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Index Goryeo

Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo. [1]

188 relations: Abaoji, Abbasid Caliphate, Andong, Arak (drink), Ögedei Khan, Baekje, Balhae, Baron, Battle of Kuju, Byeolmuban, Central Asia, Cheontae, Cheorwon County, Choe Chung-heon, Choe Hang (military official), Choe Museon, Choe U, Choe Ui, Choe Yeong, Choe Yun-ui, Chungnyeol of Goryeo, Civilian control of the military, Client state, Confucianism, Count, Coup d'état, Crown prince, Dae Gwang-hyeon, Daegu, Deoksu Jang clan, Dongnyeong Prefectures, Duke, Emperor Shengzong of Liao, Empress Gi, Exonym and endonym, Family tree of the Goryeo kings, Five Dynasties, Gang Gam-chan, Gang Jo, Ganghwa Island, Gim Busik, Goguryeo, Gojong of Goryeo, Gongmin of Goryeo, Gongyang of Goryeo, Goryeo military regime, Goryeo under Mongol Rule, Goryeo ware, Goryeo–Khitan War, Goryeosa, ..., Guifeng Zongmi, Gukjagam, Gung Ye, Gwageo, Gwangjong of Goryeo, Gyeon Hwon, Gyeong Dae-seung, Gyeongjong of Goryeo, Gyeongju, Gyeongsang Province, Haeinsa, Hangul, Heishui Mohe, Hui people, Huijong of Goryeo, Hwaeom, Hyeonjong of Goryeo, Index of Korea-related articles, Injong of Goryeo, Islamic Golden Age, Jang (Korean surname), Jangsu of Goguryeo, Japan, Jeolla Province, Jeong Jung-bu, Jikji, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jingkang incident, Jinul, Joseon, Jurchen people, Kaesong, Khitan people, Khongirad, Kim Jun (Goryeo), Korea, Korean Buddhism, Korean Confucianism, Korean Empire, Korean language, Korean Peninsula, Korean pottery and porcelain, Korean shamanism, Kublai Khan, Kyunyeo, Later Baekje, Later Jin (Five Dynasties), Later Silla, Later Three Kingdoms, Liao dynasty, Liaoning, Liaoyang, Linji school, Manchuria, Mardin, Marquess, Möngke Khan, Middle East, Ming dynasty, Mokjong of Goryeo, Monarch, Mongol invasions of Korea, Mongols, Movable type, Munjong of Goryeo, Muslim world, Myeongjong of Goryeo, Myocheong, Naju, Names of Korea, Naval history of Korea, Near East, Nobi, Oirats, Posterity of Heaven, Prajñā (Buddhism), Pyongan Province, Pyongyang, Queen Noguk, Red Turban invasions of Goryeo, Red Turban Rebellion, Routledge, Samadhi, Sambyeolcho Rebellion, Samguk sagi, Sem Vermeersch, Semu, Seo Hui, Seongjong of Goryeo, Seoul, Silla, Sin Don, Sinjong of Goryeo, Soju, Song dynasty, South Gyeongsang Province, Ssangseong Prefectures, Sungkyunkwan, Sungkyunkwan University, Sutra, Taebong, Taejo of Goryeo, Taejo of Joseon, Tang dynasty, Taoism, Taoism in Korea, Temple name, The Cambridge History of China, Three Kingdoms of Korea, Tiantai, Tobang, Tongbulgyo, Tripiṭaka, Tripitaka Koreana, Tumen (unit), U of Goryeo, Uicheon, Uijong of Goryeo, Uisang, Uyghurs, Viscount, Wanyan, Wokou, Wonhyo, Wonjong of Goryeo, Wonsan, Wuyashu, Yalu River, Yang Gil, Yejong of Goryeo, Yi Go, Yi Jachun, Yi Ui-bang, Yi Ui-min, Yuan dynasty, Yun Gwan, Zen, Zizhi Tongjian. Expand index (138 more) »


Abaoji (Khitan: Ambagyan), posthumously known as Emperor Taizu of Liao, was a Khitan leader and founder of the Liao dynasty (907–926).

