361 relations: 'Phags-pa script, Abaqa Khan, Abbasid Caliphate, Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, Afghanistan, Ahmed Khan bin Küchük, Al-Musta'sim, Alania, Alans, Aleksandr Mikhailovich of Tver, Alexander Nevsky, Alghu, Algirdas, An-Nasir Muhammad, Andrey II of Vladimir, Andrey of Gorodets, Andronikos II Palaiologos, Andronikos III Palaiologos, Animism, Appanage, Ariq Böke, Armenia, Armenians, Astrakhan Khanate, Astrolabe, Atil, Azerbaijan, Azov, Ögedei Khan, Öljaitü, Öz Beg Khan, Švitrigaila, Baibars, Barak Khan, Basarab I of Wallachia, Bashkirs, Battle of Blue Waters, Battle of Grunwald, Battle of Kulikovo, Battle of Legnica, Battle of Lipnic, Battle of Mohi, Battle of the Vorskla River, Battle on the Ice, Batu Khan, Bayan (khan), Béla IV of Hungary, Büri, Belarus, Berdi Beg, ..., Berke, Berke–Hulagu war, Bey, Black Death, Black Sea, Boris Grekov, Borjigin, Boroldai, Buddhism, Bukhara, Bulgaria, Bulgarians, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine–Mongol alliance, Cairo, Caliphate, Carpathian Mountains, Casimir III the Great, Casus belli, Catalan Atlas, Catherine the Great, Caucasus, Caucasus Mountains, Census, Central Asia, Chagatai Khan, Chagatai Khanate, Chaka of Bulgaria, Chobanids, Chronicon Pictum, Circassians, Coup d'état, Crimea, Crimean Goths, Crimean Khanate, Crimean Mountains, Crimean Tatars, Cuman language, Cumania, Cumans, Curia, Danes, Daniel of Galicia, Daniel of Moscow, Danube, Darughachi, Dawlat Berdi, Death by natural causes, Descent from Genghis Khan, Dirham, Division of the Mongol Empire, Dmitry Donskoy, Dmitry of Pereslavl, Dmitry of Suzdal, Dmitry of Tver, Don River (Russia), Duwa, Dyuden, Eastern Europe, Eastern Orthodox Church, Edigu, Edward L. Keenan, Egypt, Elective monarchy, Emir, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopedia Americana, Feodosia, Finno-Ugric peoples, Fiodor of Kiev, Firearm, Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, Franciscans, Gaykhatu, Güyük Khan, Gediminas, Genghis Khan, Genoa, George I of Bulgaria, George Vernadsky, Georgia (country), Georgians, Germans, Ghazan, Ghazni, Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq, Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Gout, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand prince, Great Horde, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Great stand on the Ugra river, Hereditary monarchy, History of the western steppe, History of Yuan, House of Ögedei, Hulagu Khan, Ibak Khan, Ibn Battuta, Idolatry, Ilkhanate, International Studies Quarterly, Iran, Irtysh River, Isaccea, Islam, Ivan I of Moscow, Ivaylo of Bulgaria, Jadwiga of Poland, Jalairid Sultanate, Jalairs, Jalal al-Din Khan ibn Tokhtamysh, Jama Masjid, Jami' al-tawarikh, Jani Beg, Jarlig, Jochi, Kadan, Kaidu, Karakorum, Kaunas, Kaykaus II, Kayqubad II, Kazakh Khanate, Kazakhstan, Köchü, Küchük Muhammad, Khan (title), Khanate, Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Sibir, Khatun, Khazars, Kheshig, Khongirad, Khwarezm, Kiev, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569), Kipchak language, Kipchaks, Krutitsy, Kublai Khan, Kurultai, Lake Balkhash, Lama, Lev Gumilyov, List of Chagatai Khans, List of Khans of the Golden Horde, List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans, List of Mongol and Tatar attacks in Europe, List of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus', List of Mongol states, List of Russian rulers, List of Turkic dynasties and countries, Lithuania, Lithuanians, Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Louis IX of France, Lublin, Mamai, Mamluk, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Manghud, Möngke Khan, Mengu-Timur, Merkit, Michael (Bulgarian pretender), Michael of Chernigov, Michael VIII Palaiologos, Mikhail of Tver, Mingghan, Miniature (illuminated manuscript), Moldavia, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasion of Rus', Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, Mongolia, Mongolian language, Mongolian script, Mongols, Mordvins, Narva, Negudar, Nogai Horde, Nogai Khan, Nogais, Nomadic empire, North China, Noyan, Ob River, Oghul Qaimish, Oirats, Ongud, Orda (organization), Orda Khan, Orthodoxy, Otrar, Ottoman Empire, Paiza, Pest, Hungary, Poltava, Pontic Greeks, Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pope John XXII, Principality of Pereyaslavl, Prussia, Qashan Principality, Qasim Khanate, Republic of Genoa, Rus' people, Russia, Russian Orthodox Church, Russo-Kazan Wars, Ruthenia, Samarkand, Sarai (city), Sarmatians, Sartaq Khan, Sayid Ahmad I, Scythians, Second Bulgarian Empire, Second Mongol invasion of Hungary, Serge Aleksandrovich Zenkovsky, Shaikh Awais Jalayir, Shamanism, Shaybanids, Sheikh Ahmed, Shiban, Siberia, Siege of Kiev (1240), Slavs, Smilets of Bulgaria, Smolensk, Sorghaghtani Beki, Stary Krym, State religion, Stefan Dečanski, Stefan Milutin, Stephen III of Moldavia, Subutai, Succession of states, Sudak, Sultan, Sultanate of Rum, Suzdal, Sviatoslav III of Vladimir, Syria, Tabriz, Talabuga, Tarikh-i Dost Sultan, Tatars, Töregene Khatun, Tbilisi, Temür Khan, Temür Qutlugh, Tengrism, Terek River, Teutonic Order, The Slavonic and East European Review, Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria, Third Mongol invasion of Poland, Tibetan Buddhism, Timur, Timurid Empire, Tode Mongke, Toghon Temür, Tokhtamysh, Tokhtamysh–Timur war, Tolui, Toluid Civil War, Toqta, Transcaucasia, Transoxiana, Turco-Mongol tradition, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkic peoples, Turkification, Tver, Ukraine, Ulaghchi, Ulugh Muhammad, Ural Mountains, Ural River, Urus Khan, Veliky Novgorod, Venice, Vicina (town), Vienna, Vitebsk, Vizier, Vlachs, Vladimir, Russia, Vladimir-Suzdal, Volga Bulgaria, Volga River, Vytautas, Wallachia, Władysław II Jagiełło, Wings of the Golden Horde, Xinjiang, Yam (route), Yaroslav II of Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Yuan dynasty, Yury of Moscow, Zaslawye. Expand index (311 more) » « Shrink index
The ‘Phags-pa script (дөрвөлжин үсэг "Square script") is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor (later Imperial Preceptor) Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty, as a unified script for the written languages within the Yuan.
