563 relations: Abraham, Academy Awards, Acid, Acid mine drainage, Acid test (gold), Afrikaners, Alchemy, Alcoholism, Alkali, Allergen of the Year, Alloy, Alluvium, Alpha decay, Alternative medicine, Aluminium, Amalgam (chemistry), Amarna letter EA 19, Amarna letter EA 26, Amarna letters, Amenorrhea, American Buffalo (coin), American Gold Eagle, Angular resolution, Anti-inflammatory, Antigen, Aqua regia, Aqueduct (water supply), Aqueous solution, Arab Spring, Archean, Argentina, Argon, Aristotelian ethics, Aristotle, Ark of the Covenant, Arsenic, Aspergillus niger, Astrology, Atacama Desert, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Auranofin, Auricupride, Aurophilicity, Aurora, Aurostibite, Aurothioglucose, Australia, Australian Gold Nugget, ..., Australian gold rushes, Austria, Aztecs, Badge, Balkans, Banknote, Barter, Base metal, BBC, Beta decay, Bill Murphy (businessman), Black Hills Gold Rush, Black Sea, Boer, Book of Exodus, Book of Genesis, Book of Revelation, Boston University, Braided river, Brazing, Bretton Woods system, Bridal crown, Bridge (dentistry), Brightness, British Academy Film Awards, British Empire, Bronze, Bronze Age Europe, Buddhism, Bulgaria, Bulk leach extractable gold, Bullion, Bullion coin, Burkina Faso, Caesium, Caesium auride, Caesium chloride, Cairo, Calaverite, California Gold Rush, Calutron, Camel train, Canadian Gold Maple Leaf, Cancer, Cathode ray, Central bank, Chalcolithic, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Chelation therapy, Chemical bond, Chemical element, Chemical reaction, Chemistry, Chemistry World, Chile, China, Chinese characters, Chinese Gold Panda, Chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I), Chloroauric acid, Christianity, Christopher Columbus, Chrysiasis, Chu (state), Circled dot, Citric acid, Codex Alimentarius, Cognate, Coin, Colloid, Colloidal gold, Colombia, Color, Colored gold, Commodity fetishism, Computer, Convertibility, Copper, Corrosion, Counterfeit, Covalent bond, Cranberry glass, Crown (dentistry), Crown 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mother of Jesus, Materials science, McLaren, McLaren F1, Mecca, Melting, Melting point, Menorah (Temple), Mercury (element), Mercury poisoning, Mercury polycations, Mercy seat, Mesoamerica, Metal, Metal leaf, Methylmercury, Midas, Middle Ages, Middle East, Migraine, Mill (grinding), Miller process, Mineral, Mining in Roman Britain, Mint (facility), Mitanni, Moctezuma II, Mokume-gane, Molar concentration, Monetary policy, Money, Monoisotopic element, Mononuclidic element, Musa I of Mali, Nagyágite, Nahal Qana, Nahuatl, Names of large numbers, Native metal, Natural History (Pliny), Nature (journal), Nazi gold, Nebra sky disk, Neutron capture, Neutron star, Neutron star merger, Neutron temperature, New Jerusalem, New Testament, New York City, Nickel, Nitric acid, Nixon shock, Nobel Prize, Noble metal, North Africa, Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler, Nubia, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear medicine, Obsidian, Ocean, Old Testament, Olympic Games, Open-pit mining, Ore, Osmium, Otago Gold Rush, Ounce, 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metallurgy, Root (linguistics), Royal Society of Chemistry, Rubidium, Rumpelstiltskin, Russia, Sacred, Saint, Satellite, Saudi Arabia, Scanning electron microscope, Schwabach, Seawater, Second Boer War, Secondary emission, Selenic acid, Selenium, Semiconductor device, Shihab al-Umari, Sikh, Silver, Silver bromide, Slate, Sodium aurothiomalate, Sodium cyanide, Sodium hydroxide, Solar System, Solder, Solid, Solid solution, South Africa, Sovereign (British coin), Space suit, Spacecraft, Specific gravity, Sputtering, Square planar molecular geometry, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Sterling silver, Store of value, Strabo, Strike and dip, Sulfide minerals, Sulfuric acid, Sun, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Switzerland, Sylvanite, Talent (measurement), TauTona Mine, Telluride mineral, Tellurium, Temple, Tetramethylammonium, Tetraxenonogold(II), Thailand, Thallium, The Astrophysical Journal, The Wall Street Journal, Thermal conduction, Thioether, Thiol, Thomas More, Tin, Tonne, Toxicity, Transition metal, Transvaal Basin, Transylvania, Triphenylphosphine, Trophy, Troy weight, Tuberculosis, Tumbaga, Tungsten, Turin Papyrus Map, Tushratta, Underground mining (hard rock), United States, United States Bullion Depository, United States Geological Survey, United States Mint, University of California Press, University of California, Davis, University of Granada, USB, Utopia (book), Van der Waals force, Vark, Varna Necropolis, Vein (geology), Virgo interferometer, Visible spectrum, Vitamin C, Vredefort crater, Wat, Wat Phra Kaew, Wedding anniversary, Wedding ring, Weight, Western esotericism, William L. Moran, Wire bonding, Witwatersrand, Witwatersrand Basin, Witwatersrand Gold Rush, Wohlwill process, Work of art, World Gold Council, World War I, World War II, Xenon, Ying Yuan. Expand index (513 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines.