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Andong is a city in South Korea, and the capital of North Gyeongsang Province.

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Arak (drink)

Arak or araq (عرق, ערק) is a Levantine alcoholic spirit (~40–63% Alc. Vol./~80–126 proof, commonly 50% Alc. Vol./100 proof) in the anise drinks family.

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Ögedei Khan

Ögedei (also Ogodei; translit, Mongolian: Ögedei, Ögüdei;; c.1185– 11 December 1241), was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father.

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Baekje (18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located in southwest Korea.

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Balhae (698–926), also known as Parhae or Bohai was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.

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Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.

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Battle of Kuju

The Battle of Gwiju, which occurred in 1019, was the major battle during the Third Goryeo-Khitan War (1018-1019).

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Byeolmuban is the name of a special army unit in the time of Korea's Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392).

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Cheontae is the Korean descendant of the Chinese Buddhist school Tiantai.

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Cheorwon County

Cheorwon County (Cheorwon-gun), also spelled Chorwon, is a county in Gangwon Province, South Korea.

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Choe Chung-heon

Choe Chung-heon (1149 – 29 October 1219) was a military ruler of Korea during the Goryeo period.

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Choe Hang (military official)

Choe Hang (1209 – 17 May 1257) was the third dictator of the Choe Military regime, which dominated Goryeo for six decades before and during the Mongol invasions.

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Choe Museon

Choe Mu-Seon (1325–1395) was a medieval Korean scientist, inventor, and military commander during the late Goryeo Dynasty and early Joseon Dynasty.

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Choe U

Choe U (1166 - 10 December 1249) was the second Choe dictator of the Ubong Choe Military regime.

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Choe Ui

Choe Ui (1233 – 1258) (최의) was the fourth and last Choe dictator of the Ubong Choe Military regime.

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Choe Yeong

Choi Young (1316–1388), also romanized as Choe Yeong, was a Korean general born in Hongseong or Cheorwon during the Goryeo period.

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Choe Yun-ui

Choe Yun-ui was a Korean civil minister during the Goryeo Dynasty.

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Chungnyeol of Goryeo

King Chungnyeol of Goryeo (3 April 1236 – 30 July 1308) was the 25th ruler of the medieval Korean kingdom of Goryeo from 1274 to 1308.

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Civilian control of the military

Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers.

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Client state

A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.

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Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Crown prince

A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy.

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Dae Gwang-hyeon

Dae Gwang-hyeon (대광현, 大光顯, ? ~ ?) was the last Crown Prince of Balhae and a member of the Balhae Royal Family, and was the leader of the Balhae refugees who sought refuge in the Korean Kingdom of Goryeo.

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Daegu (대구, 大邱, literally 'large hill') formerly spelled Taegu and officially known as the Daegu Metropolitan City, is a city in South Korea, the fourth largest after Seoul, Busan, and Incheon, and the third largest metropolitan area in the nation with over 2.5 million residents.

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Deoksu Jang clan

Deoksu Jang clan is one of the Korean clans.

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Dongnyeong Prefectures

Dongnyeong Prefectures was a colony which set in the northwest Korean Peninsula by the Mongolian Yuan dynasty between 1259 and 1290.

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A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.

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Emperor Shengzong of Liao

Emperor Shengzong of Liao (16 January 972 – 25 June 1031), personal name Wenshunu, sinicised name Yelü Longxu, was the sixth emperor of the Khitan-led Liao dynasty.

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Empress Gi

Empress Gi (or Empress Ki;; 1315–1369/70), known as Empress Qi (or Ch'i; 奇皇后) in Chinese and Öljei Khutuk (Өлзий хутуг) in Mongolian, was one of the primary empresses of Toghon Temür of the Yuan dynasty and the mother of Biligtü Khan.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.