Abaqa Khan (1234–1282, ᠠᠪᠠᠬᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ (Traditional script), "paternal uncle", also transliterated Abaġa), was the second Mongol ruler (Ilkhan) of the Ilkhanate.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan (June 2, 1305, Ujan – December 1, 1335) (Persian, Arabic), also spelt Abusaid Bahador Khan, Abu Sa'id Behauder (ᠪᠦᠰᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠬᠠᠲᠦᠷ ᠬᠠᠨ᠂ Busayid Baghatur Khan, Бусайд баатар хаан/Busaid baatar khaan, in modern Mongolian), was the ninth ruler of Ilkhanate c. 1316-1335.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Ahmed bin Küchük (Urdu; Persian; Arabic:احمد خان بن کوچک) was a Khan of the Great Horde between 1465 and 1481.
Al-Musta'sim Billah (full name: al-Musta'sim-Billah Abu-Ahmad Abdullah bin al-Mustansir-Billah;; 1213 – February 20, 1258) was the last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad; he ruled from 1242 until his death.
Alania was a medieval kingdom of the Iranian Alans (proto-Ossetians) that flourished in the Northern Caucasus, roughly in the location of latter-day Circassia and modern North Ossetia–Alania, from its independence from the Khazars in the late 9th century until its destruction by the Mongol invasion in 1238-39.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Grand Prince Alexander or Aleksandr Mikhailovich (Александр Михайлович Тверской; 7 October 1301 – 29 October 1339) was a Prince of Tver as Alexander I and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal as Alexander II.
Alghu (d. 1265 or 1266) was a khan of the Chagatai Khanate (1260-1265/6).
Algirdas (Альгерд, Ольгерд, Olgierd; – May 1377) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania.
Al-Malik an-Nasir Nasir ad-Din Muhammad ibn Qalawun (الملك الناصر ناصر الدين محمد بن قلاوون), commonly known as an-Nasir Muhammad (الناصر محمد), or by his kunya: Abu al-Ma'ali (أبو المعالى) or as Ibn Qalawun (1285–1341) was the ninth Turkic Mamluk sultan of Egypt who ruled for three reigns: December 1293–December 1294, 1299–1309, and 1310 until his death in 1341.
Prince Andrey II Yaroslavich (Андрей Ярославич) (1222 – 1264) was the third son of Yaroslav II who succeeded his uncle Svyatoslav III as the Grand Duke of Vladimir in 1249.
Andrey III Alexandrovich (ca. 1255 – 27 July 1304), a Russian prince, son of Alexander Nevsky, received from his father the town of Gorodets on the Volga.
Andronikos II Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Βʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332), usually Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 11 December 1282 to 23 or 24 May 1328.
Andronikos III Palaiologos (Ανδρόνικος Γʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1297 – 15 June 1341), commonly Latinized as Andronicus III Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 1328 to 1341.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
An appanage or apanage (pronounced) or apanage is the grant of an estate, title, office, or other thing of value to a younger male child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture.
Ariq Böke (after 1219–1266), the components of his name also spelled Arigh, Arik and Bukha, Buka (Аригбөх; Chinese: 阿里不哥), was the seventh and youngest son of Tolui, a grandson of Genghis Khan.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar Turkic state that arose during the break-up of the Golden Horde.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
Atil (İtil; cf. A-de Shui), literally meaning "Big River", was the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until the end of the 10th century.
Azov (Азов), formerly known as Azoff, is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town.
Ögedei (also Ogodei; translit, Mongolian: Ögedei, Ögüdei;; c.1185– 11 December 1241), was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father.
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit (Öljeitü Ilkhan, Өлзийт хаан), also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh (محمد خدابنده - اولجایتو, khodābandeh from Persian meaning the "slave of God" or "servant of God"; 1280 – December 16, 1316), was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler from 1304 to 1316 in Tabriz, Iran.
Sultan Mohammed Öz Beg, better known as Uzbeg or Ozbeg (1282–1341, reign 1313–1341), was the longest-reigning khan of the Golden Horde, under whose rule the state reached its zenith.
Švitrigaila (before 1370 – 10 February 1452) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1430 to 1432.
Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.
Barak was Khan of the Golden Horde from 1423 to 1428.