An acid test is any qualitative chemical or metallurgical assay which uses acid; most commonly, and historically, the use of a strong acid to distinguish gold from base metals.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Allergen of the Year is an annual "award" of dubious distinction voted upon by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
Amarna letter EA 19, is a tall clay tablet letter of 13 paragraphs, in relatively pristine condition, with some minor flaws on the clay, but a complete enough story, that some included words can complete the story of the letter.
(very high-resolution expandable photo)--> Amarna letter EA 26, titled: "To the Queen Mother: Some Missing Gold Statues" is a shorter-length clay tablet Amarna letter from Tushratta of Mittani.
The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
The American Buffalo, also known as a gold buffalo, is a 24-karat bullion coin first offered for sale by the United States Mint on June 22, 2006, and available for shipment beginning on July 13.
The American Gold Eagle is an official gold bullion coin of the United States.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Aristotle first used the term ethics to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates and Plato.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Ark of the Covenant, also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
Auranofin is a gold complex classified by the World Health Organization as an antirheumatic agent.
Auricupride is a natural alloy that combines copper and gold.
In chemistry, aurophilicity refers to the tendency of gold complexes to aggregate via formation of weak gold-gold bonds.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
Aurostibite is an isometric gold antimonide mineral which is a member of the pyrite group.
Aurothioglucose, also known as gold thioglucose, is a chemical compound with the formula AuSC6H11O5.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Gold Nugget is a gold bullion coin minted by the Perth Mint.
During the Australian gold rushes, significant numbers of workers (both from other areas within Australia and from overseas) relocated to areas in which gold had been discovered.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
A badge is a device or accessory, often containing the insignia of an organization, which is presented or displayed to indicate some feat of service, a special accomplishment, a symbol of authority granted by taking an oath (e.g., police and fire), a sign of legitimate employment or student status, or as a simple means of identification.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Bill Murphy is a former American professional wide receiver who played one season in 1969 for the New England Patriots.
The Black Hills Gold Rush took place in Dakota Territory in the United States.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans noun for "farmer".
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
Boston University (commonly referred to as BU) is a private, non-profit, research university in Boston, Massachusetts.
A braided river, or braided channel, consists of a network of river channels separated by small, and often temporary, islands called braid bars or, in British usage, aits or eyots.
Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
Traditionally a bridal crown (Brautkrone or, in the Black Forest, Schäppel) is a headdress that single women wear on certain holidays, at festivals and, finally, at their wedding.
A bridge is a fixed dental restoration (a fixed dental prosthesis) used to replace one or more missing tooth by joining an artificial tooth definitively to adjacent teeth or dental implants.
Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light.
The British Academy of Film and Television Arts or BAFTA Film Awards are presented in an annual award show hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) to honour the best British and international contributions to film.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The European Bronze Age is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bulk Leach Extractable Gold, more commonly shortened to BLEG is a geochemical sampling/analysis tool used during exploration for gold.
Bullion is gold, silver, or other precious metals in the form of bars or ingots.
A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment, rather than used in day-to-day commerce.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Caesium auride or cesium auride (CsAu) is an ionic compound containing the unusual Au− ion, first discovered in 1978 in the laboratory of Joseph Lagowski.
Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula CsCl.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calaverite, or gold telluride, is an uncommon telluride of gold, a metallic mineral with the chemical formula AuTe2, with approximately 3% of the gold replaced by silver.
The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.
A calutron is a mass spectrometer originally designed and used for separating the isotopes of uranium.