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Family tree of the Goryeo kings

The Goryeo Dynasty ruled in Korea from 918 to 1392.

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Five Dynasties

The Five Dynasties was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century China.

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Gang Gam-chan

Gang Gam-chan (강감찬, 姜邯贊) (22 December 948 – 9 September 1031) was a medieval Korean government official and military commander during the early days of Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392).

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Gang Jo

Gang Jo (강조, 康兆, died 31 December 1010) was a Goryeo general who served under King Mokjong of Goryeo and King Hyeonjong of Goryeo.

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Ganghwa Island

Ganghwa Island, also known by its native name Ganghwado, is a South Korean island in the estuary of the Han River.

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Gim Busik

Kim Busik (1075–1151) was a statesman, general, Confucian scholar and writer during Korea's Goryeo period.

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Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.

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Gojong of Goryeo

Gojong of Goryeo (3 February 1192 – 21 July 1259), sometimes spelled Ko-tjong, was the twenty-third ruler of Goryeo in present-day Korea from 1213–1259.

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Gongmin of Goryeo

King Gongmin of Goryeo (23 May 1330 – 27 October 1374) ruled Goryeo Dynasty Korea from 1351 to 1374.

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Gongyang of Goryeo

King Gongyang of Goryeo (9 March 1345 – 17 May 1394, r. 1389 – 1392) was the 34th and final ruler of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

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Goryeo military regime

The term Goryeo military regime describes the government of Goryeo from the time of the military coup d'état of 1170 to the Sambyeolcho Rebellion of 1270 and the definitive subordination of Korea to the Mongol Yuan dynasty, division of the Mongol Empire.

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Goryeo under Mongol Rule

Goryeo under Mongol rule refers to the rule of the Mongol Empire, specifically the Mongol-ruled Yuan dynasty over the Korean Peninsula from about 1270 to 1356.

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Goryeo ware

Goryeo ware (고려도자기; Goryeo dojagi) refers to all types of Korean pottery and porcelains produced during the Goryeo dynasty.

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Goryeo–Khitan War

The Goryeo–Khitan War was a series of 10th- and 11th-century conflicts between Goryeo and the Khitan Liao dynasty near the present-day border between China and North Korea.

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The Goryeosa or History of Goryeo is the principal surviving history of Korea's Goryeo Dynasty.

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Guifeng Zongmi

Guifeng Zongmi (780–841) was a Tang dynasty Buddhist scholar and bhikkhu, installed as fifth patriarch of the Huayan school as well as a patriarch of the Heze school of Southern Chan Buddhism. Zongmi was deeply affected by both Chan and Huayan. He wrote a number of works on the contemporary situation of Buddhism in Tang China, including critical analyses of Chan and Huayan, as well as numerous scriptural exegeses. Zongmi was deeply interested in both the practical and doctrinal aspects of Buddhism. He was especially concerned about harmonizing the views of those that tended toward exclusivity in either direction. He provided doctrinal classifications of Buddhist teachings, accounting for the apparent disparities in doctrines by categorizing them according to their specific aims.

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The Gukjagam, known at times as Gukhak or Seonggyungwan, was the highest educational institution of the Korean Goryeo dynasty.

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Gung Ye

Gung Ye (c. 869 - 24 July 918, ruled 901–918) was the king of the short-lived Hugoguryeo (901–918) (see Later Three Kingdoms) on the Korean peninsula.

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The gwageo or kwago were the national civil service examinations under the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties of Korea.

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Gwangjong of Goryeo

Gwangjong (925 – 4 July 975), personal name Wang So, was the fourth king of Goryeo.

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Gyeon Hwon

Gyeon Hwon (867 - 27 September 936) was the king and founder of Hubaekje, one of the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea, and reigned from 892 to 935.

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Gyeong Dae-seung

Gyeong Dae-seung (Hangul: 경대승, Hanja: 慶大升) (1154 – 4 August 1183) was the third major military dictators who ruled during the late period of the Goryeo.

