365 relations: ABC-CLIO, Achaea (Roman province), Aegean Sea, Agriculture, Al-Andalus, Alans, Alaric I, Alaric II, Alemanni, Amali dynasty, Amber, Ambrose, Ammianus Marcellinus, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Apamea Myrlea, Aquitaine, Archery, Argentina, Argos, Arianism, Aristotle, Arthur de Gobineau, Athanaric, Athens, Attila, Augustan History, Augustus, Aurelian, Aurelius Victor, Árheimar, Östergötland, Üsküdar, Balkans, Balti dynasty, Baltic Sea, Basil of Caesarea, Battle of Abritus, Battle of Adrianople, Battle of Bassianae, Battle of Covadonga, Battle of Lake Benacus, Battle of Misiche, Battle of Naissus, Battle of Nedao, Battle of Taginae, Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, Battle of Thermopylae (267), Battle of Vouillé, ..., Belarusians, Berig, Bithynia, Black Sea, Blond, Border, Bosphorus, Bosporan Kingdom, Burgundians, Burial, Bursa, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Cagot, Cambridge University Press, Canary Islands, Cannabaudes, Cappadocia, Cardinal (Catholicism), Carus, Cassandreia, Cassiodorus, Catholicism, Centum–satem isogloss, Chalcedon, Charles Christopher Mierow, Chernyakhov culture, Chile, Chlamys, Christian, Christianity, Christopher I. 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Bury, Jastorf culture, Jerome, Jordanes, Julian (emperor), Julius Pokorny, Kattegat, Kievan Rus', King of the Geats, Kingdom of Asturias, Kingdom of the Lombards, Lactantius, Lemnos, Lemovii, List of ethnic slurs, Lithuanian language, Lombards, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia (Roman province), Magister militum, Marcianopolis, Marcomannic Wars, Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Menhir, Metropolitanate of Gothia, Middle Ages, Migration Period, Milan, Moesogoths, Mongols, Moors, Nestos (river), Nicaea, Nicolaus Ragvaldi, Nicomedia, Nordic Bronze Age, Northern Europe, Odoacer, Oium, Oksywie culture, Olbia, Ukraine, Old Norse, Olympia, Greece, Olympiodorus of Thebes, Optimatoi, Orosius, Ostrogothic Kingdom, Ostrogoths, Paeonia (kingdom), Panegyrici Latini, Paulinus the Deacon, Pelagius of Asturias, Pelagonia, Peuce Island, Philostorgius, Pitsunda, Pliny the Elder, Poland, Polychrome, Pomerania, Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontus (region), Pope, Portugal, Pre-Roman Iron Age, Princeton University Press, Procopius, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European society, Prussia, Przeworsk culture, Ptolemy, Pytheas, Raetia, Rök Runestone, Reconquista, Reidgotaland, Rhodes, Roderic, Roman army, Roman consul, Roman Dacia, Roman Empire, Roman Gaul, Roman magistrate, Roman navy, Roman–Persian Wars, Rugii, Sabbas the Goth, Sack of Rome (410), Salvian, Sarmatians, Scandinavia, Scandza, Scania, Scirii, Scythia, Sea of Marmara, Seamanship, Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Silistra, Skyros, Sozomen, Spain, Spali, Spanish language, Spanish nobility, Sparta, Stadion (unit), Stone circle (Iron Age), Svealand, Sweden, Synesius, Syria (Roman province), Tacitus, Tax, Teia, Temple of Artemis, Terry Jones' Barbarians, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, The Republic (Plato), Themistius, Theodemir, Theoderic the Great, Theodoret, Theodoric I, Theophanes the Confessor, Thervingi, Thessaloniki, Thrace, Toga, Totila, Trabzon, Troy, Tyras, Ukraine, Ulfilas, Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, University of California Press, Ural Mountains, Valamir, Valens, Vandalic language, Vandals, Vänern, Västergötland, Vikings, Visigothic Kingdom, Visigoths, Vistula, Volga River, Walafrid Strabo, West Germanic languages, Wielbark culture, Zarubintsy culture, Zeno (emperor), Zosimus. 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ABC-CLIO, or ABC-Clio, is a publisher of reference works for the study of history and social studies in academic, secondary school, and public library settings.
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Achaea or Achaia, sometimes transliterated from Greek as Akhaïa (Αχαΐα Achaïa), was a province of the Roman Empire, consisting of the Peloponnese, eastern Central Greece, and parts of Thessaly.