Basarab I, also known as Basarab the Founder (Basarab Întemeietorul), was a voivode, and later the first independent ruler of Wallachia who lived in the first half of the.
The Bashkirs (Башҡорттар, Başqorttar,; Башкиры, Baškiry) are a Turkic ethnic group, indigenous to Bashkortostan and to the historical region of Badzhgard, extending on both sides of the Ural Mountains, in the area where Eastern Europe meets North Asia.
The Battle of Blue Waters (Mūšis prie Mėlynųjų Vandenų, Бітва на Сініх Водах, Битва на Синіх Водах) was a battle fought at some time in autumn 1362 or 1363 on the shores of the Synjucha River, left tributary of the Southern Bug, between the armies of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Golden Horde.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Kulikovo (Мамаево побоище, Донское побоище, Куликовская битва, битва на Куликовом поле) was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, and various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitry of Moscow.
The Battle of Legnica (bitwa pod Legnicą), also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (Schlacht von Liegnitz) or Battle of Wahlstatt (Schlacht bei Wahlstatt), was a battle between the Mongol Empire and the combined defending forces of European fighters that took place at Legnickie Pole (Wahlstatt) near the city of Legnica in the Silesia province of the Kingdom of Poland on 9 April 1241.
The Battle of Lipnic (or Lipnica, or Lipniţi) was a battle between the Moldavian forces under Stephen the Great, and the Volga Tatars of the Golden Horde led by Ahmed Khan, and which took place on the August 20, 1470.
The Battle of Mohi (today Muhi), also known as Battle of the Sajó RiverA Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol.
The Battle of the Vorskla River was a great battle in the medieval history of Eastern Europe.
The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye); Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus. The battle is notable for having been fought largely on the frozen lake, and this gave the battle its name. The battle was a significant defeat sustained by the crusaders during the Northern Crusades, which were directed against pagans and Eastern Orthodox Christians rather than Muslims in the Holy Land. The Crusaders' defeat in the battle marked the end of their campaigns against the Orthodox Novgorod Republic and other Slavic territories for the next century. The event was glorified in Sergei Eisenstein's historical drama film Alexander Nevsky, released in 1938, which created a popular image of the battle often mistaken for the real events. Sergei Prokofiev turned his score for the film into a concert cantata of the same title, with "The Battle on the Ice" being its longest movement.
Batu Khan (Бат хаан, Bat haan, Бату хан, Bá dū, хан Баты́й, Μπατού; c. 1207–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Good Khan, Сайн хаан, Sayn hân) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire.
Bayan (or Buyan; Naiyan) (Баян хан) (r.1302-1309) was one of the most famous khans of White Horde.
Béla IV (1206 – 3 May 1270) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1235 and 1270, and Duke of Styria from 1254 to 1258.
Büri (died 1252) was a son of Mutukan and a grandson of Chagatai Khan.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Berdi Beg (or Berdibek) was Khan of the Golden Horde from 1357 till 1359, succeeding his father Jani Beg of whom Berdi Beg may have been behind the poisoning.
Berke Khan (died 1266) (also Birkai) was the ruler of the Golden Horde (division of the Mongol Empire) who effectively consolidated the power of the Blue Horde and White Horde from 1257 to 1266.
The Berke–Hulagu war was fought between two Mongol leaders, Berke Khan of the Golden Horde and Hulagu Khan of the Ilkhanate.
“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Boris Dmitrievich Grekov (21 April 1882 in Myrhorod – 9 September 1953 in Moscow) was a Soviet historian noted for his comprehensive studies of Kievan Rus and the Golden Horde.
Borjigin (plural Borjigid; Боржигин, Borjigin; Борджигин, Bordjigin; Mongolian script:, Borjigit) is the last name of the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors.
Boroldai (or Burulday, Borolday), also known as Burundai, (Cyrillic: Боролдай) (died 1262) was a notable Mongol general of the mid 13th century.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A Byzantine–Mongol alliance occurred during the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th century between the Byzantine Empire and the Mongol Empire.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
The Catalan Atlas (Atles català,,, archaic spelling: Atlas Catalan) is the most important map of the medieval period in the Catalan language (drawn and written in 1375).
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chagatai Khan (Цагадай, Tsagadai; 察合台, Chágětái; Çağatay; جغتای, Joghatai; 22 December 1183 – 1 July 1242) was the second son of Genghis Khan.
The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors.
Chaka (Чака) reigned as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1299 to 1300.
The Chobanids or the Chupanids (سلسله امرای چوپانی), were descendants of a Mongol family of the Suldus clan that came to prominence in 14th century Persia.
The Chronicon Pictum (Latin for illustrated chronicle, Illuminated Chronicle or Vienna Illuminated Chronicle, Képes Krónika also referred to as Chronica Hungarorum, Chronicon (Hungariae) Pictum, Chronica Picta or Chronica de Gestis Hungarorum) is a medieval illustrated chronicle from the Kingdom of Hungary from the second half of fourteenth century.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Crimean Goths were those Greuthungi-Gothic tribes who remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in Crimea.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
The Crimean Mountains (translit. Krymski hory; Крымские горы, translit. Krymskie gory; Qırım dağları) are a range of mountains running parallel to the south-eastern coast of Crimea, between about 8–13 kilometers (5–8 miles) from the sea.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
Cuman (Kuman) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to today's various languages of the Kipchak-Cuman branch.
The name Cumania originated as the Latin exonym for the Cuman-Kipchak confederation, which was a Turkic confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe, between the 10th and 13th centuries.
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
Curia (Latin plural curiae) in ancient Rome referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one.
Danes (danskere) are a nation and a Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark, who speak Danish and share the common Danish culture.