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Gyeongjong of Goryeo

Gyeongjong of Goryeo (9 November 955 – 13 August 981) (r. 975–981) was the fifth ruler of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

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Gyeongju (경주), historically known as Seorabeol (서라벌), is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea.

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Gyeongsang Province

Gyeongsang (경상도, Gyeongsang-do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon dynasty.

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Haeinsa (해인사, 海印寺: Temple of the Ocean Mudra) is a head temple of the Jogye Order (대한불교조계종, 大韓佛敎 曹溪宗) of Korean Seon Buddhism in Gayasan National Park (가야산, 伽倻山), South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea.

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The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.

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Heishui Mohe

The Heishui Mohe (Sahaliyan i Aiman or),, also known as the,, rendered in English as Blackriver Mohe or Blackwater Mohe, were a tribe of Mohe people in Outer Manchuria along the Amur River in what is now Russia's Khabarovsk Krai, Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, and Heilongjiang in China.

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Hui people

The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.

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Huijong of Goryeo

Huijong of Goryeo (21 June 1181 – 31 August 1237, r. 1204–1211) was the 21st Monarch of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea and the only son of King Sinjong.

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Hwaeom is the name of the Korean transmission of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism.

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Hyeonjong of Goryeo

Hyeonjong of Goryeo (1 August 992 – 17 June 1031, r. 1009–1031) was the 8th ruler of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

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Index of Korea-related articles

This is a list of articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts.

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Injong of Goryeo

Injong of Goryeo (29 October 1109 – 10 April 1146) (r. 1122–1146) was the 17th monarch of the Korean Goryeo dynasty.

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.

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Jang (Korean surname)

Jang, Chang, and (less often) Zang are romanizations of the common Korean surname 장, previously several separate surnames derived from the Chinese surnames Zhang (Hanja 張), Zhang (章), Zhuang (莊), and Jiang (蔣).

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Jangsu of Goguryeo

Jangsu of Goguryeo (394–491, r. 413–491) was the 20th monarch of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jeolla Province

Jeolla Province was a province in southwestern Korea, one of the historical Eight Provinces of Korea during the Kingdom of Joseon.

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Jeong Jung-bu

Jeong Jung-bu (1106 – 18 October 1179) was a medieval Korean soldier and military dictator during the Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392).

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Jikji is the abbreviated title of a Korean Buddhist document, whose title can be translated "Anthology of Great Buddhist Priests' Zen Teachings".

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.

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Jingkang incident

The Jingkang Incident, also known as the Humiliation of Jingkang and the Disorders of the Jingkang Period took place in 1127 during the Jin–Song Wars when the forces of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty besieged and sacked Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng), the capital of the Han Chinese-led Song dynasty.

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Bojo Jinul (1158–1210), often called Jinul or Chinul for short, was a Korean monk of the Goryeo period, who is considered to be the most influential figure in the formation of Korean Seon (Zen) Buddhism.

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The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.

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Jurchen people

The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.

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Kaesong or Gaeseong is a city in North Hwanghae Province in the southern part of North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Taebong kingdom and subsequent Goryeo dynasty.

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Khitan people

The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.

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The Khongirad (Mongolian: Хонгирад/Khonghirad), also known as QongiratCentral Asia: Foundations of Change, by R. D. McChesney, pub Darwin Press, 1996, p202.

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Kim Jun (Goryeo)

Kim Jun (? - 1268) (김준) also known as Kim In-Jun or Musang was the ninth military leader who ruled during the late period of the Goryeo military regime.

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Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Korean Buddhism

Korean Buddhism is distinguished from other forms of Buddhism by its attempt to resolve what it sees as inconsistencies in Mahayana Buddhism.

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Korean Confucianism

Korean Confucianism is the form of Confucianism that emerged and developed in Korea.

