133 relations: Acts of Thomas, Aeon, Andrew the Apostle, Antiquities of the Jews, Apocalypse, Apocalypse of Thomas, Apostles, April DeConick, Aramaic language, Arthur Surridge Hunt, Athanasius of Alexandria, Bart D. Ehrman, Bentley Layton, Bernard Pyne Grenfell, Biblical canon, Biblical criticism, Book of Proverbs, Book of Revelation, Book of Thomas the Contender, British Library Or 4926, Brothers of Jesus, Bruce M. Metzger, Catechesis, Christopher M. Tuckett, Circular reasoning, Codex, Common Sayings Source, Coptic binding, Coptic language, Coptic Museum, Craig A. Evans, Criterion of multiple attestation, Crucifixion of Jesus, Cyril of Jerusalem, Darrell L. Bock, David Noel Freedman, Decretum Gelasianum, Diatessaron, Disciple (Christianity), Disciple whom Jesus loved, Doubting Thomas, Early Christianity, Elaine Pagels, Epistle of Jude, Eusebius, Five Trees, Gilles Quispel, Gnosticism, Gospel, Gospel of John, ..., Gospel of Philip, Gospel of the Hebrews, Gospel of Truth, Heterodoxy, Hillel the Elder, Hippolytus of Rome, Historical Jesus, Hugh McGregor Ross, Hymn of the Pearl, Infancy Gospel of Thomas, Instruction of Amenemope, Internet Archive, Internet Sacred Text Archive, Irenaeus, James M. Robinson, James, brother of Jesus, James, son of Zebedee, Jesus, Jewish Christian, John Dominic Crossan, John the Apostle, Josephus, Judaism, Klyne Snodgrass, Koine Greek, Last Judgment, Logia, Luke the Evangelist, Mani (prophet), Marcion of Sinope, Mark 4, Mark the Evangelist, Marvin Meyer, Matthew the Apostle, Maurice Casey, Muratorian fragment, Naassenes, Nag Hammadi, Nag Hammadi Codex II, Nag Hammadi library, Nathanael (follower of Jesus), New Testament, New Testament apocrypha, Nicholas Perrin, On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, One-upmanship, Oral gospel traditions, Origen, Oxyrhynchus, Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1, Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 654, Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 655, Parable of the barren fig tree, Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen, Paul the Apostle, Pauline epistles, Psalms of Thomas, Q source, Quran, Rabbinical translations of Matthew, Refutation of All Heresies, Resurrection of Jesus, Robert E. Van Voorst, Robert M. Grant (theologian), Robert W. Funk, Saint Peter, Saint Thomas Christians, Salome (disciple), School of thought, Second Temple, Sine qua non, Stevan Davies, Surveying, Synoptic Gospels, Syria, Syriac language, Tatian, The Shepherd of Hermas, Thomas the Apostle, Tiberius, Two-source hypothesis, Uncial script. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
The early 3rd-century text called Acts of Thomas is one of the New Testament apocrypha.
The word aeon, also spelled eon (in American English) and æon, originally meant "life", "vital force" or "being", "generation" or "a period of time", though it tended to be translated as "age" in the sense of "ages", "forever", "timeless" or "for eternity".
Andrew the Apostle (Ἀνδρέας; ⲁⲛⲇⲣⲉⲁⲥ, Andreas; from the early 1st century BC – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew and referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called (Πρωτόκλητος, Prōtoklētos), was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter.
Antiquities of the Jews (Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman emperor Flavius Domitian which was around AD 93 or 94.
An apocalypse (Ancient Greek: ἀποκάλυψις apokálypsis, from ἀπό and καλύπτω, literally meaning "an uncovering") is a disclosure of knowledge or revelation.
The Apocalypse of Thomas is a work from the New Testament apocrypha, apparently composed originally in Greek.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
April D. DeConick is the Isla Carroll and Percy E. Turner Professor of Biblical Studies at Rice University, Texas and is a historian of early Jewish and Christian thought.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Arthur Surridge Hunt, FBA (1 March 1871 – 18 June 1934) was an English papyrologist.