A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.
The Canadian Gold Maple Leaf (GML) is a gold bullion coin that is issued annually by the Government of Canada.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.
Chelation therapy is a medical procedure that involves the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The Chinese Gold Panda is a series of gold bullion coins issued by the People's Republic of China.
Chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I) is the coordination complex with the formula (Ph3P)AuCl.
Chloroauric acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Chrysiasis (Gk, chrysos – 'gold', osis – 'condition of') is a dermatological condition induced by the parenteral administration of gold salts, usually for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
The circled dot, circumpunct, or circle with a point at its centre is an ancient symbol.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Colloidal gold is a sol or colloidal suspension of nanoparticles of gold in a fluid, usually water.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Pure gold is slightly reddish yellow in color, but colored gold in various other colors can be produced.
In Karl Marx's critique of political economy, commodity fetishism is the perception of the social relationships involved in production, not as relationships among people, but as economic relationships among the money and commodities exchanged in market trade.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Convertibility is the quality that allows money or other financial instruments to be converted into other liquid stores of value.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Cranberry glass or Gold Ruby glass is a red glass made by adding gold salts or colloidal gold to molten glass.
A crown, sometimes known as dental cap, is a type of dental restoration which completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant.
A crown is a traditional symbolic form of headwear, or hat, worn by a monarch or by a deity, for whom the crown traditionally represents power, legitimacy, victory, triumph, honor, and glory, as well as immortality, righteousness, and resurrection.
Crown gold is a 22 karat (kt) gold alloy used in the crown coin introduced in England in 1526 (by Henry VIII) to replace the earlier gold sovereign coins which were made from the softer 23 kt gold and which thereby had invited both deliberate filing and also non-intentional wear.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Cupellation is a refining process in metallurgy, where ores or alloyed metals are treated under very high temperatures and have controlled operations to separate noble metals, like gold and silver, from base metals like lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony or bismuth, present in the ore.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
The city of Dahlonega is the county seat of Lumpkin County, Georgia, United States.
De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
The Deseado Massif (Spanish: Macizo del Deseado) is a massif in southern Patagonia located in the Argentine province of Santa Cruz.
In modern monetary policy, a devaluation is an official lowering of the value of a country's currency within a fixed exchange rate system, by which the monetary authority formally sets a new fixed rate with respect to a foreign reference currency or currency basket.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
A difluorine complex is a molecular complex involving a difluorine molecule (F2) and another molecule.
Digital gold currency (or DGC) is a form of electronic money (or digital currency) based on mass units of gold.
Dimercaprol, also called British anti-Lewisite (BAL), is a medication used to treat acute poisoning by arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
The Dolaucothi Gold Mines (Mwynfeydd Aur Dolaucothi), also known as the Ogofau Gold Mine, are ancient Roman surface and underground mines located in the valley of the River Cothi, near Pumsaint, Carmarthenshire, Wales.
The Dome of the Rock (قبة الصخرة Qubbat al-Sakhrah, כיפת הסלע Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
The early Earth (sometimes referred to as Gaia) is loosely defined as Earth in its first one billion years, or gigayear.
Earth mass (where ⊕ is the standard astronomical symbol for planet Earth) is the unit of mass equal to that of Earth.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
El Dorado (Spanish for "the golden one"), originally El Hombre Dorado ("The Golden Man") or El Rey Dorado ("The Golden King"), was the term used by the Spanish Empire to describe a mythical tribal chief (zipa) of the Muisca native people of Colombia, who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and submerged in Lake Guatavita.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
An electrical connector, is an electro-mechanical device used to join electrical terminations and create an electrical circuit.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electrical wiring is an electrical installation of cabling and associated devices such as switches, distribution boards, sockets and light fittings in a structure.
Electroforming is a metal forming process that forms parts through electrodeposition on a model, known in the industry as a mandrel.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Electronic warfare (EW) is any action involving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum or directed energy to control the spectrum, attack of an enemy, or impede enemy assaults via the spectrum.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals.
Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn.
An Emmy Award, or simply Emmy, is an American award that recognizes excellence in the television industry, and is the equivalent of an Academy Award (for film), the Tony Award (for theater), and the Grammy Award (for music).
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
In geology and geomorphology, an erosion surface is a surface of rock or regolith that was formed by erosion and not by construction (e.g. lava flows, sediment deposition) nor fault displacement.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.
Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.
The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.