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The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi or Adalar Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
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al-Andalus (الأندلس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Andalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus or Wandalus), also known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim cultural domain and territory occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
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The Alans, or the Alani, occasionally termed Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
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Alaric I (Alareiks - "supreme chief"; b. 370 (or 375) – d. 410) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.
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Alaric II (Gothic: *Alareiks II), also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish and Portuguese or Alaricus in Latin (d. 507) succeeded his father Euric as king of the Visigoths in Toulouse on December 28, 484.
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The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the upper Rhine river.
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The Amali, also called Amals or Amalings, were a leading dynasty of the Goths, a Germanic people who confronted the Roman Empire in its declining years in the west.
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Amber is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
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Aurelius Ambrosius, better known in English as Saint Ambrose (c. 3404 April 397), was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
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Ammianus Marcellinus (325 330 – after 391) was a fourth-century Roman soldier and historian.
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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
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Apamea Myrlea (Απάμεια Μύρλεια) was an ancient city on the Sea of Marmara, in Bithynia, Anatolia; its ruins are a few kilometers south of Mudanya, Bursa Province in the Marmara Region of Turkey.
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Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Aquitania), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana), is one of the 27 Regions of France, in the south-western part of Metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain.
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Archery is the practice or skill of using a bow to propel arrows.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.
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Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city and a former municipality in Argolis, Peloponnese, Greece.
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Arianism is a nontrinitarian belief that asserts that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, but is entirely distinct from and subordinate to God the Father.
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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.
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Joseph Arthur, Comte de Gobineau (14 July 1816 – 13 October 1882) was a French aristocrat, novelist and man of letters who became famous for developing the theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853–1855).
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Athanaric or Atanaric (Aþanareiks presumably from aþni "year" and reiks "king"; Athanaricus; died 381) was king of several branches of the Thervingian Goths for at least two decades in the 4th century.
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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína,; Ἀθῆναι, Athēnai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
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Attila (or; fl. 434–453), frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453.
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The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.
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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.
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Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215 – September or October 275), was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
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Sextus Aurelius Victor (c. 320 – c. 390) was a historian and politician of the Roman Empire.
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Árheimar (Old Norse "river home") was a capital of the Goths, according to the Hervarar saga.
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Östergötland (English exonym: East Gothland) is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish) in the south of Sweden.
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Üsküdar, formerly known as Scutari, is a large and densely populated district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus.
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The Balkan Peninsula, popularly referred to as the Balkans, is a geographical region of Southeast Europe.
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The Balt(h)i dynasty, Baltungs, Balthings, or Balth(e)s, existed among the Visigoths, a Germanic tribe who confronted the Western Roman Empire in its declining years.
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The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain.
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Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Hágios Basíleios ho Mégas; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the Greek bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
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The Battle of Abritus, also known as the Battle of Forum Terebronii, occurred in the Roman province of Moesia Inferior (modern Razgrad, Bulgaria) probably in July, 251, between the Roman Empire and a federation of Scythian tribesmen under the Goth king Cniva.
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The Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between an Eastern Roman army led by the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (largely Thervings as well as Greutungs, non-Gothic Alans, and various local rebels) led by Fritigern.
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The Battle of Bassianae was a battle between Ostrogoths and Huns in 468.
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The Battle of Covadonga was the first significant victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors' conquest of that region in 711.
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The Battle of Lake Benacus was fought along the banks of Lake Garda in northern Italy, which was known to the Romans as Benacus, in 268 or early 269 AD, between the army under the command of the Roman Emperor Claudius II and the Germanic tribes of the Alamanni and Juthungi.
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The Battle of Misiche, Mesiche, or Massice (dated between January 13 and March 14, 244 AD.Potter, Empire at Bay, p.234–235) was fought between the Sassanid Persians and the Romans somewhere in ancient Mesopotamia.
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The Battle of Naissus (268 or 269 AD) was the defeat of a Gothic coalition by the Roman Empire under Emperor Gallienus (or Claudius II) near Naissus (Niš in present-day Serbia).
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The Battle of Nedao, was a battle fought in Pannonia in 454.
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At the Battle of Taginae (also known as the Battle of Busta Gallorum) in June/July 552, the forces of the Byzantine Empire under Narses broke the power of the Ostrogoths in Italy, and paved the way for the temporary Byzantine reconquest of the Italian Peninsula.