Athanasius of Alexandria (Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας; ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲓⲕⲟⲥ or Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲁ̅; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the 20th bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I).
Bart Denton Ehrman (born October 5, 1955) is an American New Testament scholar focusing on textual criticism of the New Testament, the historical Jesus, and the development of early Christianity.
Bentley Layton (born 12 August 1941), is Professor of Religious Studies (Ancient Christianity) and Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations (Coptic) at Yale University (since 1983).
Bernard Pyne Grenfell, FBA (16 December 1869 – 18 May 1926) was an English scientist and Egyptologist.
A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture.
Biblical criticism is a philosophical and methodological approach to studying the Bible, using neutral non-sectarian judgment, that grew out of the scientific thinking of the Age of Reason (1700–1789).
The Book of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, Míshlê (Shlomoh), "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is the second book of the third section (called Writings) of the Hebrew Bible and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
The Book of Thomas the Contender, also known more simply as the Book of Thomas (not to be confused with the Gospel of Thomas), is one of the books of the New Testament apocrypha represented in the Nag Hammadi library (CG II), a cache of Gnostic gospels secreted in the Egyptian desert.
British Library Or 4926 (1), known also as P. Lond.
The New Testament describes James, Joseph (Joses), Judas (Jude), and Simon as brothers of Jesus.
Bruce Manning Metzger (February 9, 1914 – February 13, 2007) was an American biblical scholar, Bible translator and textual critic who was a longtime professor at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who served on the board of the American Bible Society and United Bible Societies.
Catechesis (from Greek: κατήχησις, "instruction by word of mouth", generally "instruction") is basic Christian religious education of children and adults.
Christopher M. Tuckett is a British biblical scholar and Anglican priest.
Circular reasoning (circulus in probando, "circle in proving"; also known as circular logic) is a logical fallacy in which the reasoner begins with what they are trying to end with.
A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.
The Common Sayings Source is one of many theories that attempts to provide insight into the Synoptic Problem.
Coptic binding or Coptic sewing comprises methods of bookbinding employed by early Christians in Egypt, the Copts, and used from as early as the 2nd century AD to the 11th century.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
The Coptic Museum is a museum in Coptic Cairo, Egypt with the largest collection of Egyptian Christian artifacts in the world.
Craig Alan Evans (born January 21, 1952) is an evangelical New Testament scholar and author.
The criterion of multiple attestation or independent attestation is a tool used by Biblical scholars to help determine whether certain actions or sayings by Jesus in the New Testament are from Historical Jesus.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
Cyril of Jerusalem (italic; Cyrillus Hierosolymitanus) was a distinguished theologian of the early Church (313 386 AD).
Darrell L. Bock (born December 12, 1953) is an American evangelical Christian New Testament scholar.
David Noel Freedman (May 12, 1922 – 8 April 2008), son of the writer David Freedman, was a biblical scholar, author, editor, archaeologist, and, after his conversion from Judaism, a Presbyterian minister.
The Decretum Gelasianum or the Gelasian Decree is so named because it was traditionally thought to be a Decretal of the prolific Pope Gelasius I, bishop of Rome 492–496.
The Diatessaron; (Ewangeliyôn Damhalltê), (c. 160–175) is the most prominent early Gospel harmony, and was created by Tatian, an early Christian Assyrian apologist and ascetic.
In Christianity, the term disciple primarily refers to dedicated followers of Jesus.
The phrase "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (ὁ μαθητὴς ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ho mathētēs hon ēgapā ho Iēsous) or, in John 20:2, the disciple beloved of Jesus (ὃν ἐφίλει ὁ Ἰησοῦς, hon ephilei ho Iēsous) is used six times in the Gospel of John, but in no other New Testament accounts of Jesus.
