Lactase is an enzyme produced by many organisms.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.
Maltase (alpha-glucosidase, glucoinvertase, glucosidosucrase, maltase-glucoamylase, alpha-glucopyranosidase, glucosidoinvertase, alpha-D-glucosidase, alpha-glucoside hydrolase, alpha-1,4-glucosidase, alpha-D-glucoside glucohydrolase) is an enzyme located in on the brush border of the small intestine that breaks down the disaccharide maltose.
Migalastat (or 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin; trade names Galafold and formerly Amigal) is a drug for the treatment of Fabry disease, a rare genetic disorder. It was developed by Amicus Therapeutics. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assigned it orphan drug status in 2004, and the European Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) followed in 2006. The European Commission approved the drug in May 2016.
Miglitol is an oral anti-diabetic drug that acts by inhibiting the ability of the patient to break down complex carbohydrates into glucose. It is primarily used in diabetes mellitus type 2 for establishing greater glycemic control by preventing the digestion of carbohydrates (such as disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides) into monosaccharides which can be absorbed by the body. Miglitol, and other structurally-related iminosugars, inhibit glycoside hydrolase enzymes called alpha-glucosidases. Since miglitol works by preventing digestion of carbohydrates, it lowers the degree of postprandial hyperglycemia. It must be taken at the start of main meals to have maximal effect. Its effect will depend on the amount of non-monosaccharide carbohydrates in a person's diet. In contrast to acarbose (another alpha-glucosidase inhibitor), miglitol is systemically absorbed; however, it is not metabolized and is excreted by the kidneys.
Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of metabolic disorders caused by the absence or malfunctioning of lysosomal enzymes needed to break down molecules called glycosaminoglycans.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Neuraminidase enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that cleave the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Oseltamivir, sold under the brand name Tamiflu, is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu).
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.
Sucrase is a digestive enzyme secreted in the small intestine.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Swainsonine is an indolizidine alkaloid.
Trehalose is a sugar consisting of two molecules of glucose.
Walden inversion is the inversion of a chiral center in a molecule in a chemical reaction.
Xylanase (endo-(1->4)-beta-xylan 4-xylanohydrolase, endo-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-D-xylanase, 1,4-beta-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-D-xylanase) is the name given to a class of enzymes which degrade the linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose, thus breaking down hemicellulose, one of the major components of plant cell walls.
Zanamivir is a medication used to treat and prevent influenza caused by influenza A and B viruses.
1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), also called duvoglustat or moranolin, is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, most commonly found in mulberry leaves.