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The Battle of the Catalaunian Plains (or Fields), also called the Battle of Châlons or the Battle of Maurica, took place in AD 451 between a coalition led by the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I against the Huns and their allies commanded by their leader Attila.
The Battle of Thermopylae in 267 was the unsuccessful defense of the pass by local forces during the great invasion of the Balkans by the Heruli.
The Battle of Vouillé or Vouglé (from Latin Campus Vogladensis) was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at Vouillé, Vienne near Poitiers (Gaul), in the spring of 507 between the Franks commanded by Clovis and the Visigoths commanded by Alaric II.
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Belarusians (беларусы, belarusy; белорусы) are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Republic of Belarus.
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Berig is a legendary king of the Goths appearing in the Getica by Jordanes.
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Bithynia (Greek Βιθυνία Bithynia) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
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The Black Sea is a sea between Southeastern Europe and Western Asia.
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Blond or blonde (see below), or fair hair, is a hair color characterized by low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin.
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Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.
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The Bosphorus or Bosporus (Βόσπορος, Bósporos; Boğaziçi) is a strait that forms part of the boundary between Europe and Asia.
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The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou), was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch.
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The Burgundians (Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; Burgundar; Burgendas; Βούργουνδοι) were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the Baltic island of Bornholm, and from there to the Vistula basin, in middle modern Poland.
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Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.
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Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.
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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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Byzantium (Βυζάντιον Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony on the site that later became Constantinople, and later still Istanbul.
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The Cagots were a persecuted and despised minority found in the west of France and northern Spain: the Navarrese Pyrenees, Basque provinces, Béarn, Aragón, Gascony and Brittany.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
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The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias), also known as the Canaries (Canarias), are a Spanish archipelago located just off the southern coast of Morocco, west of its southern border.
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Cannabaudes or Cannabas († 271) was a third-century leader of the gothic tribe of the Tervings, who died in a battle against the Roman emperor Aurelian.
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Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Kapadokya, Καππαδοκία Kappadokía, Գամիրք (Gamirq), from Καππαδοκία, from Katpatuka) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
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A cardinal (Latin: sanctae romanae ecclesiae cardinalis, literally cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, an ecclesiastical prince, and usually (now always for those created when still within the voting age-range) an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
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Carus (Marcus Aurelius Carus Augustus; c. 224 – July or August 283) was Roman Emperor from 282 to 283.
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Cassandreia (Κασσάνδρεια - Kassandreia) was once one of the most important cities in Ancient Macedonia, founded by and named after Cassander in 316 BC.
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Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 485 – c. 585), commonly known as Cassiodorus, was a Roman statesman and writer, serving in the administration of Theoderic the Great, king of the Ostrogoths.
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Catholicism (from Greek καθολικισμός, katholikismos, "universal doctrine") and its adjectival form Catholic are used as broad terms for describing specific traditions in the Christian churches in theology, doctrine, liturgy, ethics, and spirituality.
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The centum–satem division is an ostensible isogloss of the Indo-European language family, related to the different evolution of the three dorsal consonant rows of the mainstream reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European (PIE):J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997), p. 461.
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Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
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Charles Christopher Mierow (1883–1961) was an American academic and classical scholar.
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The Sântana de Mureș–Chernyakhov culture is an archaeological culture that flourished between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD in a wide area of Eastern Europe, specifically in what today constitutes Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and parts of Belarus.
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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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The chlamys (Ancient Greek: χλαμύς, gen.: χλαμύδος was an ancient Greek type of rather short cloak. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013. By the time of the Byzantine Empire it was, in a much longer form, part of the state costume of the emperor and high officials, surviving as such until at least the 12th century CE. The ephaptis was a similar garment, typically worn by infantrymen.
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A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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Christopher I. Beckwith (born 1945) is a professor of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana.
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In antiquity, Cilicia or less often Kilikia (Կիլիկիա; Κιλικία; Middle Persian: Klikiyā, Parthian: Kilikiyā, Kilikya), was the south coastal region of Asia Minor, south of the central Anatolian plateau.
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Cius (Kίος Kios), later renamed Prusias on the Sea (Prusias ad Mare) after king Prusias I of Bithynia, was an ancient Greek city bordering the Propontis (now known as the Sea of Marmara), in Bithynia (in modern northwestern Turkey), and had a long history, being mentioned by Aristotle, Strabo and Apollonius Rhodius.
