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Glycosylation

Index Glycosylation

Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor). [1]

75 relations: ABO blood group system, Advanced glycation end-product, Amide, Antigen, Archaea, Arginine, Asparagine, Bacteria, Biopharmaceutical, Biopolymer, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Ceramide, Chemical glycosylation, Congenital disorder of glycosylation, Covalent bond, Cytoplasm, DNA, Endoplasmic reticulum, Enzyme, Eukaryote, Extracellular matrix, Fucose, Fucosylation, Glycan, Glycation, Glycoprotein, Glycorandomization, Glycoside, Glycosidic bond, Glycosyl acceptor, Glycosyl donor, Glycosylphosphatidylinositol, Glycosyltransferase, Glypiation, Golgi apparatus, HEK 293 cells, Helicobacter, HIV, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylysine, Hydroxyproline, Immune system, Interferon gamma, Lectin, Leishmania mexicana, Lipid, Macromolecule, Mannose, Monoclonal antibody, ..., N-Acetylglucosamine, N-linked glycosylation, Nitrogen, Nucleotide sugar, Oligosaccharide, Organic chemistry, Ovarian cancer, Oxygen, Phosphoserine, Post-translational modification, Prenylation, Protein, Proteome, RNA, Serine, Side chain, Threonine, Thrombospondin, Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), Trypanosoma cruzi, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Xylose, Zoonosis. Expand index (25 more) »

ABO blood group system

The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.

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Advanced glycation end-product

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proteins or lipids that become glycated as a result of exposure to sugars.

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Amide

An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).

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Antigen

In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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Archaea

Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Arginine

Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Asparagine

Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Biopharmaceutical

A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

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Biopolymer

Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Ceramide

Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules.

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Chemical glycosylation

A chemical gycosylation reaction involves the coupling of a glycosyl donor, to a glycosyl acceptor forming a glycoside.

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Congenital disorder of glycosylation

A congenital disorder of glycosylation (previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome) is one of several rare inborn errors of metabolism in which glycosylation of a variety of tissue proteins and/or lipids is deficient or defective.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Cytoplasm

In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Extracellular matrix

In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

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Fucose

Fucose is a hexose deoxy sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5.

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Fucosylation

Fucosylation is the process of adding fucose sugar units to a molecule.

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Glycan

The terms glycan and polysaccharide are defined by IUPAC as synonyms meaning "compounds consisting of a large number of monosaccharides linked glycosidically".

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Glycation

Glycation (sometimes called non-enzymatic glycosylation) is the result of the covalent bonding of a sugar molecule, such as glucose or fructose, to a protein or lipid molecule, without the controlling action of an enzyme.

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Glycoprotein

Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Glycorandomization

Glycorandomization, is a drug discovery and drug development technology platform to enable the rapid diversification of bioactive small molecules, drug leads and/or approved drugs through the attachment of sugars.

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Glycoside

In chemistry, a glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond.

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Glycosidic bond

In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.

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Glycosyl acceptor

A glycosyl acceptor: is any suitable nucleophile-containing molecule that will react with a glycosyl donor to form a new glycosidic bond.

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Glycosyl donor

A glycosyl donor is a carbohydrate mono- or oligosaccharide that will react with a suitable glycosyl acceptor to form a new glycosidic bond.

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Glycosylphosphatidylinositol

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol, or glycophosphatidylinositol, or GPI in short, is a glycolipid that can be attached to the C-terminus of a protein during posttranslational modification.

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Glycosyltransferase

Glycosyltransferases (GTFs, Gtfs) are enzymes (EC 2.4) that establish natural glycosidic linkages.

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Glypiation

Glypiation is the covalent bond of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor and is a common post-translational modification that localizes proteins to cell membranes.

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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HEK 293 cells

Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture.

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Helicobacter

Helicobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria possessing a characteristic helical shape.

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HIV

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hydroxylysine

Hydroxylysine (Hyl) is an amino acid with the molecular formula C6H14N2O3.

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Hydroxyproline

(2S,4R)-4-Hydroxyproline, or L-hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is a common non-proteinogenic amino acid, abbreviated as Hyp, e.g., in Protein Data Bank.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Interferon gamma

Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.

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Lectin

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific for sugar moieties of other molecules.

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Leishmania mexicana

Leishmania mexicana belongs to Leishmania genus and is the causal agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico and central America.

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Lipid

In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Macromolecule

A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Mannose

Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement "d-mannose", is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates.

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Monoclonal antibody

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.

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N-Acetylglucosamine

N-Acetylglucosamine (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, or GlcNAc, or NAG) is a monosaccharide and a derivative of glucose.

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N-linked glycosylation

N-linked glycosylation, is the attachment of the sugar molecule oligosaccharide known as glycan to a nitrogen atom (the amide nitrogen of an asparagine (Asn) residue of a protein), in a process called N-glycosylation, studied in biochemistry.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nucleotide sugar

Nucleotide sugars are the activated forms of monosaccharides.

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Oligosaccharide

An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Phosphoserine

Phosphoserine (abbreviated as SEP or J) is an ester of serine and phosphoric acid.

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Post-translational modification

Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.

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Prenylation

Prenylation (also known as isoprenylation or lipidation) is the addition of hydrophobic molecules to a protein or chemical compound.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Proteome

The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time.

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Serine

Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Side chain

In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.

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Threonine

Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Thrombospondin

Thrombospondins are a family of secreted glycoproteins with antiangiogenic functions.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma cruzi is a species of parasitic euglenoids.

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Tryptophan

Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Tyrosine

Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

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Xylose

Xylose (cf. ξύλον, xylon, "wood") is a sugar first isolated from wood, and named for it.

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Zoonosis

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.

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Aglycosylated, Binding of protein and glucose, Binding of protein and glucose molecules, Glycosylate, Glycosylated, Glycosylations, Nglycosylation, Oglycosylation, Olinked oligosaccharide, Pathological binding of protein and glucose, Pathological binding of protein and glucose molecules.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycosylation

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