A doubting Thomas is a skeptic who refuses to believe without direct personal experience—a reference to the Apostle Thomas, who refused to believe that the resurrected Jesus had appeared to the ten other apostles, until he could see and feel the wounds received by Jesus on the cross.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
Elaine Pagels, née Hiesey (born February 13, 1943), is an American religious historian who writes on the Gnostic Gospels.
The Epistle of Jude, often shortened to Jude, is the penultimate book of the New Testament and is traditionally attributed to Jude, the servant of Jesus and the brother of James the Just.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
"Five Trees" in Paradise is a mysterious allegory or concept from famous Coptic Gospel of Thomas NHC 2: (gnostic library from Nag Hammadi in Egypt) 19th saying/logia of Jesus and other sources of religious mythology.
Gilles Quispel (30 May 1916 – 2 March 2006) was a Dutch theologian and historian of Christianity and Gnosticism.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Gospel of Philip is one of the Gnostic Gospels, a text of New Testament apocrypha, dated to around the 3rd century but lost in modern times until an Egyptian man rediscovered it by accident, buried in a cave near Nag Hammadi, in 1945.
The Gospel of the Hebrews (τὸ καθ' Ἑβραίους εὐαγγέλιον), or Gospel according to the Hebrews, was a syncretic Jewish–Christian gospel, the text of which is lost; only fragments of it survive as brief quotations by the early Church Fathers and in apocryphal writings.
The Gospel of Truth is one of the Gnostic texts from the New Testament apocrypha found in the Nag Hammadi codices ("NHC").
Heterodoxy in a religious sense means "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position".
Hillel (הלל; variously called Hillel HaGadol, or Hillel HaZaken, Hillel HaBavli or HaBavli,. was born according to tradition in Babylon c. 110 BCE, died 10 CE in Jerusalem) was a Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history.
Hippolytus of Rome (170 – 235 AD) was one of the most important 3rd-century theologians in the Christian Church in Rome, where he was probably born.
The term historical Jesus refers to attempts to "reconstruct the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth by critical historical methods", in "contrast to Christological definitions ('the dogmatic Christ') and other Christian accounts of Jesus ('the Christ of faith')." It also considers the historical and cultural context in which Jesus lived.
Hugh McGregor Ross (31 August 1917 – 1 September 2014) was an early pioneer in the history of British computing.
The Hymn of the Pearl (also Hymn of the Soul, Hymn of the Robe of Glory or Hymn of Judas Thomas the Apostle) is a passage of the apocryphal Acts of Thomas.
The Infancy Gospel of Thomas is a biographical gospel about the childhood of Jesus, believed to date latest to the 2nd century or earlier.
Instruction of Amenemope (also called Instructions of Amenemopet, Wisdom of Amenemopet) is a literary work composed in Ancient Egypt, most likely during the Ramesside Period (ca. 1300–1075 BCE); it contains thirty chapters of advice for successful living, ostensibly written by the scribe Amenemope son of Kanakht as a legacy for his son.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
The Internet Sacred Text Archive (ISTA) is a Santa Cruz, California based website dedicated to the preservation of electronic public domain texts, specifically those with significant cultural value.
Irenaeus (Ειρηναίος Eirēnaíos) (died about 202) was a Greek cleric noted for his role in guiding and expanding Christian communities in what is now the south of France and, more widely, for the development of Christian theology by combatting heresy and defining orthodoxy.
James McConkey Robinson (June 30, 1924 – March 22, 2016) was an American scholar who served as Professor Emeritus of Religion at Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California.
James the Just, or a variation of James, brother of the Lord, (יעקב Ya'akov; Ἰάκωβος Iákōbos, can also be Anglicized as Jacob), was an early leader of the so-called Jerusalem Church of the Apostolic Age, to which Paul was also affiliated.
James, son of Zebedee (Hebrew:, Yaʿqob; Greek: Ἰάκωβος; ⲓⲁⲕⲱⲃⲟⲥ; died 44 AD) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and traditionally considered the first apostle to be martyred.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, are the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.
