284 relations: Accipitridae, Adrar Plateau, Afghanistan, Africa, African fish eagle, African hawk-eagle, Alabama, Alaska, Alaska Range, Alberta, Alder, Alfred A. Knopf, Alpine transhumance, Alps, Altai Mountains, Anadyrsky District, Anatolia, Ancient Greek, Antarctica, Anticyclone, Appalachian Plateau, Aquila (genus), Aquila chrysaetos simurgh, Arabian Peninsula, Arctic, Arizona, Artemisia (genus), Asia, Atlas Mountains, Australasia, Austria, Ayres's hawk-eagle, Baja California, Bald eagle, Bale Mountains, Baltic states, Barcelona, Beak, Belarus, Bergmann's rule, Bhutan, Birch, Bird egg, Bird migration, Bird nest, Bird of prey, Black eagle, Black-and-chestnut eagle, Blanket bog, Bog, ..., Bonelli's eagle, Booted eagle, Bridger-Teton National Forest, British Isles, Bulgaria, Buteo, California, California condor, Canada, Cancer, Carl Linnaeus, Carpathian Mountains, Caspian Sea, Cassin's hawk-eagle, Caucasus, Chaparral, China, Chronospecies, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Clade, Claw, Cliff, Cline (biology), Crete, Crowned eagle, Cumbria, Denali National Park and Preserve, Desert, Dihedral (aeronautics), Eagle, East Asia, Eastern Europe, Eastern imperial eagle, Eastern United States, Encyclopædia Iranica, Epaulette, Eriophorum, Estonia, Ethiopia, Eurasia, Europe, European Russia, Falconry, Feather, Finland, Flight feather, France, Gaspé Peninsula, Germany, Grassland, Great Basin, Great blue heron, Greater spotted eagle, Greece, Ground squirrel, Guadalajara, Gurney's eagle, Handbook of the Birds of the World, Hare, Harpy eagle, Hawk, Heath, Himalayan vulture, Himalayas, Hindu Kush, Hokkaido, Holarctic, Honshu, Horn of Africa, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Hudson Bay, Iberian Peninsula, Idaho, India, Indian spotted eagle, Industrial Revolution, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Juniper, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kazakhstan, Khumbu, Kola Peninsula, Korea, Kurdistan, Kyushu, La Brea Tar Pits, Lake, Larch, Late Pleistocene, Latin, Lesser spotted eagle, Lhasa, Little eagle, Local extinction, Long-crested eagle, Longitude, Lynx Edicions, Maine, Manchuria, Maquis shrubland, Marmot, Marsh, Martial eagle, Maryland, Mathurin Jacques Brisson, Mauritania, Meadow, Mediterranean Sea, Mexico, Michigan, Middle East, Middle Persian, Middle Pleistocene, Mire, Mixed Wood Plains Ecozone (CEC), Mongolia, Monotypic taxon, Montana, Morocco, Mount Lorette, Myanmar, Nearctic realm, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York (state), New York City, Nikolai Severtzov, Nisaetus, North Africa, North America, North American porcupine, North China Plain, North Dakota, Northern fulmar, Northern Hemisphere, Nova Scotia, Oak, Oklahoma, Old World vulture, Oman, Oregon, Ornithology, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Palearctic realm, Pamir Mountains, Pasteurella multocida, Pennaceous feather, Pennsylvania, Peregrine falcon, Piebald, Pine, Pinus pumila, Plain, Plumage, Populus sect. Aigeiros, Prairie, Protozoa, Pyrenees, Quebec, Rabbit, Rùm, Reservoir, Rocky Mountains, Romania, Rufous-bellied eagle, Russia, Russian Far East, San Diego County, California, Scandinavia, Sclerophyll, Scotland, Scree, Sea eagle, Serbia, Sexual dimorphism, Siberia, Simurgh, Skye, Sonoran Desert, South America, Southwestern United States, Spanish imperial eagle, Species, Spilornis, Spizaetus, Spruce, Steppe eagle, Subspecies, Sunrise, Sunset, Sweden, Systema Naturae, Taiga, Tampico, Tarsometatarsus, Tarsus (skeleton), Tawny eagle, Tian Shan, Tibet, Tree line, Trichomonas, Tundra, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey vulture, Tussock (grass), Type (biology), Ungava Peninsula, United States Geological Survey, Utah, Verreaux's eagle, Virginia, Wadi, Wahlberg's eagle, Washington (state), Wedge-tailed eagle, West Texas, West Virginia, Western Palaearctic, Western United States, Wetland, Wildfire, Willow, Wing chord (biology), Woodland edge, Yemen, Yenisei River, Yukon, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Expand index (234 more) » « Shrink index
The Accipitridae, one of the four families within the order Accipitriformes (the others being Cathartidae, Pandionidae and Sagittariidae), are a family of small to large birds with strongly hooked bills and variable morphology based on diet.