Daniel of Galicia (Данило Романович (Галицький): Danylo Romanovych (Halytskyi); Old Ruthenian: Данило Романовичъ: Danylo Romanovyčъ; Daniel I Romanowicz Halicki; 1201 – 1264) was a King of Ruthenia, Prince (Knyaz) of Galicia (Halych) (1205–1255), Peremyshl (1211), and Volodymyr (1212–1231).
Daniil Aleksandrovich (Russian: Даниил Александрович) (1261 – 4 March 1303) was the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky and forefather of all the Grand Dukes of Moscow.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Darughachi (Mongol form) or Basqaq (Turkic form) which originally designated officials in the Mongol Empire in charge of taxes and administration in a certain province, is the plural form of the Mongolian word darugha.
Dawlat Berdi (died 1432), also known as Devlet Berdi, was a Khan of the Golden Horde who reigned from 1419 to 1421, and again from 1428 to his death in 1432.
A death by natural causes, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is the end result of an illness or an internal malfunction of the body not directly caused by external forces, typically due to old age.
Descent from Genghis Khan (Алтан ураг Altan urag, meaning "Golden lineage"), generally called Genghisids, is traceable primarily in Mongolia, India, China, Russia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East.
Dirham, dirhem or dirhm (درهم) was and, in some cases, still is a unit of currency in several Arab states.
The division of the Mongol Empire began when Möngke Khan died in 1259 in the siege of Diaoyu castle with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to the Toluid Civil War.
Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й, also known as Dimitrii or Demetrius), or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitry (12 October 1350 in Moscow – 19 May 1389 in Moscow), son of Ivan II the Fair of Moscow (1326–1359), reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death.
Dmitry Alexandrovich (ca. 1250–1294) was Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal from 1276 until 1281 and then from 1283 until 1293.
Dmitri Konstantinovich of Suzdal (Дми́трий Константи́нович Су́здальский) (1324 – 5 June 1383) ("the one-eyed" or "Odnook") was a powerful Prince of Suzdal and Nizhny Novgorod who dominated Russian politics during the minority of his son-in-law, Dmitri Donskoi.
Dmitry Mikhaylovich of Tver (Дми́трий Миха́йлович Тверcко́й) (1299 – September 15, 1326), nicknamed The Fearsome Eyes (Гро́зные О́чи), was a Grand Prince of Vladimir (from 1322 to 1326) and Grand Prince of Tver (from 1318 to 1326).
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
Duwa (died 1307), also known as Du'a, was khan of the Chagatai Khanate (1282–1307).
Dyuden (or Tudan) was a brother of Toqta the Khan of the Golden Horde and the great grandson of Batu Khan.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Edigu (or Edigey) (also İdegäy or Edege Mangit) (1352–1419) was a Mongol Muslim Emir of the White Horde who founded a new political entity, which came to be known as the Nogai Horde.
Edward Louis "Ned" Keenan, Jr.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
The Finno-Ugric peoples are any of several peoples of North-West Eurasia who speak languages of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, such as the Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians, Maris, Mordvins, Sámi, Estonians, Karelians, Finns, Udmurts and Komis.
Fiodor of Kiev (Teodoras) (the 14th century), was a prince of Kiev.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
Francesco Balducci Pegolotti (fl. 1290 - 1347), also Francesco di Balduccio, was a Florentine merchant and politician.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Gaykhatu (Mongolian: Gaikhalt; Mongolian Cyrillic: Гайхалт, died 1295) was the fifth Ilkhanate ruler in Iran.
Güyük (or Kuyuk; translit h) (c. March 19, 1206 – April 20, 1248) was the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan.
Gediminas (– December 1341) was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
George Terter I (Георги Тертер I), of the Terter dynasty ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria 1280–1292.
George Vernadsky (August 20, 1887 – June 12, 1973), Russian: Гео́ргий Влади́мирович Верна́дский was a Russian-born American historian and an author of numerous books on Russian history.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Mahmud Ghazan (1271– 11 May 1304) (sometimes referred to as Casanus by Westerners) was the seventh ruler of the Mongol Empire's Ilkhanate division in modern-day Iran from 1295 to 1304.
Ghazni (Pashto/Persian) or Ghaznai, also historically known as Ghaznin or Ghazna, is a city in Afghanistan with a population of nearly 150,000 people.
Baraq was a khan of the Chagatai Khanate (1266–1271).
Gorodets (Городе́ц) is a town and the administrative center of Gorodetsky District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Volga River, northwest of Nizhny Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The title grand prince or great prince (magnus princeps, Greek: megas archon) ranked in honour below king and emperor and above a sovereign prince.
The Great Horde was a Tatar-Mongol khanate that existed from about 1466 to 1502.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
The Great Stand on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between the forces of Akhmat, Khan of the Great Horde, and the Grand Prince Ivan III of Muscovy in 1480, which ended when the Tatars departed without conflict. It is seen in Russian historiography as the end of Tatar rule over Moscow.Michael Khodarkovsky, Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500-1800, (Indiana University Press, 2002), 80.
A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family.
History of the western steppe This article summarizes the history of the western third of the Eurasian steppe, that is, the grasslands of Ukraine and southern Russia.
The History of Yuan (Yuán Shǐ), also known as the Yuanshi, is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China.