John Dominic Crossan (born February 17, 1934Official website,, Retrieved April 2, 2013.) is an Irish-American New Testament scholar, historian of early Christianity, and former Catholic priest who has produced both scholarly and popular works.
John the Apostle (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ; יוחנן בן זבדי; Koine Greek: Ιωάννης; ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Klyne Ryland Snodgrass (born December 28, 1944) is an American theologian and author, who served as professor of New Testament Studies at the North Park Theological Seminary in Chicago, Illinois from 1974-2015.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
The term logia (λόγια), plural of logion (λόγιον), is used variously in ancient writings and modern scholarship in reference to communications of divine origin.
Luke the Evangelist (Latin: Lūcās, Λουκᾶς, Loukãs, לוקאס, Lūqās, לוקא, Lūqā&apos) is one of the Four Evangelists—the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical Gospels.
Mani (in Middle Persian Māni, New Persian: مانی Māni, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was widespread but no longer prevalent by name.
Marcion of Sinope (Greek: Μαρκίων Σινώπης; c. 85 – c. 160) was an important figure in early Christianity.
Mark 4 is the fourth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
Saint Mark the Evangelist (Mārcus; Μᾶρκος; Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ; מרקוס; مَرْقُس; ማርቆስ; ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark.
Marvin W. Meyer (April 16, 1948 – August 16, 2012) was a scholar of religion and a tenured professor at Chapman University, in Orange, California.
Matthew the Apostle (מַתִּתְיָהוּ Mattityahu or Mattay, "Gift of YHVH"; Ματθαῖος; ⲙⲁⲧⲑⲉⲟⲥ, Matthaios; also known as Saint Matthew and as Levi) was, according to the Christian Bible, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to Christian tradition, one of the four Evangelists.
Philip Maurice Casey (18 October 1942 – 10 May 2014) was a British scholar of New Testament and early Christianity.
The Muratorian fragment is a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of most of the books of the New Testament.
The Naassenes (Greek Naasseni, possibly from Hebrew נָחָשׁ naḥash, snake) were a Christian Gnostic sect known only through the writings of Hippolytus of Rome.
Nag Hammadi (نجع حمادى Najʿ Ḥammādī) is a city in Upper Egypt.
Nag Hammadi Codex II (designated by siglum CG II) is a papyrus codex with a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts in Coptic (Sahidic dialect).
The Nag Hammadi library (also known as the "Chenoboskion Manuscripts" and the "Gnostic Gospels") is a collection of early Christian and Gnostic texts discovered near the Upper Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945.
Nathanael (Hebrew נתנאל, "God has given") of Cana in Galilee was a follower or disciple of Jesus, mentioned only in the Gospel of John in Chapters 1 and 21.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The New Testament apocrypha are a number of writings by early Christians that give accounts of Jesus and his teachings, the nature of God, or the teachings of his apostles and of their lives.
Nicholas Perrin is the Franklin S. Dyrness Professor of Biblical Studies at Wheaton College, Illinois.
On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis (Ancient Greek: Ἔλεγχος καὶ ἀνατροπὴ τῆς ψευδωνύμου γνώσεως), sometimes called Adversus Haereses, is a work of Christian theology written in Greek about the year 180 by Irenaeus, the bishop of Lugdunum (now Lyon in France).
One-upmanship is the art or practice of successively outdoing a competitor.
Oral gospel traditions, cultural information passed on from one generation to the next by word of mouth, were the first stage in the formation of the written gospels.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
Oxyrhynchus (Ὀξύρρυγχος Oxýrrhynkhos; "sharp-nosed"; ancient Egyptian Pr-Medjed; Coptic Pemdje; modern Egyptian Arabic El Bahnasa) is a city in Middle Egypt, located about 160 km south-southwest of Cairo, in the governorate of Al Minya.
The Oxyrhynchus Papyri are a group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by papyrologists Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus in Egypt (modern el-Bahnasa).