Fire-setting is a method of traditional mining used most commonly from prehistoric times up to the Middle Ages.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
Fort Knox is a United States Army post in Kentucky, south of Louisville and north of Elizabethtown.
The Free State (Vrystaat, Foreistata; before 1995, the Orange Free State) is a province of South Africa.
Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas.
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
A garnish is an item or substance used as a decoration or embellishment accompanying a prepared food dish or drink.
Gauteng, which means "place of gold", is one of the nine provinces of South Africa.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
GFMS (formally Gold Fields Mineral Services) are research and consultancy company for the precious metal markets.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Glass coloring and color marking may be obtained by 1) addition of coloring ions,Bernard H. W. S. De Jong, Ruud G. C. Beerkens, Peter A. van Nijnatten: "Glass", in: "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002, by 2) precipitation of nanometer sized colloides (so-called striking glassesBernard H. W. S. De Jong, Ruud G. C. Beerkens, Peter A. van Nijnatten: "Glass", in: "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002, such as "gold ruby" or red "selenium ruby"),Werner Vogel: "Glass Chemistry"; Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K; 2nd revised edition (November 1994), 3) by colored inclusions (as in milk glass and smoked glass), 4) by light scattering (as in phase separated glass), 5) by dichroic coatings (see dichroic glass), or 6) by colored coatings.
Of all the precious metals, gold is the most popular as an investment.
A gold bar, also called gold bullion or a gold ingot, is a quantity of refined metallic gold of any shape that is made by a bar producer meeting standard conditions of manufacture, labeling, and record keeping.
A gold certificate in general is a certificate of ownership that gold owners hold instead of storing the actual gold.
Gold chalcogenides are compounds formed between gold and one of the chalcogens, elements from group 16 of the periodic table: oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium.
A gold compact disc is one in which gold is used in place of the super pure aluminium commonly used as the reflective coating on ordinary CDs or silver on ordinary CD-Rs Gold CDs can be played in any CD player.
Gold cyanidation (also known as the cyanide process or the MacArthur-Forrest process) is a hydrometallurgical technique for extracting gold from low-grade ore by converting the gold to a water-soluble coordination complex.
Gold extraction refers to the processes required to extract gold from its ores.
Gold fingerprinting is a method of identifying an item made of gold based on the impurities or trace elements it contains.
The London Gold Fixing (or Gold Fix) is the setting of the price of gold that takes place via a dedicated conference line.
Gold halides are compounds of gold with the halogens.
Gold heptafluoride is a gold(V) compound with the empirical formula AuF7.
Gold leaf is gold that has been hammered into thin sheets by goldbeating and is often used for gilding.
A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field.
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining.
Gold mining in the People's Republic of China has made that country the world's largest gold producer by far with 463.7 tonnes in 2016.
Gold monoiodide (AuI) is a chemical compound of gold and iodine.
A gold nugget is a naturally occurring piece of native gold.
Gold plating is a method of depositing a thin layer of gold onto the surface of another metal, most often copper or silver (to make silver-gilt), by chemical or electrochemical plating.
The Gold Prospectors Association of America (GPAA) is an organization dedicated to finding and mining gold on a small or recreational scale.
A gold reserve was the gold held by a national central bank, intended mainly as a guarantee to redeem promises to pay depositors, note holders (e.g. paper money), or trading peers, during the eras of the gold standard, and also as a store of value, or to support the value of the national currency.
A gold rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune.
Gold salts are ionic chemical compounds of gold.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
Gold Strike is a cinnamon liqueur containing gold snippets, produced by Lucas Bols.
Gold(I) chloride is a compound of gold and chlorine with the chemical formula AuCl.
Gold(I,III) chloride is a black solid with the chemical formula Au4Cl8.
Gold(III) bromide is a dark-red to black crystalline solid.
Gold(III) chloride, traditionally called auric chloride, is a chemical compound of gold and chlorine.
Gold(III) fluoride,, is an orange solid that sublimes at 300 °C.
Gold(V) fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula Au2F10.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
According to the Bible, the golden calf (עֵגֶּל הַזָהָב ‘ēggel hazāhāv) was an idol (a cult image) made by the Israelites during Moses' absence, when he went up to Mount Sinai.
In Greek mythology, the Golden Fleece (χρυσόμαλλον δέρας chrysómallon déras) is the fleece of the gold-haired winged ram, which was held in Colchis.
Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign.
Golden hats (or Gold hats) (Goldhüte, singular: Goldhut) are a very specific and rare type of archaeological artifact from Bronze Age Europe.