The House of Ögedei, sometimes called the Ögedeids, were an influential family of Mongol Borjigin (Imperial, or Golden Family) from the 12th to 14th centuries.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
Ibak Khan (died 1495) was a Shaybanid khan of Sibir about whom the sources are contradictory.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Irtysh River (Эрчис мөрөн, Erchis mörön, "erchleh", "twirl"; Иртыш; Ертіс, Ertis, هرتىس; Chinese: 额尔齐斯河, pinyin: É'ěrqísī hé, Xiao'erjing: عَعَرٿِسِ حْ; Uyghur: ئېرتىش, Ertish; ﻴﺋرتئش, Siberian Tatar: Эйәртеш, Eya’rtes’) is a river in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan.
Isaccea (İshakçı) is a small town in Tulcea County, in Dobruja, Romania, on the right bank of the Danube, 35 km north-west of Tulcea.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Ivan I Daniilovich Kalita (Russian: Ива́н I Дании́лович Калита́; 1288 – 31 March 1340 or 1341Basil Dmytryshyn, Medieval Russia:A source book, 850-1700, (Academic International Press, 2000), 194.) was Grand Duke of Moscow from 1325 and Vladimir from 1332.
Ivaylo, also spelled Ivailo, (Ивайло), nicknamed Bardokva ("radish" or "lettuce" in Bulgarian) or Lakhanas (Λαχανᾶς, "cabbage") in Greek, was a rebel leader and emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria.
Jadwiga, also known as Hedwig (Hedvig; 1373/4 – 17 July 1399), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death.
The Jalairids were a Mongol Jalayir dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol khanate of Persia in the 1330s.
Jalair (Жалайр/Jalair;,also Djalair (~ Yyalair), Jalair) is one of the Darliqin Mongol tribes according to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami' al-tawarikh.
Jalal al-Din Khan ibn Tokhtamysh (Urdu; Persian; Arabic:; Tatar: Cäläletdin, Polish: Dżalal ad-Din) (1380–1412) was the Khan of the Golden Horde in 1411–1412.
Jama Masjid (جَامع مَسجد|Jāma‘ Masjid, also spelt Jame Mosque, Jami Masjid, Jameh Mosque, Jamia Masjid, or Jomeh Mosque) refers to the main mosque of a town, city or village, and is usually the place of gathering for Eid prayers and Friday prayers.
The Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh, (جامع التواريخ. Compendium of Chronicles, Судрын чуулган, جامعالتواریخ.) is a work of literature and history, produced in the Mongol Ilkhanate in Persia.
Jani Beg (died 1357) also called Djanibek Khan was a khan of the Golden Horde from 1342 to 1357, succeeding his father Öz Beg Khan.
Jarlig (зарлиг, zarlig; ярлык, jarlyk, also transliterated yarlyk, or even more correctly yarlıq, and the Tatar: yarlığ) is a term used in the Russian historiography for khan "formal diplomas" or decrees of the Mongol Empire (particularly the khans of Golden Horde).
Jochi (Зүчи, Zu’qi; Jos'y, جوشى;; Cuçi, Джучи, جوچى; also spelled Djochi, Jöchi and Juchi) (c. 1182– February 1227) was the eldest son of Genghis Khan, and presumably one of the four sons by his principal wife Börte, though issues concerning his paternity followed him throughout his life.
Kadan (also Qadan) was the son of the second Great Khan of the Mongols Ögedei and a concubine.
Kaidu (ᠬᠠᠢᠳᠤ Qaidu, Cyrillic: Хайду) (1230–1301) was the leader of the House of Ögedei and the de facto khan of the Chagatai Khanate, a division of the Mongol Empire.
Karakorum (Khalkha Mongolian: Хархорум Kharkhorum) was the capital of the Mongol Empire between 1235 and 1260, and of the Northern Yuan in the 14–15th centuries.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
Kaykaus II or Kayka'us II (عز الدين كيكاوس بن كيخسرو, ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kaykāwus ibn Kaykhusraw) was the sultan of the Seljuqs of Rûm from 1246 until 1257.
Kayqubad II (كیقباد; علاء الدين كيقباد بن كيخسرو, ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykhusraw) was the youngest of the three sons of the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm Kaykhusraw II.
The Kazakh Khanate (Қазақ Хандығы, Qazaq Handyǵy, قازاق حاندىعى) was a successor of the Golden Horde existing from the 15th to 19th century, located roughly on the territory of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Khüchü (or Köchü, Konchi, Konichi) was the Khan of the White Horde between c.1280-1302.
Küchük Muhammad (28 June 1391 – 1459) was a Mongol Khan of the Golden Horde from 1435 until his death.
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
A Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan.
The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.
The Khanate of Sibir, also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Tatar Khanate located in southwestern Siberia with a Turco-Mongol ruling class.
Khatun (Mongolian:, khatun, хатан khatan; خاتون khātūn; خاتون, plural خواتين; খাঁতুন, খাতুন; hatun) is a female title of nobility and counterpart to "khan" or "Khagan" prominently used in the Turkic Khaganate and in the subsequent Mongol Empire.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
Kheshig (Khishig, Keshik, Keshichan) (Mongolian for favored or blessed) were the imperial guard for Mongol royalty in the Mongol Empire, particularly for rulers like Genghis Khan and his wife Börte.
The Khongirad (Mongolian: Хонгирад/Khonghirad), also known as QongiratCentral Asia: Foundations of Change, by R. D. McChesney, pub Darwin Press, 1996, p202.
Khwarezm, or Chorasmia (خوارزم, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).
The Kipchak language (also spelled Qypchaq) is an extinct Turkic language of the Kipchak group.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
Krutitsy Metochion (Крути́цкое подворье), full name: Krutitsy Patriarchal Metochion (Крутицкое Патриаршее подворье) is an operating ecclesiastical estate of Russian Orthodox Church, located in Tagansky District of Moscow, Russia, 3 kilometers south-east from the Kremlin.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
Kurultai (Mongolian:, Хуралдай, Khuruldai; Turkish: Kurultay),Kazakh: Құрылтай, Qurıltay; Корылтай, Qorıltay; Ҡоролтай, Qoroltay; Qurultay; Gurultaý was a political and military council of ancient Mongol and some Turkic chiefs and khans.