The Adrar (Berber:, lit. mountain) is a highland natural and historical region of the Sahara Desert in northern Mauritania.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), or to distinguish it from the true fish eagles (Ichthyophaga), the African sea eagle, is a large species of eagle found throughout sub-Saharan Africa wherever large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply occur.
The African hawk-eagle (Aquila spilogaster) is a large bird of prey.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Alaska Range is a relatively narrow, 650-km-long (400 mi) mountain range in the southcentral region of the U.S. state of Alaska, from Lake Clark at its southwest endSources differ as to the exact delineation of the Alaska Range.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
Alpine transhumance is transhumance as practiced in the Alps, that is, a seasonal droving of grazing livestock between the valleys in winter and the high mountain pastures in summer (German Alpwirtschaft, Almwirtschaft from the term for "seasonal mountain pasture", Alp, Alm).
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
Anadyrsky District (Ана́дырский райо́н; Chukchi: Кагыргын район) is an administrativeLaw #33-OZ and municipalLaw #148-OZ district (raion), one of the six in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon defined by the United States National Weather Service's glossary as "a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere".
The Appalachian Plateau is a series of rugged, high plains located on the western side of the Appalachian Highlands.
Aquila is the genus of true eagles.
Aquila chrysaetos simurgh is an extinct subspecies of the widespread golden eagle.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Artemisia is a large, diverse genus of plants with between 200 and 400 species belonging to the daisy family Asteraceae.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Ayres's hawk-eagle (Hieraaetus ayresii), also referred to as Ayres' eagle,Newman, K (1998) Newman's Birds of Southern Africa.
Baja CaliforniaSometimes informally referred to as Baja California Norte (North Lower California) to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula, of which it forms the northern half, and Baja California Sur, the adjacent state that covers the southern half of the peninsula.
The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, from Greek ἅλς, hals "sea", αἰετός aietos "eagle", λευκός, leukos "white", κεφαλή, kephalē "head") is a bird of prey found in North America.
The Bale Mountains (also known as the Urgoma Mountains), in the Oromia Region of southeast Ethiopia, south of the Awash River, are part of the Ethiopian Highlands.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The beak, bill, or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds that is used for eating and for preening, manipulating objects, killing prey, fighting, probing for food, courtship and feeding young.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Bergmann's rule is an ecogeographical rule that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Bird eggs are laid by the females and incubated for a time that varies according to the species; a single young hatches from each egg.
Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds.
A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young.
A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.
The black eagle (Ictinaetus malaiensis) is a bird of prey.
The black-and-chestnut eagle (Spizaetus isidori) is a South American species of bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.
Blanket bog or blanket mire, also known as featherbed bog, is an area of peatland, forming where there is a climate of high rainfall and a low level of evapotranspiration, allowing peat to develop not only in wet hollows but over large expanses of undulating ground.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
The Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) is a large bird of prey.
The booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, also classified as Aquila pennata) is a medium-sized mostly migratory bird of prey with a wide distribution in the Palearctic and southern Asia, wintering in the tropics of Africa and Asia, with a small, disjunct breeding population in south-western Africa.
Bridger-Teton National Forest is located in western Wyoming, United States.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Buteo is a genus of medium to fairly large, wide-ranging raptors with a robust body and broad wings.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) is a New World vulture, the largest North American land bird.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Cassin's hawk-eagle (Aquila africana), or Cassin's eagle, is one of the booted eagles: like all eagles it is classified in the family Accipitridae.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Chaparral is a shrubland or heathland plant community found primarily in the US state of California and in the northern portion of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A chronospecies is a species derived from a sequential development pattern which involves continual and uniform changes from an extinct ancestral form on an evolutionary scale.
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (p; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject (an autonomous okrug) of Russia.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
A claw is a curved, pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger in most amniotes (mammals, reptiles, birds).
In geography and geology, a cliff is a vertical, or nearly vertical, rock exposure.
In biology, a cline (from the Greek “klinein”, meaning “to lean”) is a measurable gradient in a single character (or biological trait) of a species across its geographical range.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
The crowned eagle, also known as the African crowned eagle or the crowned hawk-eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus) is a large bird of prey found in sub-Saharan Africa; in Southern Africa it is restricted to eastern areas.