In ancient Greek philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, the golden mean or golden middle way is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency.
In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities.
The Golden Rule (which can be considered a law of reciprocity in some religions) is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated.
Sri Harmandir Sahib ("The abode of God"), also known as Darbar Sahib,, informally referred to as the Golden Temple, is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.
Goldschläger is a Swiss cinnamon schnapps (43.5% alcohol by volume or 87 proof; originally it was 53.5% alcohol or 107 proof), a liqueur with very thin, yet visible flakes of gold floating in it.
Danziger Goldwasser (Gdańska wódka, "vodka of Gdańsk"), with Goldwasser as the registered tradename, is a strong (40% ABV) root and herbal liqueur which was produced from 1598 to 2009 in Danzig (Gdańsk).
Goldwork is the art of embroidery using metal threads.
The Good Delivery specification is a set of rules issued by the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA) describing the physical characteristics of gold and silver bars used in settlement in the wholesale London bullion market.
Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.
Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).
GW170817 was a gravitational wave (GW) signal observed by the LIGO and Virgo detectors on 17 August 2017.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A hallmark is an official mark or series of marks struck on items made of metal, mostly to certify the content of noble metals—such as platinum, gold, silver and in some nations, palladium.
A halo (from Greek ἅλως, halōs; also known as a nimbus, aureole, glory, or gloriole) is a crown of light rays, circle or disk of light that surrounds a person in art.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Havilah (Ḥăwîlāh, "Circular") refers to both a land and people in several books of the Bible.
Heterogeneous gold catalysis refers to the catalysis of chemical reactions by gold nanoparticles, typically supported on metal oxide substrates.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
The history of money concerns the development of means of carrying out transactions involving a medium of exchange.
A hoard or "wealth deposit" is an archaeological term for a collection of valuable objects or artifacts, sometimes purposely buried in the ground, in which case it is sometimes also known as a cache.
Hydraulic mining, or hydraulicking, is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment.
Hydrobromic acid is a strong acid formed by dissolving the diatomic molecule hydrogen bromide (HBr) in water.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydroiodic acid (or hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (concentrated solution usually 48 - 57% HI).
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
Immunogold labeling or Immunogold staining (IGS) is a staining technique used in electron microscopy.
An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Gold (79Au) has one stable isotope, 197Au, and 36 radioisotopes, with 195Au being the most stable with a half-life of 186 days.
"Jack and the Beanstalk" is an English fairy tale.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft (nearly always a fixed-wing aircraft) propelled by jet engines (jet propulsion).
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
The Klondike Gold Rush was a migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899.
Krennerite is an orthorhombic gold telluride mineral which can contain variable amounts of silver in the structure.
For the Ian McNabb album, see Krugerrands. The Krugerrand is a South African gold coin, first minted in 1967 to help market South African gold and produced by the South African Mint.
Las Médulas is a historic gold-mining site near the town of Ponferrada in the comarca of El Bierzo (province of León, Castile and León, Spain).
The Late Heavy Bombardment (abbreviated LHB and also known as the lunar cataclysm) is an event thought to have occurred approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago, at a time corresponding to the Neohadean and Eoarchean eras on Earth.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is a large-scale physics experiment and observatory to detect cosmic gravitational waves and to develop gravitational-wave observations as an astronomical tool.
A liqueur is an alcoholic beverage made from a distilled spirit that has been flavored with either fruit, cream, herbs, spices, flowers or nuts, and is bottled with added sugars and other sweeteners (such as high-fructose corn syrup).
This is a list of countries by gold production in 2016.
This list of gold mines in Australia is subsidiary to the list of mines article and lists working, defunct and planned mines in the country organised by state.
This is a list of gold mining disasters resulting from dam failure, cyanide leaking into the environment and inappropriate toxic waste discharge related to gold mining using the gold cyanidation technique.
In geology, a lode is a deposit of metalliferous ore that fills or is embedded in a fissure (or crack) in a rock formation or a vein of ore that is deposited or embedded between layers of rock.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London bullion market is a wholesale over-the-counter market for the trading of gold and silver.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from 1230 to 1670.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
A market trend is a perceived tendency of financial markets to move in a particular direction over time.
MarketWatch operates a financial information website that provides business news, analysis, and stock market data.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
McLaren Racing Limited, competing as McLaren F1 Team, is a British Formula One team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Woking, Surrey, England.