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Claudius Claudianus, usually known in English as Claudian (c. 370 – c. 404 AD), was a Latin poet associated with the court of the emperor Honorius at Mediolanum (Milan), and particularly with the general Stilicho.
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Claudius II (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus;Jones, pg. 209 May 10, 213 – January 270), commonly known as Claudius Gothicus, was Roman Emperor from 268 to 270.
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Cniva (from kniwa, meaning "knife"; mid-3rd century AD) was a Gothic chieftain who invaded the Roman Empire.
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The Codex Argenteus, "Silver Book", is a 6th-century manuscript, originally containing bishop Ulfilas's 4th century translation of the Bible into the Gothic language.
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The Codex Theodosianus (Eng. Theodosian Code) was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312.
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In Greco-Roman geography, Colchis (კოლხეთი Kolkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhis, presumably from Kartvelian ḳolkheti or ḳolkha) was the name for a region in the Southern Caucasus.
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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti.
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The Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano) is a traditional political party in Colombia.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
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Conservatism as a political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
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Constanța, historically known as Tomis (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), is the oldest still populated city in Romania.
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Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine (in the Orthodox Church as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles), was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD of Illyrian ancestry.
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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis or Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstantinoúpoli; Constantinopolis; قسطنطینية, Kostantiniyye; Цариград; modern Istanbul) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1924) empires.
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Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming his opponent as his successor.
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The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel (Basle in the once-preferred English spelling) by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
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Cremation is the combustion, vaporization and oxidation of dead bodies to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, and the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
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The Crimean Peninsula (Кры́мский полуо́стров, Кри́мський піво́стрів, Къырым ярымадасы), also known simply as Crimea (Крым, Крим, Къырым), is a major land mass on the northern coast of the Black Sea that is almost completely surrounded by water.
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Crimean Gothic was a Gothic dialect spoken by the Crimean Goths in some isolated locations in Crimea until the late 18th century.
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Crimean Goths were those Gothic tribes who remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in Crimea.
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The Criollo (or "creole" people) were a social class in the caste system of the overseas colonies established by Spain in the 16th century, especially in Hispanic America, comprising the locally born people of confirmed Spanish ancestry.
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Criuleni is a district (raion) in the central part of Moldova, with the administrative center at Criuleni.
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A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work.
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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
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Cyzicus (Κύζικος Kyzikos; آیدینجق, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey.
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In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
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The Danube (also known by other names) is Europe's second-longest river, located in Central and Eastern Europe.
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Trajan Decius (Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus; c. 201 – June 251), was Roman Emperor from 249 to 251.
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Denmark (Danmark) is a country in Northern Europe.
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Publius Herennius Dexippus (Δέξιππος, ca. 210–273), Greek historian, statesman and general, was an hereditary priest of the Eleusinian family of the Kerykes, and held the offices of archon basileus and eponymous in Athens.
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The Diocese of Växjö is one of the 13 dioceses or regional units of the Lutheran Church of Sweden.
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The Dniester River, or Dnister River (Nistru, Дністе́р translit. Dnister, Dniestr, Днестр, Turla) is a river in Eastern Europe.
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The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia.
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The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Germanic languages of the Indo-European language family spoken by East Germanic peoples.
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The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικὸν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikòn Patriarcheîon Konstantinoupóleos,; (Patriarchatus Oecumenici Constantinopolitani); Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Greek Orthodox Patriarchate"), part of the wider Orthodox Church, is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches within the communion of Orthodox Christianity.
Edward Gibbon (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian and Member of Parliament.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
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Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; ultimately from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
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The Epitome de Caesaribus is a Latin historical work written at the end of the 4th century.
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Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, horseman, horse) more often known as riding, horseback riding (American English) or horse riding (British English) referring to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
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Ermanaric (Aírmanareiks; Ermanaricus; Eormenric; Jǫrmunrekr; died 376) was a Greuthungian Gothic King who before the Hunnic invasion evidently ruled a sizable portion of Oium, the part of Scythia inhabited by the Goths at the time.
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An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is the name applied to a given ethnic group.
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Eunapius (Εὐνάπιος; fl. 4th–5th century AD) was a Greek sophist and historian of the 4th century AD.
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The Eurasian nomads were a large group of nomadic peoples of the Eurasian Steppe who often appear in history as invaders of Europe, The Middle East, and China.
