80 relations: Acanthodes, Acanthodii, Actinopterygii, Adaptive immune system, Agnatha, Amniote, Amphibian, Amphirhina, Batoidea, Bird, Blue runner, Bone, Bowfin, Branchial arch, Buccal pumping, Cartilage, Cetacea, Chimaera, Chondrichthyes, Clade, Clasper, Class (biology), Coccosteus, Devonian, Dorsal fin, Dunkleosteus, Elasmobranchii, Entelognathus, Epidermis, Evolution of fish, Extinction, Fin, Fish, Fish fin, Fish jaw, Fossil, Gar, Gill, Gnathostomata, Great white shark, Greek language, Guiyu oneiros, Head, Holocene, Holocephali, Holostei, Jaw, Late Devonian extinction, Mammal, Myelin, ..., Neuron, Nostril, Ordovician, Osteichthyes, Osteostraci, Paleontology, Placodermi, Psarolepis, Reptile, Sarcopterygii, Sauropsida, Scale (anatomy), SeaWorld, Semicircular canals, Shark, Silurian, Skate (fish), Skeleton, Snake, Spine (zoology), Synapsid, Tadpole, Taxonomy (biology), Teleostomi, Tetrapod, Thorax, Transitional fossil, V(D)J recombination, Variable lymphocyte receptor, Vertebrate. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
Acanthodes (meaning spiny base or thorny base) is an extinct genus of spiny shark.
Acanthodii or acanthodians (sometimes called spiny sharks) is a paraphyletic class of extinct teleostome fish, sharing features with both bony fish and cartilaginous fish.
Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Agnatha (Greek, "no jaws") is a superclass of jawless fish in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, consisting of both present (cyclostomes) and extinct (conodonts and ostracoderms) species.
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Amphirhina are animals, a phylogenetic classification within the subphylum vertebrata.
Batoidea is a superorder of cartilaginous fish commonly known as rays.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
The blue runner (Caranx crysos), also known as the bluestripe jack, Egyptian scad, hardtail jack or hardnose, is a common species of moderately large marine fish classified in the jack family, Carangidae.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bowfin (Amia calva) are basal bony fishes related to gars in the infraclass Holostei.
Branchial arches, or gill arches, are a series of bony "loops" present in fish, which support the gills.
Buccal pumping is "breathing with one's cheeks": a method of ventilation used in respiration in which the animal moves the floor of its mouth in a rhythmic manner that is externally apparent.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Chimaeras the order Chimaeriformes, known informally as ghost sharks, rat fish (not to be confused with the rattails), spookfish (not to be confused with the true spookfish of the family Opisthoproctidae), or rabbit fish (not to be confused with the family Siganidae).
Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
In biology, a clasper is a male anatomical structure found in some groups of animals, used in mating.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Coccosteus ("Seed Bone") is an extinct genus of arthrodire placoderm.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
A dorsal fin is a fin located on the back of most marine and freshwater vertebrates such as fishes, cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), and the (extinct) ichthyosaur.
Dunkleosteus is an extinct genus of arthrodire placoderm fish that existed during the Late Devonian period, about 358–382 million years ago.
Elasmobranchii is a subclass of Chondrichthyes or cartilaginous fish, including the sharks (superorder Selachii) and the rays, skates, and sawfish (superorder Batoidea).
Entelognathus primordialis (“primordial complete jaw”) is a placoderm from the late Ludlow epoch of Qujing, Yunnan, 419 million years ago.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
The evolution of fish began about 530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fins are usually the most distinctive anatomical features of a fish.
Most bony fishes have two sets of jaws made mainly of bone.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Gars (or garpike) are members of the Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes), an ancient holosteian order of ray-finned fish; fossils from this order are known from the Late Jurassic onwards.
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.
Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates.
The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), commonly known as the great white or the white shark, is a species of large mackerel shark which can be found in the coastal surface waters of all the major oceans.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guiyu oneiros is the earliest articulated bony fish discovered.
A head is the part of an organism which usually includes the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste, respectively.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The subclass Holocephali ("complete heads") is a taxon of cartilaginous fish in the class Chondrichthyes.
Holostei are bony fish.
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food.
The Late Devonian extinction was one of five major extinction events in the history of the Earth's biota.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
A nostril (or naris, plural nares) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.
The class Osteostraci ("Bony Shields") is an extinct taxon of bony-armored jawless fish, termed "ostracoderms", that lived in what is now North America, Europe and Russia from the Middle Silurian to Late Devonian.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Placodermi (from the Greek πλάξ.
Psarolepis (psārolepis, from Greek ψαρός 'speckled' and λεπίς 'scale') is a genus of extinct lobe-finned fish which lived around 397 to 418 million years ago (Pridoli to Lochkovian stages).
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.
Sauropsida ("lizard faces") is a group of amniotes that includes all existing birds and other reptiles as well as their fossil ancestors and other extinct relatives.
In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek λεπίς lepis, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animal's skin to provide protection.
SeaWorld is a United States chain of marine mammal parks, oceanariums, animal theme parks, and rehabilitation centers owned by SeaWorld Entertainment (one park will be owned and operated by Miral under a license).
The semicircular canals or semicircular ducts are three semicircular, interconnected tubes located in the innermost part of each ear, the inner ear.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
Skates are cartilaginous fish belonging to the family Rajidae in the superorder Batoidea of rays.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
In a zoological context, spines are hard, needle-like anatomical structures found in both vertebrate and invertebrate species.The spines of most spiny mammals are modified hairs, with a spongy center covered in a thick, hard layer of keratin and a sharp, sometimes barbed tip.
Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.
A tadpole (also called a pollywog) is the larval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly that of a frog or toad.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Teleostomi is an obsolete clade of jawed vertebrates that supposedly includes the tetrapods, bony fish, and the wholly extinct acanthodian fish.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
A transitional fossil is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group.
V(D)J recombination is the unique mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs only in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation.
Variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) belong to the Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family and mediate adaptive immune responses in the jawless vertebrates, lampreys and hagfish.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).