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1 (P. Oxy. 1) is a papyrus fragment of the logia of Jesus written in Greek (Logia Iesou).
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 654 (P. Oxy. 654) is a papyrus fragment of the logia of Jesus written in Greek.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 655 (P. Oxy. 655) is a papyrus fragment of the logia of Jesus written in Greek.
The Parable of the Barren Fig Tree (not to be confused with the parable of the budding fig tree) is a parable of Jesus which appears in.
The Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen is a parable of Jesus found in the Gospel of Matthew, the Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of Luke.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle.
The Psalms of Thomas (more correctly "Psalms of Thom") are an enigmatic set of psalms found appended to the end of the Coptic Manichaean Psalm-book, which was in turn part of the Medinet Madi Coptic Texts uncovered in 1928.
The Q source (also Q document, Q Gospel, or Q from Quelle, meaning "source") is a hypothetical written collection of primarily Jesus' sayings (logia).
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Rabbinical translations of Matthew are rabbinical versions of the Gospel of Matthew that are written in Hebrew; Shem-Tob's Matthew, the Du Tillet Matthew, and the Münster Matthew, and which were used in polemical debate with Catholics.
The Refutation of All Heresies (Φιλοσοφούμενα ή κατὰ πασῶν αἱρέσεων ἔλεγχος, Refutatio Omnium Haeresium), also called the Elenchus or Philosophumena, is a compendious Christian polemical work of the early third century, now generally attributed to Hippolytus of Rome.
The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".
Robert E. Van Voorst (born 5 June 1952) is an American theologian and educator.
Robert McQueen Grant (November 25, 1917 – June 10, 2014) was an American academic theologian and the Carl Darling Buck Professor Emeritus of Humanities and of New Testament and Early Christianity at the University of Chicago (in the former Department of New Testament & Early Christian Literature and also in the Divinity School).
Robert W. Funk (July 18, 1926 – September 3, 2005) was an American biblical scholar, founder of the Jesus Seminar and the nonprofit Westar Institute in Santa Rosa, California.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
The Saint Thomas Christians, also called Syrian Christians of India, Nasrani or Malankara Nasrani or Nasrani Mappila, Nasraya and in more ancient times Essani (Essene) are an ethnoreligious community of Malayali Syriac Christians from Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
Salome (שלומית, Shelomit), or Mary Salome, was a follower of Jesus who appears briefly in the canonical gospels and in more detail in apocryphal writings.
A school of thought (or intellectual tradition) is a collection or group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, discipline, belief, social movement, economics, cultural movement, or art movement.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
Sine qua non or condicio sine qua non (plural: condiciones sine quibus non) is an indispensable and essential action, condition, or ingredient.
Stevan L. Davies, Ph.D is an author and Professor of Religious Studies.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar or sometimes identical wording.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Tatian of Adiabene, or Tatian the Syrian, Tatian the Assyrian, (Tatianus; Τατιανός; ܛܛܝܢܘܣ; c. 120 – c. 180 AD) was a Syrian Christian writer and theologian of the 2nd century.
The Shepherd of Hermas (Ποιμὴν τοῦ Ἑρμᾶ, Poimēn tou Herma; sometimes just called The Shepherd) is a Christian literary work of the late 1st or mid-2nd century, considered a valuable book by many Christians, and considered canonical scripture by some of the early Church fathers such as Irenaeus.
Thomas the Apostle (תומאס הקדוש; ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ Thoma Shliha; also called Didymus which means "the twin") was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, according to the New Testament.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
The two-source hypothesis (or 2SH) is an explanation for the synoptic problem, the pattern of similarities and differences between the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
Coptic Gospel of Thomas, Gospel According to Thomas, Gospel Of Thomas, Gospel of Saint Thomas, Gospel of St Thomas, Gospel of St. Thomas, Gospel of thomas, Secret Gospel of Thomas, The Gospel Of Thomas, The Gospel of Thomas, Vangelo di didimo thoma.