The McLaren F1 is a sports car designed and manufactured by McLaren Cars.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
The menorah (מְנוֹרָה) is described in the Bible as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary set up by Moses in the wilderness and later in the Temple in Jerusalem.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to mercury exposure.
Mercury polycations are polyatomic cations that contain only mercury atoms.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the mercy seat (ha-kappōreṯ) was the gold lid with two cherubim beaten out of the ends of it to cover and create the space into which God would appear.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal leaf, also called composition leaf or schlagmetal, is a thin foil used for decoration.
Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an organometallic cation with the formula.
Midas (Μίδας) is the name of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting.
The Miller process is an industrial-scale chemical procedure used to refine gold to a high degree of purity (99.95%).
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mining was one of the most prosperous activities in Roman Britain.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – 29 June 1520), variant spellings include Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, and referred to in full by early Nahuatl texts as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (Moctezuma the Young),moteːkʷˈsoːma ʃoːkoˈjoːtsin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520.
is a Japanese metalworking procedure which produces a mixed-metal laminate with distinctive layered patterns, as well as that laminate itself.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
A monoisotopic element is one of 26 chemical elements which have only a single stable isotope (nuclide).
A mononuclidic element or monotopic element is one of the 22 chemical elements that is found naturally on Earth essentially as a single nuclide (which may, or may not, be a stable nuclide).
Musa I or Mansa Musa was the tenth Mansa, which translates to "sultan", "conqueror", or "emperor", of the wealthy West African Mali Empire.
Nagyágite (Pb5Au(Te,Sb)4S5-8) is a rare sulfide mineral with known occurrence associated with gold ores.
Nahal Qana (נחל קנה) is an intermittent stream in Israel and the West Bank, the northernmost tributary of the Yarkon River.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
This article lists and discusses the usage and derivation of names of large numbers, together with their possible extensions.
A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure in nature.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nazi gold (Raubgold, "stolen gold") is the rumored gold allegedly transferred by Nazi Germany to overseas banks during World War II.
The Nebra sky disk is a bronze disk of around diameter and a weight of, with a blue-green patina and inlaid with gold symbols.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
A neutron star merger is a type of stellar collision.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
In the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible, New Jerusalem (Jehovah-shammah, or " YHWH there") is Ezekiel's prophetic vision of a city centered on the rebuilt Holy Temple, the Third Temple, to be established in Jerusalem, which would be the capital of the Messianic Kingdom, the meeting place of the twelve tribes of Israel, during the Messianic era.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
The Nixon shock was a series of economic measures undertaken by United States President Richard Nixon in 1971, the most significant of which was the unilateral cancellation of the direct international convertibility of the United States dollar to gold.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The Northrop Grumman (formerly Grumman) EA-6B Prowler is a twin-engine, four-seat, mid-wing electronic warfare aircraft derived from the A-6 Intruder airframe.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
The Otago Gold Rush (often called the Central Otago Gold Rush) was a gold rush that occurred during the 1860s in Central Otago, New Zealand.
The ounce (abbreviated oz; apothecary symbol: ℥) is a unit of mass, weight, or volume used in most British derived customary systems of measurement.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Pascua-Lama is an open pit mining project of gold, silver, copper and other minerals.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The mineral petzite, Ag3AuTe2, is a soft, steel-gray telluride mineral generally deposited by hydrothermal activity.
The philosopher's stone, or stone of the philosophers (lapis philosophorum) is a legendary alchemical substance capable of turning base metals such as mercury into gold (from the Greek χρυσός khrusos, "gold", and ποιεῖν poiēin, "to make") or silver.
Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3.
In photography, toning is a method of changing the color of black-and-white photographs.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
The Pike's Peak Gold Rush (later known as the Colorado Gold Rush) was the boom in gold prospecting and mining in the Pike's Peak Country of western Kansas Territory and southwestern Nebraska Territory of the United States that began in July 1858 and lasted until roughly the creation of the Colorado Territory on February 28, 1861.
In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes.
The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plasma oscillations, also known as Langmuir waves (after Irving Langmuir), are rapid oscillations of the electron density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals in the ultraviolet region.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium cyanide is a compound with the formula KCN.
Potassium dicyanoaurate, also potassium dicyanoaurate(I), potassium gold cyanide, potassium gold dicyanide or gold potassium cyanide, is an inorganic compound with formula K. It is a colorless to white crystalline powder, usually prepared by dissolving metallic gold in aqueous solution of potassium cyanide.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Prospecting is the first stage of the geological analysis (second – exploration) of a territory.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proton emission (also known as proton radioactivity) is a rare type of radioactive decay in which a proton is ejected from a nucleus.