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Korean Empire

The Great Korean Empire was proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty, under pressure after the Donghak Peasant Revolution of 1894 to 1895 and the Gabo Reforms that swept the country from 1894 to 1896.

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Korean language

The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.

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Korean Peninsula

The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.

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Korean pottery and porcelain

Korean ceramic history begins with the oldest earthenware dating to around 8000 BC.

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Korean shamanism

Korean shamanism, also known as Shinism (Hangul 신교, Hanja 神敎; Shingyo or Shinkyo, "religion of the spirits/gods"), or Shindo (Hangul: 신도; Hanja: 神道, "way of the spirits/gods"), is the collective term for the ethnic religions of Korea which date back to prehistory, and consist in the worship of gods (신 shin) and ancestors (조상 josang).

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Kublai Khan

Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).

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Kyun Yeo (균여, 均如) was a Korean poet, who was born on 20 September 917 and died on 19 July 973.

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Later Baekje

Hubaekje or Later Baekje was one of the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea, along with Hugoguryeo and Silla.

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Later Jin (Five Dynasties)

The Later Jìn (936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.

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Later Silla

Later Silla (668–935) or Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after it conquered Baekje and Goguryeo in the 7th century, unifying the central and southern regions of the Korean peninsula.

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Later Three Kingdoms

The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892–936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje ("Later Baekje") and Hugoguryeo ("Later Goguryeo", it was replaced by Goryeo).

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Liao dynasty

The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.

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Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.

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Liaoyang is a prefecture-level city of east-central Liaoning province, China, situated on the Taizi River and, together with Anshan, forms a metro area of 2,057,200 inhabitants in 2010.

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Linji school

The Línjì school is a school of Chan Buddhism named after Linji Yixuan (d. 866).

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Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Mardin (Mêrdîn, ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: rtl Mārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey.

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A marquess (marquis) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies.

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Möngke Khan

Möngke (valign / Мөнх;; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Mokjong of Goryeo

Mokjong of Goryeo (5 July 980 – 2 March 1009) (r. 997–1009) was the seventh ruler of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

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A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Mongol invasions of Korea

The Mongol invasions of Korea (1231–1259) comprised a series of campaigns between 1231 and 1270 by the Mongol Empire against the Kingdom of Goryeo (the proto-state of modern-day Korea).

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The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Movable type

Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.

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Munjong of Goryeo

Munjong (29 December 1019 – 2 September 1083) was the 11th monarch of the Goryeo Dynasty, who ruled Korea from 1046 to 1083.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Myeongjong of Goryeo

King Myeongjong (8 November 1131 – 3 December 1202) (r. 1170–1197) was monarch of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

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Myo Cheong (Hangul: 묘청, Hanja:妙淸) was an influential Buddhist monk and geomancer of the royal court who lived during the Goryeo Dynasty in Korea.

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Naju is a city in South Jeolla Province, South Korea.

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Names of Korea

There are various names of Korea in use today, derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties.

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Naval history of Korea

The naval history of Korea dates back thousands of years since the prehistoric timesThe Traditional ships of Korea By Wan-gi Chʻoe when simple fishing ships were used.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Nobi were members of the slave class during the Korean dynasties of Goryeo and Joseon.

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Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.

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Posterity of Heaven

Posterity of Heaven or Cheonson (천손, 天孫) designates the Korean people because they are considered the descendants of Heaven or the heavenly god.

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Prajñā (Buddhism)

Prajñā (Sanskrit) or paññā (Pāli) "wisdom" is insight in the true nature of reality, namely primarily anicca (impermanence), dukkha (dissatisfaction or suffering), anattā (non-self) and śūnyatā (emptiness).

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Pyongan Province

Pyeong'an Province was one of Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon.

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Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.

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Queen Noguk

Queen Noguk (? – 1365), also known as Queen Indeok, was a Mongolian princess and later queen of Korea, who followed the Yuan Dynasty custom of marrying Goryeo princes into the family line.