Lake Balkhash (Балқаш көлі,; Озеро Балхаш, Ozero Balhaš) is one of the largest lakes in Asia and 15th largest in the world.
Lama ("chief" or "high priest") is a title for a teacher of the Dhamma in Tibetan Buddhism.
Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov (Лев Никола́евич Гумилёв; 1 October 1912, St. Petersburg – 15 June 1992, St. Petersburg) was a Soviet historian, ethnologist, anthropologist and translator from Persian.
The Chagatai Khans were the heads of the Chagatai Khanate from Chagatai Khan's inheritance of the state in 1227 to their removal from power by the Dzungars and their vassals in 1687.
This is a complete list of Khans of the White Horde, Blue Horde, Golden Horde and of the Great Horde.
The qualifier Mongol Tribes was established as an umbrella term in the early 13th century, when Temüjin (later Genghis Khan) united the different tribes under his control and established the Mongol Empire.
The Mongol invasion of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the Middle Ages to the early modern period.
The following is a list of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus' principalities following the Mongol invasion.
This is a list of Mongol states.
This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.
The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Mamai (Мамай, Mamay, 1335 - 1380), of Kiyat descent, was a powerful military commander of the Golden Horde.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
The Mangghud, Manghud (Mongolian: Мангуд, Mangud) were a Mongol tribe of the Urud-Manghud federation.
Möngke (valign / Мөнх;; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259.
Mengu-Timur or Möngke Temür (ᠮᠦᠨᠺᠬᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ, Мөнхтөмөр) (?–1280), Son of Toqoqan KhanDavid Morgan, The Mongols, p. 224 and Buka Ujin of Oirat and the grandson of Batu Khan.
The Merkit (Мэргид, lit. "skillful/wise ones") was one of the five major tribal confederations (khanlig) in the 12th century Mongolian Plateau.
Michael (Михаил) was a Bulgarian nobleman, the son of Tsar Konstantin Tih of Bulgaria and Maria Palaiologina Kantakouzene, niece of emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos of the Byzantine Empire.
Saint Michael of Chernigov or Mikhail Vsevolodovich (– Saray, 20 September 1246) was a Rus' prince (a member of the Rurik dynasty).
Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Μιχαὴλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos; 1223 – 11 December 1282) reigned as Byzantine Emperor 1259–1282.
Mikhail Yaroslavich (Михаил Ярославич) (1271 – 22 November 1318), also known as Michael of Tver, was a Prince of Tver (from 1285) who ruled as Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1304 until 1314 and again from 1315–1318.
Mingghan was a Mongol regiment of 1,000 men created by Genghis Khan.
The word miniature, derived from the Latin minium, red lead, is a small illustration used to decorate an ancient or medieval illuminated manuscript; the simple illustrations of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that pigment.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Mordvins, also Mordva, Mordvinians, Mordovians (эрзят/erzät, мокшет/mokšet, мордва/mordva), are the members of a people who speak a Mordvinic language of the Uralic language family and live mainly in the Republic of Mordovia and other parts of the middle Volga River region of Russia.
Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.
Negudar (Nikudar, Neguder) was a Mongol general under Berke, and a Golden Horde Noyan.
Nogay Horde, Nohai Horde or Nogay Yortu was a confederation of about eighteen Turkic and Mongol tribes that occupied the Pontic-Caspian steppe from about 1500 until they were pushed west by the Kalmyks and south by the Russians in the 17th century.
Nogai (died 1299/1300), also called Nohai, Nokhai, Nogay, Noqai, Kara Nokhai, and Isa Nogai, was a general and de facto ruler of the Golden Horde and a great-great-grandson of Genghis Khan.
The Nogais are a Turkic ethnic group who live in southern European Russia, mainly in the North Caucasus region.
Nomadic empires, sometimes also called steppe empires, Central or Inner Asian empires, are the empires erected by the bow-wielding, horse-riding, nomadic peoples in the Eurasian steppe, from classical antiquity (Scythia) to the early modern era (Dzungars).
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
Noyon, noyan, nayan was a title of authority in the Mongol Empire and later periods.
The Ob River (p), also Obi, is a major river in western Siberia, Russia, and is the world's seventh-longest river.
Oghul Qaimish (died 1251) was the principal wife of Güyük Khan and ruled as regent over the Mongol Empire after the death of her husband in 1248.
Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.
The Ongud, (Mongolian: Онгуд, Онход) were Mongols active in Mongolia around the time of Genghis Khan (1162–1227).
An orda (also orda, ordu, ordo, or ordon) or horde was a historical sociopolitical and military structure found on the Eurasian Steppe, usually associated with the Turkic people and Mongols.
Orda Ichen (Lord Orda, Орд эзэн ("Ord ezen")) was a Mongol Khan and military strategist who ruled eastern part of the Golden Horde (division of the Mongol Empire) during the 13th century.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Otrar or Utrar (Отырар); also called Farab) is a Central Asian ghost town that was a city located along the Silk Road in Kazakhstan.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
A paiza or paizi or gerege (Гэрэгэ, Пайз, پایزه pāiza, páizi) was a tablet carried by Mongol officials and envoys to signify certain privileges and authority.
Pest is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, Hungary, comprising about two thirds of the city's territory.
Poltava (Полтава; Полтава) is a city located on the Vorskla River in central Ukraine.