León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
Rachel, wife of Rabbi Akiva (רחל אשת רבי עקיבא) was a late 1st-century CE Jewish resident of Judea who is cited by the Talmud and Aggadah as a paragon of the Jewish wife who encourages her husband to pursue Torah study and is willing to make personal sacrifices to achieve that goal.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
The real bills doctrine asserts that money should be issued in exchange for short-term real bills of adequate value.
A receipt (also known as a bill of parcel, unpacking note, packaging slip, (delivery) docket, shipping list, packing list, packing slip, delivery list, manifest or customer receipt), is a document acknowledging that a person has received money or property in payment following a sale or other transfer of goods or provision of a service.
Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
The Reed Gold Mine is located in Midland, Cabarrus County, North Carolina, and is the site of the first documented commercial gold find in the United States.
In metallurgy, refining consists of purifying an impure metal.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
Restorative dentistry is the study, diagnosis and integrated management of diseases of the teeth and their supporting structures and the rehabilitation of the dentition to functional and aesthetic requirements of the individual.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early hours of 15 April 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Roșia Montană ("Roșia of the Mountains"; Alburnus Maior; Verespatak,; Goldbach, Rotseifen) is a commune of Alba County in the Apuseni Mountains of western Transylvania, Romania.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
Metals and metal working had been known to the people of modern Italy since the Bronze Age.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
Rumpelstiltskin is a fairytale popularly associated with Germany (where he is known as Rumpelstilzchen).
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.
Schwabach is a German town of about 40,000 inhabitants near Nuremberg in the centre of the region of Franconia in the north of Bavaria.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
Secondary emission in physics is a phenomenon where primary incident particles of sufficient energy, when hitting a surface or passing through some material, induce the emission of secondary particles.
Selenic acid is the inorganic compound with the formula.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.
Shihāb al-Dīn Abū al-‘Abbās Aḥmad b. Faḍl Allāh al-'Umarī (شهاب الدين أبو العبّاس أحمد بن فضل الله العمري), or simply al-‘Umarī, (1300 – 1349) was an Arab historian, born in Damascus.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver bromide (AgBr), a soft, pale-yellow, water-insoluble salt well known (along with other silver halides) for its unusual sensitivity to light.
Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.
Sodium aurothiomalate (INN, known in the United States as gold sodium thiomalate) is a gold compound that is used for its immunosuppressive anti-rheumatic effects.
Sodium cyanide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaCN.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling.
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
Sputtering is a process whereby particles are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles, particularly gas ions in a laboratory.
The square planar molecular geometry in chemistry describes the stereochemistry (spatial arrangement of atoms) that is adopted by certain chemical compounds.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper.
A store of value is the function of an asset that can be saved, retrieved and exchanged at a later time, and be predictably useful when retrieved.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Strike and dip refer to the orientation or attitude of a geologic feature.
The sulfide minerals are a class of minerals containing sulfide (S2−) as the major anion.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Sylvanite or silver gold telluride, (Ag,Au)Te2, is the most common telluride of gold.
The talent (talentum, from Ancient Greek: τάλαντον, talanton 'scale, balance, sum') was one of several ancient units of mass, a commercial weight, as well as corresponding units of value equivalent to these masses of a precious metal.
The TauTona Mine or Western Deep No.3 Shaft,http://www.infomine.com/index/properties/TAUTONA_(WESTERN_DEEP_NO.3_SHAFT).html is a gold mine in South Africa.
A telluride mineral is a mineral that has the telluride anion as a main component.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
Tetramethylammonium (TMA) or (Me4N+) is the simplest quaternary ammonium cation consisting of four methyl groups attached to a central nitrogen atom, and is isoelectronic with neopentane.
Tetraxenonogold(II), gold tetraxenide(II) or AuXe is a cationic complex with a square planar configuration of atoms.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
A thioether is a functional group in organosulfur chemistry with the connectivity C–S–C as shown on right.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
The Transvaal Basin is one of three basins of the Transvaal Supergroup on the Kaapvaal craton.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P.
A trophy is a tangible, durable reminder of a specific achievement, and serves as recognition or evidence of merit.
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tumbaga is the name for a non-specific alloy of gold and copper given by Spanish Conquistadors to metals composed of these elements found in widespread use in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and South America.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The Turin Papyrus Map is an ancient Egyptian map, generally considered the oldest surviving map of topographical interest from the ancient world.