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Red Turban invasions of Goryeo

The Red Turban invasions of Goryeo occurred in the 14th century, when the Red Turban Rebellion spread to Goryeo on the Korean Peninsula.

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Red Turban Rebellion

The Red Turban Rebellion was an uprising influenced by the White Lotus Society members that, between 1351 and 1368, targeted the ruling Mongol Yuan dynasty, eventually leading to the overthrowing of Mongol rule in China.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि), also called samāpatti, in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and yogic schools refers to a state of meditative consciousness.

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Sambyeolcho Rebellion

The Sambyeolcho Rebellion (1270–1273) was a Korean rebellion against the Goryeo dynasty that happened at the last stage of the Mongol invasions of Korea.

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Samguk sagi

Samguk sagi (삼국사기, 三國史記, History of the Three Kingdoms) is a historical record of the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla.

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Sem Vermeersch

Sem Andre Claudine Vermeersch (born 1968 in Blankenberge)Library of Congress (LOC) authority file, is a Belgian academician, editor, author, administrator and professor of Buddhism at Seoul National University.

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Semu is the name of a caste established by the Yuan dynasty.

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Seo Hui

Seo Hui (942 – 8 August 998) was a Korean politician and diplomat during the early days of the Goryeo Dynasty of Korea (918–1392).

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Seongjong of Goryeo

Seongjong of Goryeo (15 January 961 – 29 November 997) (r. 981–997) was the sixth ruler of the medieval Korean kingdom of Goryeo.

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Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.

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Silla (57 BC57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding." – 935 AD) was a kingdom located in southern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula.

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Sin Don

Shin Don (신돈, 1322~1371) was a Korean Buddhist monk and scholar during the Goryeo Dynasty; His Dharma name was Pyeonjo and he became Teacher and advisor to Gongmin of Goryeo.

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Sinjong of Goryeo

King Sinjong of Goryeo (11 August 1144 – 15 February 1204, r. 1197–1204) was the twentieth monarch of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

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Soju (from Korean) is a clear, colorless distilled beverage of Korean origin.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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South Gyeongsang Province

South Gyeongsang Province (translit) is a province in the southeast of South Korea.

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Ssangseong Prefectures

Ssangseong Prefectures was a colony which allocated at South Hamgyeong Province (Current Kumya County) in 1258 by Yuan dynasty.

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Sungkyunkwan, was the foremost educational institution in Korea during the late Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties.

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Sungkyunkwan University

Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU or simply Seongdae, Hangul: 성균관대학교; hanja: 成均館大學校) is a prestigious private comprehensive research university in South Korea.

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A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

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Taebong was a state established by Gung Ye on the Korean Peninsula in 901 during the Later Three Kingdoms.

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Taejo of Goryeo

Taejo of Goryeo (31 January 877 – 4 July 943), also known as Taejo Wang Geon (Wang Kǒn, 왕건), was the founder of the Goryeo dynasty, which ruled Korea from the 10th to the 14th century.

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Taejo of Joseon

Taejo of Joseon (27 October 1335 – 24 May 1408), born Yi Seong-gye, whose changed name is Yi Dan, was the founder and the first king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea reigning from 1392 to 1398, and the main figure in overthrowing the Goryeo Dynasty.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Taoism in Korea

Taoism or "Do" is thought to be the earliest state philosophy for the Korean people spanning several thousand years.

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Temple name

Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon periods), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Trần, Lý, and Lê) royalty.

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The Cambridge History of China

The Cambridge History of China is an ongoing series of books published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) covering the history of China from the founding of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC to 1982.

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Three Kingdoms of Korea

The concept of the Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje (백제), Silla (신라) and Goguryeo (고구려).

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Tiantai is a school of Buddhism in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam that reveres the Lotus Sutra as the highest teaching in Buddhism.

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Dobang (都房), also written as Tobang, was a Goryeo Dynasty private military unit that originated as the personal body guard for Gyeong Dae-seung (경대승).