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.
Denali National Park and Preserve is an American national park and preserve located in Interior Alaska, centered on Denali, the highest mountain in North America.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Dihedral angle is the upward angle from horizontal of the wings or tailplane of a fixed-wing aircraft.
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) is a large species of bird of prey that breeds from southeastern Europe to western and central Asia.
The Eastern United States, commonly referred to as the American East or simply the East, is a region roughly coinciding with the boundaries of the United States established in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which bounded the new country to the west along the Mississippi River.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
Epaulette (also spelled epaulet) is a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia of rank by armed forces and other organizations.
Eriophorum (cottongrass, cotton-grass or cottonsedge) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cyperaceae, the sedge family.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
Falconry is the hunting of wild animals in their natural state and habitat by means of a trained bird of prey.
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Flight feathers (Pennae volatus) are the long, stiff, asymmetrically shaped, but symmetrically paired pennaceous feathers on the wings or tail of a bird; those on the wings are called remiges, singular remex, while those on the tail are called rectrices, singular rectrix.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Gaspésie (official name), or Gaspé Peninsula, the Gaspé or Gaspesia, is a peninsula along the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River to the east of the Matapédia Valley in Quebec, Canada, that extends into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
The Great Basin is the largest area of contiguous endorheic watersheds in North America.
The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) is a large wading bird in the heron family Ardeidae, common near the shores of open water and in wetlands over most of North America and Central America, as well as the Caribbean and the Galápagos Islands.
The greater spotted eagle (Clanga clanga), occasionally just called the spotted eagle, is a large bird of prey.
The ground squirrels are members of the squirrel family of rodents (Sciuridae) which generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
Gurney's eagle (Aquila gurneyi) is a large eagle in the family Accipitridae.
The Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW) is a multi-volume series produced by the Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions in partnership with BirdLife International.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a neotropical species of eagle.
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
A heath is a shrubland habitat found mainly on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation.
The Himalayan vulture or Himalayan griffon vulture (Gyps himalayensis) is an Old World vulture in the family Accipitridae.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
The Holarctic is the name for the biogeographic realm that encompasses the majority of habitats found throughout the northern continents of the world, combining Wallace's Palearctic zoogeographical region, consisting of North Africa and all of Eurasia (with the exception of the southern Arabian Peninsula, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent), and the Nearctic zoogeographical region, consisting of North America, north of Mexico.
Honshu is the largest and most populous island of Japan, located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian spotted eagle (Clanga hastata) is a large South Asian bird of prey.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Khumbu (also known as the Everest Region) is a region of northeastern Nepal on the Nepalese side of Mount Everest.
The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.
is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands.
The La Brea Tar Pits are a group of tar pits around which Hancock Park was formed in urban Los Angeles.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Larches are conifers in the genus Larix, of the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae).
The Late Pleistocene is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene or Tarantian stage Pleistocene series rocks.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina) is a large Eastern European bird of prey.
Lhasa is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
The little eagle (Hieraaetus morphnoides) is a very small eagle native to Australia, measuring 45–55 cm (17–21.5 inches) in length and weighing 815 g (1.8 lb) – roughly the size of a peregrine falcon.
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
The long-crested eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) is an African bird of prey.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lynx Edicions is a Spanish ornithological publishing company.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Low Maquis in Corsica High ''macchia'' in Sardinia Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian: macchia mediterranea) is a shrubland biome in the Mediterranean region, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs.
Marmots are large squirrels in the genus Marmota, with 15 species.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
The martial eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus) is a large eagle native to sub-Saharan Africa.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Mathurin Jacques Brisson (30 April 1723 – 23 June 1806) was a French zoologist and natural philosopher.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
A meadow is a field habitat vegetated by grass and other non-woody plants (grassland).
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
The Middle Pleistocene is an informal, unofficial subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago.
A mire is a wetland type, dominated by living, peat-forming plants.
The Mixed Wood Plains Ecozone is an ecozone of North America that was defined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation to reconcile the American and Canadian land classification systems.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
In biology, a monotypic taxon is a taxonomic group (taxon) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon.
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mount Lorette is an ice-free mountain resembling a cathedral in form, rising to close west of Mount Loodts in the Belgica Mountains of Antarctica.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Nearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nikolai Alekseevich Severtzov (5 November 1827 – 8 February 1885) was a Russian explorer and naturalist.