The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.
Pope John XXII (Ioannes XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.
The Principality of Pereyaslavl (Переяславське князівство) was a regional principality of Kievan Rus' from the end of 9th century until 1323, based in the city of Pereyaslavl (now Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi) on the Trubizh River.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Qashan Duchy was once a Bolghar Duchy in modern-day Tatarstan.
Qasim Khanate or Kingdom of Qasim or Khanate of Qasım (Касыйм ханлыгы/Касыйм патшалыгы; Касимовское ханство/Касимовское царство, Kasimovskoye khanstvo/Kasimovskoye tsarstvo) was a Tatar khanate, a vassal of Russia, which existed from 1452 until 1681 in the territory of modern Ryazan Oblast in Russia with its capital Kasimov, in the middle course of the Oka River.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russo-Kazan Wars was a series of wars fought between the Khanate of Kazan and Muscovite Russia from 1438, until Kazan was finally captured by Ivan the Terrible and absorbed into Russia in 1552.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Sarai (also transcribed as Saraj or Saray, from Persian sarāi, "palace" or "court") was the name of two cities, which were successively capital cities of the Golden Horde, the Mongol kingdom which ruled much of Central Asia and Eastern Europe, in the 13th and 14th centuries.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
Sartaq (or Sartak, Sartach, Сартаг, Сартак) Khan (died 1256) was the son of Batu Khan and Regent Dowager Khatun Boraqcin of Alchi Tatar.
Sayid Ahmad I was a khan of the Golden Horde from 1427 or 1433 until 1455.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.
The Second Mongol invasion of Hungary (második tatárjárás) led by Nogai Khan and Tulabuga took place during the winter of 1285/1286.
Serge Aleksandrovich Zenkovsky (* 16. June 1907 in Kiev, Russian Empire; † 31. March 1990)Ralph T. Fisher: Obituary.
Shaikh Awais Jalayir, also known as Uvais or Oways (سلطان شیخ اویس), was a Jalayirid ruler of Iraq (1356–1374) and Azerbaijan (1360–1374).
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
The Shaybanids (سلسله شیبانیان) were a PersianizedIntroduction: The Turko-Persian tradition, Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, ed.
Sheikh Ahmed (died 1529) was the last Khan of the Great Horde, a remnant of the Golden Horde.
Shiban (Sheiban) or Shayban (Шибан, Shiban; Shaybon / Шайбон) was a prince of the early Golden Horde.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siege of Kiev by the Mongols took place between November 28 and December 6, 1240, and resulted in a Mongol victory.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Smilets (Смилец) reigned as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1292 to 1298.
Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.
Sorghaghtani Beki (ᠰᠥᠯᠺᠥᠺᠲᠠᠨᠢᠪᠡᠺᠢ) or Bekhi (Bek(h)i is a title), also written Sorkaktani, Sorkhokhtani, Sorkhogtani, Siyurkuktiti (c.1190-1252; posthumous name) was a Keraite princess and daughter-in-law of Genghis Khan.
Staryi Krym (Старий Крим, Старый Крым, Eski Qırım) is a small historical town and former bishopric in Kirovske Raion of Crimea, an area currently disputed between Russia and Ukraine.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Stefan Uroš III Nemanjić (Стефан Урош III Немањић), known as Stefan Dečanski ("Stefan of Dečani"; Стефан Дечански,; 1285 – 11 November 1331), was the King of Serbia from 6 January 1322 to 8 September 1331.
Stefan Uroš II Milutin (Стефан Урош II Милутин; 1253 – 29 October 1321), known as Stefan Milutin (Стефан Милутин), was the King of Serbia between 1282–1321, a member of the Nemanjić dynasty.
Stephen III of Moldavia, known as Stephen the Great (Ștefan cel Mare;; died on 2 July 1504) was voivode (or prince) of Moldavia from 1457 to 1504.
Subutai (Classical Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübü'ätäi; Сүбэдэй; Modern Mongolian: Сүбээдэй, Sübedei; 1175–1248) was an Uriankhai general, and the primary military strategist of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
Sudak (Судак; Судак; Sudaq; Σουγδαία; sometimes spelled Sudac or Sudagh) is a town, multiple former Eastern Orthodox bishopric and double Latin Catholic titular see.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
Suzdal (p) is a town and the administrative center of Suzdalsky District in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Kamenka River, north of the city of Vladimir, the administrative center of the oblast.
Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich of Vladimir (Russian: Святослав III Всеволодович) (27 March 1196 – 3 February 1252) was the Prince of Novgorod (1200–1205, 1207–1210) and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal (1246–1248).
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Talabuga, Tulabuga, Talubuga or Telubuga was the khan of the Golden Horde, division of the Mongol Empire between 1287 and 1291.
Ötemish Hajji (Ötemiş Hacı, fl. 1550) was a historian of Khwarezm, author of Tarikh-i Dost Sultan (named for Dost Sultan, son of Bujugha khan, who briefly ruled the Khanate of Khiva in 1557-1558, apparently the patron of the work), a narrative account of the history of the Ulus of Jochi, including the conversion of Uzbeg Khan, leader of the Golden Horde, to Islam in the early 14th century.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Töregene Khatun (also Turakina) (d. 1246) was the Great Khatun and regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Temür Öljeytü Khan (translit; ᠥᠯᠵᠡᠶᠢᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ), born Temür (also spelled Timur, Төмөр, October 15, 1265 – February 10, 1307), also known by the temple name Chengzong (Emperor Chengzong of Yuan) was the second emperor of the Yuan dynasty, ruling from May 10, 1294 to February 10, 1307.