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Tongbulgyo is a school of "interpenetrated Buddhism" which was taught by the Korean monk Wonhyo.

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The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit) or Tipiṭaka (Pali), is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.

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Tripitaka Koreana

The Tripiṭaka Koreana (lit. Goryeo Tripiṭaka) or Palman Daejanggyeong ("Eighty-Thousand Tripiṭaka") is a Korean collection of the Tripiṭaka (Buddhist scriptures, and the Sanskrit word for "three baskets"), carved onto 81,258 wooden printing blocks in the 13th century.

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Tumen (unit)

Tumen, or tümen ("unit of ten thousand"; Old Turkic: tümän; Түмэн, tümen; tümen; tömény), was a part of the decimal system used by the Turkic peoples and Mongol peoples to organize their armies.

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U of Goryeo

U of Goryeo 우, often written Woo, but pronounced "Oo" (25 July 1365 – 31 December 1389) ruled Goryeo (Korea) from 1374 until 1388.

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Uicheon (28 September 1055 – 5 October 1101) was a Korean Buddhist monk who founded the Cheontae school of Buddhism.

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Uijong of Goryeo

Uijong (23 May 1127 – 7 November 1173) (r. 1146–1170) was the 18th monarch of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

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Uisang (625–702) was one of the most eminent early Silla Korean scholar-monks, a close friend of Wonhyo (元曉).

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The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.

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A viscount (for male) or viscountess (for female) is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status.

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The Wanyan (Manchu: Wanggiya; Jurchen script) clan was among of the clans of the Heishui Mohe tribe living in the drainage region of the Heilong River during the time of the Liao dynasty, which was ruled by the Khitan.

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Wokou (Japanese: Wakō; Korean: 왜구 Waegu), which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan and Korea.

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Won Hyo (617 – April 28, 686) was one of the leading thinkers, writers and commentators of the Korean Buddhist tradition.

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Wonjong of Goryeo

Wonjong of Goryeo (5 April 1219 – 23 July 1274) was the 24th ruler of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea from 1260 to 1274.

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Wŏnsan, previously known as Wŏnsanjin (元山津), Port Lazarev, and Gensan (元山), is a port city and naval base located in Kangwŏn Province, North Korea, along the eastern side of the Korean Peninsula, on the East Sea (Japan Sea) and the provincial capital.

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Wuyashu (1061–1113) was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).

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Yalu River

The Yalu River, also called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China.

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Yang Gil

Yang Gil (hangul: 양길; hanja: 梁吉) was a head of rebel forces in Silla.

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Yejong of Goryeo

Yejong of Goryeo (11 February 1079 – 15 May 1122) (r. 1105–1122) was the 16th monarch of the Korean Goryeo dynasty.

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Yi Go

Yi Go (?–1171) was a military ruler in Korea.

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Yi Jachun

Yi Ja-chun (Mongolian name: Ulus Bukha 吾魯思不花; 1315 – 1361) was a minor military officer of the Yuan Dynasty (he later transferred allegiance to the Goryeo Dynasty) and the father of Yi Seong-gye, the founder of the Joseon Dynasty.

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Yi Ui-bang

Yi Ui-bang (이의방, 1121 - December 1174) was a military ruler of Korea during the Goryeo period.

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Yi Ui-min

Yi Ui-min (Hangul: 이의민, Hanja: 李義旼, (died 7 May 1196) was a military general who dominated the Goryeo government prior to the Mongol Invasions. When his rival, Commander Gyeong Dae-seung, died, Yi Ui-min rose to power in the supreme military council, Jungbang. His tyranny came to and end in 1196 on the 8th day of the 4th lunar month when he was assassinated by General Choe Chung-heon.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Yun Gwan

Yun Gwan (12 July 1040 - 15 June 1111) was a general of Goryeo who was known for training a seventeen-thousand man army and leading it to victory against the Jurchens tribes.

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Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.

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Zizhi Tongjian

The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, in the form of a chronicle.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goryeo

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