Nisaetus is a genus of eagles found mainly in tropical Asia.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), also known as the Canadian porcupine or common porcupine, is a large rodent in the New World porcupine family.
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.
North Dakota is a U.S. state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States.
The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), fulmar, or Arctic fulmar is a highly abundant sea bird found primarily in subarctic regions of the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
Old World vultures are vultures that are found in the Old World, i.e. the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa, and which belong to the family Accipitridae, which also includes eagles, buzzards, kites, and hawks.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms on the Earth's surface, first identified in the 19th century, and still in use today as the basis for zoogeographic classification.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
The pennaceous feather is a type of feather present in most modern birds and in some other species of maniraptoriform dinosaurs.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae.
A piebald or pied animal is one that has a pattern of pigmented spots on an unpigmented (white) background of hair, feathers or scales.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Pinus pumila (common names Siberian dwarf pine, dwarf Siberian pine, dwarf stone pine, Japanese stone pine, or creeping pine) is a native of northeastern Asia, including the islands of Japan.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
Plumage ("feather") refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, colour, and arrangement of those feathers.
Populus section Aigeiros is a section of three species in the genus Populus, the poplars.
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
Rùm(), a Scottish Gaelic name often anglicised to Rum, is one of the Small Isles of the Inner Hebrides, in the district of Lochaber, Scotland.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The rufous-bellied eagle or rufous-bellied hawk-eagle (Lophotriorchis kienerii) is a bird of prey in the family Accipitridae that is found in the forested regions of tropical Asia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
San Diego County is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation that has hard leaves, short internodes (the distance between leaves along the stem) and leaf orientation parallel or oblique to direct sunlight.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scree is a collection of broken rock fragments at the base of crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes or valley shoulders that has accumulated through periodic rockfall from adjacent cliff faces.
A sea eagle (also called erne or ern, mostly in reference to the white-tailed eagle) is any of the birds of prey in the genus Haliaeetus in the bird of prey family Accipitridae.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
--> --> Simurgh (سيمرغ), also spelled simorgh, simorg, simurg, simoorg, simorq or simourv, is a benevolent, mythical bird in Iranian mythology and literature.
Skye, or the Isle of Skye (An t-Eilean Sgitheanach or Eilean a' Cheò), is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland.
The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which covers large parts of the Southwestern United States in Arizona and California and of Northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California, and Baja California Sur.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), also known as the Iberian imperial eagle, Spanish eagle, or Adalbert's eagle, is a threatened species of eagle native to the Iberian Peninsula.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spilornis is a genus of bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.
Spizaetus is the typical hawk-eagle birds of prey genus found in the tropics of the Americas.
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.
The steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis) is a bird of prey.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
Sunrise or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears over the horizon in the morning.
Sunset or sundown is the daily disappearance of the Sun below the horizon as a result of Earth's rotation.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Tampico is a city and port in the southeastern part of the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico.
The tarsometatarsus is a bone that is only found in the lower leg of birds and certain non-avian dinosaurs.
The tarsus is a cluster of seven articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus.
The tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) is a large bird of prey.
The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing.
Trichomonas is a genus of anaerobic excavate parasites of vertebrates.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), also known in some North American regions as the turkey buzzard (or just buzzard), and in some areas of the Caribbean as the John crow or carrion crow, is the most widespread of the New World vultures.
Tussock grasses or bunch grasses are a group of grass species in the Poaceae family.
In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.
The Ungava Peninsula of Nunavik, Quebec, Canada, is bounded by Hudson Bay to the west, Hudson Strait to the north, and Ungava Bay to the east.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
Verreaux's eagle (Aquila verreauxii) is a large African bird of prey.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
Wahlberg's eagle (Hieraaetus wahlbergi) is a bird of prey that is native to sub-Saharan Africa, where it is a seasonal migrant in the woodlands and savannas.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
The wedge-tailed eagle or bunjil (Aquila audax) is the largest bird of prey in Australia, and is also found in southern New Guinea, part of Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia.
West Texas is a loosely defined part of the U.S. state of Texas, generally encompassing the arid and semiarid lands west of a line drawn between the cities of Wichita Falls, Abilene, and Del Rio.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
The Western Palaearctic or Western Palearctic is part of the Palaearctic ecozone, one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth's surface.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
Wing chord is an anatomical measurement of a bird's wing.
A woodland edge or forest edge is the transition zone (ecotone) from an area of woodland or forest to fields or other open spaces.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.