Tushratta (Sanskrit Tvesa-ratha, "his chariot charges") was a king of Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten—approximately the late 14th century BC.
Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, usually those containing metals such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Bullion Depository, often known as Fort Knox, is a fortified vault building located within the United States Army post of Fort Knox, Kentucky.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Mint is the agency that produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of California, Davis (also referred to as UCD, UC Davis, or Davis), is a public research university and land-grant university as well as one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (UC) system.
The University of Granada (Universidad de Granada, UGR) is a public university located in the city of Granada, Spain, and founded in 1531 by Emperor Charles V. With approximately 80,000 students, it is the fourth largest university in Spain.
USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.
Utopia (Libellus vere aureus, nec minus salutaris quam festivus, de optimo rei publicae statu deque nova insula Utopia) is a work of fiction and socio-political satire by Thomas More (1478–1535) published in 1516 in Latin.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Vark, also called varak (also silver leaf, German paper), is super fine filigree foil sheet of pure metals, typically silver but sometimes gold, used to decorate South Asian sweets and food to make those look more appetising.
The so-called Varna Necropolis (Варненски некропол) (also Varna Cemetery) is a burial site from 4569–4340 BC in the western industrial zone of Varna (approximately half a kilometre from Lake Varna and 4 km from the city centre), internationally considered one of the key archaeological sites in world prehistory.
In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.
The Virgo interferometer is a large interferometer designed to detect gravitational waves predicted by the general theory of relativity.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
The Vredefort crater is the largest verified impact crater on Earth, more than across when it was formed.
A wat (វត្ត wōat; ວັດ vat; วัด) is a type of Buddhist temple and Hindu temple in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. The word wat is borrowed from Sanskrit vāṭa (Devanāgarī: वाट), meaning "enclosure".
Wat Phra Kaew, commonly known in English as the Temple of the Emerald Buddha and officially as Wat Phra Si Rattana Satsadaram, is regarded as the most sacred Buddhist temple (wat) in Thailand. The Emerald Buddha housed in the temple is a potent religio-political symbol and the palladium (protective image) of Thai society. It is located in Phra Nakhon District, the historic centre of Bangkok, within the precincts of the Grand Palace. The main building is the central phra ubosot, which houses the statue of the Emerald Buddha. According to legend, this Buddha image originated in India where the sage Nagasena prophesized that the Emerald Buddha would bring "prosperity and pre-eminence to each country in which it resides", the Emerald Buddha deified in the Wat Phra Kaew is therefore deeply revered and venerated in Thailand as the protector of the country. Historical records however dates its finding to Chiang Rai in the 15th century where, after it was relocated a number of times, it was finally taken to Thailand in the 18th century. It was enshrined in Bangkok at the Wat Phra Kaew temple in 1782 during the reign of Phutthayotfa Chulalok, King Rama I (1782–1809). This marked the beginning of the Chakri Dynasty of Thailand, whose current sovereign is Vajiralongkorn, King Rama X. The Emerald Buddha, a dark green statue, is in a standing form, about tall, carved from a single jade stone ("emerald" in Thai means deep green colour and not the specific stone). It is carved in the meditating posture in the style of the Lanna school of the northern Thailand. Except for the Thai King and, in his stead, the Crown Prince, no other persons are allowed to touch the statue. The King changes the cloak around the statue three times a year, corresponding to the summer, winter, and rainy seasons, an important ritual performed to usher good fortune to the country during each season.
A wedding anniversary is the anniversary of the date a wedding took place.
A wedding ring or wedding band is a finger ring that indicates that its wearer is married.
In science and engineering, the weight of an object is related to the amount of force acting on the object, either due to gravity or to a reaction force that holds it in place.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
William Lambert Moran (August 11, 1921 – December 19, 2000) was an American Assyriologist.
Wire bonding is the method of making interconnections (ATJ) between an integrated circuit (IC) or other semiconductor device and its packaging during semiconductor device fabrication.
The Witwatersrand (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a, north-facing scarp in South Africa.
The Witwatersrand Basin is a largely underground geological formation which surfaces in the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa.
The Wohlwill process is an industrial-scale chemical procedure used to refine gold to the highest degree of purity (99.999%).
A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation.
The World Gold Council is the market development organisation for the gold industry.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Ying Yuan is a kind of gold coin issued by the ancient Chinese state of Chu during the Warring States period.
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