Temür Qutlugh (1370 – 1399) was a khan of Golden Horde in 1397–1399.
Tengrism, also known as Tengriism or Tengrianism, is a Central Asian religion characterized by shamanism, animism, totemism, poly- and monotheismMichael Fergus, Janar Jandosova,, Stacey International, 2003, p.91.
The Terek River (Terk), a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flows through Georgia and Russia into the Caspian Sea.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Slavonic and East European Review, the journal of the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES) at University College London, is an international peer-reviewed multidisciplinary academic journal in the fields of social sciences and humanities founded in 1922 by Bernard Pares, Robert William Seton-Watson and Harold Williams (SSEES) and dedicated to Slavonic and East European Studies published quarterly (January, April, July and October) by Maney Publishing for the Modern Humanities Research Association on behalf of SSEES.
Theodore Svetoslav (Тодор Светослав, Todor Svetoslav and also Теодор Светослав, Teodor Svetoslav) ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1300 to 1322.
The third Mongol invasion of Poland was carried out by Nogai Khan and Talabuga in 1287–1288.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The Timurid Empire (تیموریان, Timuriyān), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gurkāniyān), was a PersianateB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary India, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey. The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin. The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.
Tuda Mengu, also known as Tode Mongke, Tudamongke (Тодмөнх/Todmönkh or Tudamönkh), was khan of the Golden Horde, division of the Mongol Empire from 1280 to 1287.
Toghon Temür (Тогоонтөмөр, Togoontömör; 25 May 1320 – 23 May 1370), also known by the temple name Emperor Huizong bestowed by the Northern Yuan dynasty in Mongolia and by the posthumous name Shundi bestowed by the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty China, was a son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala who ruled as emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
Tokhtamysh (tat. Tuqtamış) The spelling of Tokhtamysh varies, but the most common spelling is Tokhtamysh.
The Tokhtamysh–Timur war was fought in the 1380s and early 1390s between Tokhtamysh, khan of the Golden Horde, and the warlord and conqueror Timur, founder of the Timurid Empire, in the areas of the Caucasus mountains, Turkistan and Eastern Europe.
Tolui, (Classic Mongolian: Toluy, Tului, Тулуй хаан,, Tolui Khan (meaning the Khan Tolui)) (c.1191–1232) was the fourth son of Genghis Khan by his chief khatun Börte.
The Toluid Civil War was fought between Kublai Khan and his younger brother, Ariq Böke, from 1260 to 1264.
Tokhta (Toqta, Tokhtai, Tochtu or Tokhtogha) (died c. 1312) was a khan of the Golden Horde, son of Mengu-Timur and great grandson of Batu Khan.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
Turco-Mongol or the Turko-Mongol tradition was a cultural or ethnocultural synthesis that arose during the early 14th century, among the ruling elites of Mongol Empire successor states such as the Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.
Tver (p; IPA: tvʲerʲi) is a city and the administrative center of Tver Oblast, Russia.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ulaghchi (Ulaqchi or Ulavchii) Khan (Улаагч Хаан, Улакчы хан) (died 1257) was the third khan of the Blue Horde and Golden Horde, ruling for less than a year in 1257.
Ulugh Muhammad (died 1445; Urdu, Persian and Arabic:; Олуг Мөхәммәт; Улуг Мухаммед), written as Ulanus by orientalists, was twice Khan of the Golden Horde and founder of the Khanate of Kazan.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
The Ural (Урал) or Jayıq/Zhayyq (Яйыҡ, Yayıq,; Jai'yq, Жайық, جايىق), known as Yaik (Яик) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia.
Urus Khan was the eighth Khan of the White Horde and a disputed Khan of the Blue Horde; he was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vicina was a town on the Danube used as a tradepost (Emporia) by the Republic of Genoa, being part of the Genoese trade empire between the 13th and 14th century.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vitebsk, or Vitsebsk (Ві́цебск, Łacinka: Viciebsk,; Витебск,, Vitebskas), is a city in Belarus.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
Vladimir (a) is a city and the administrative center of Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Klyazma River, to the east of Moscow.
Vladimir-Suzdal (Владимирско-Су́здальская, Vladimirsko-Suzdal'skaya), formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir (1157–1331) (Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество, Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo), was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma.
Volga Bulgaria (Идел буе Болгар дәүләте, Атӑлҫи Пӑлхар), or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
According to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (1247–1318), Genghis Khan's eldest son, Jochi, had nearly 40 sons, of whom he names 14.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Yam (Өртөө, Örtöö, checkpoint) was a supply point route messenger system employed and extensively used and expanded by Genghis Khan and used by subsequent Great Khans and Khans.
Yaroslav II (Яросла́в II Все́володович), Christian name Theodor (Феодо́р) (8 February 1191 – 30 September 1246) was the Grand Prince of Vladimir (1238–1246) who helped to restore his country and capital after the Mongol invasion of Russia.
Yaroslavl (p) is a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Moscow.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yuriy Danilovich, also known as Georgiy Danilovich (Юрий Данилович in Russian) (1281 – 21 November 1325) was Prince of Moscow (1303–1325) and Grand Prince of Vladimir (from 1318).
Zaslawye or Zaslaŭje (Засла́ўе,; Заславль; Zasław; Zaslavlis) is a historic city in Minsk Province of Belarus, 20 kilometres northwest of Minsk.
Empire of the Golden Horde, Golden Horde khanate, Golden Orde, Golden horde, Jochid Ulus, Khanate of the Golden Horde, Kipchak Khanate, Kypchak Khanate, Qipchaq Khanate, The Golden Horde, Ulus Jochi, Ulus of Jochi, White (Golden) Horde.