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The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
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Flavius Eutropius was an Ancient Roman historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century.
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An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, or that is no longer in current use.
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Falconry is the hunting of wild quarry in its natural state and habitat by means of a trained bird of prey.
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The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the period of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into numerous successor polities.
Fashion is a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body piercing, or furniture.
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Filimer was an early Gothic king, according to Jordanes.
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Foederatus (in English; pl. foederati) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance.
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Francia or Frankia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) are historically first known as a group of Germanic tribes that roamed the land between the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, and second as the people of Gaul who merged with the Gallo-Roman populations during succeeding centuries, passing on their name to modern-day France and becoming part of the heritage of the modern day French people.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
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Fritigern or Fritigernus (died ca. 380) was a Thervingian Gothic chieftain whose decisive victory at Adrianople during the Gothic War (376-382) led to favourable terms for the Goths when peace was made with Gratian and Theodosius I in 382.
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Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.
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Gallia Aquitania, also known as Aquitaine or Aquitaine Gaul, was a province of the Roman Empire.
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Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus; c. 218 – 268) was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268.
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The Göta älv (River of the Geats) is a river that drains lake Vänern into the Kattegat, at the city of Gothenburg, on the western coast of Sweden.
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Götaland (also Gothia, Gothland, Gothenland, Gautland or Geatland) is one of three lands of Sweden and comprises ten provinces.
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Gdańsk (English pronunciation, Danzig,, also known by other alternative names) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast, the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland's principal seaport and the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.
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Gdynia (Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.
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The Geats (Old English: gēatas,; Old Norse: gautar; Swedish: götar), and sometimes Goths) were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting what is now Götaland ("land of the Geats") in modern Sweden. The name of the Geats also lives on in the Swedish provinces of Västergötland and Östergötland, the Western and Eastern lands of the Geats, and in many other toponyms.
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A gemstone or gem (also called a fine gem, jewel, or a precious or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal, which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
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The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazeteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
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The Gepids (Gepidae, Gipedae) were an East Germanic tribe.
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The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germanic Peoples (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
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Germanic kingship refers to the customs and practices surrounding kings among the pre-Christianized Germanic tribes of the Migration period (circa AD 300–700) and the kingdoms of the Early Middle Ages (circa AD 700–1000).
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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.
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Germanic paganism refers to the theology and religious practices of the Germanic peoples from the Iron Age until their Christianization during the Medieval period.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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The Getae or or Gets (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Гети; Geţi) are names given to several Thracian tribes inhabiting the regions to either side of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria and southern Romania.
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De origine actibusque Getarum ("The Origin and Deeds of the Getae/Goths"), or the Getica,Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, translated by C. Mierow written in Late Latin by Jordanes (or Jornandes) in or shortly after 551, claims to be a summary of a voluminous account by Cassiodorus of the origin and history of the Gothic people, which is now lost.
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The Getty Research Institute (GRI), located at the Getty Center in Los Angeles, California, is "dedicated to furthering knowledge and advancing understanding of the visual arts".
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Gog and Magog (גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג Gog u-Magog) are names that appear in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), the Book of Revelation and the Qur'an, sometimes indicating individuals and sometimes lands and peoples.
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Gothenburg (Göteborg) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries.
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The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
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The Goths, Gepids, Vandals, and Burgundians were East Germanic groups who appear in Roman records in Late Antiquity.
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The Gothic Bible or Wulfila Bible is the Christian Bible as translated by Wulfila in the fourth century into the Gothic language spoken by the Eastern Germanic (Gothic) tribes.
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Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
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The Goths first appear in historical record in the early 3rd century, and they were Christianized in the course of the 4th century.
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Two main outbreaks of persecution of Christians by the 4th-century Gothic authorities are recorded, in 347/8 under Aoric (according to Auxentius of Durostorum) and between 367 and 378 under Aoric's son, the iudex (kindins) Athanaric.
The Gothic War is the name given to a Gothic uprising in the eastern Roman Empire in the Balkans between about 376/7 and 382.
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The Gothic War between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy was fought from 535 until 554 in Italy, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.
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Gothicismus, Gothism, or Gothicism (Göticism) is the name given to what is considered to have been a cultural movement in Sweden, centered on the belief in the glory of the Swedish ancestors, originally considered to be the Geats, who were identified with the Goths.
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According to a tale related by Jordanes, Gothiscandza was arguably the first settlement of the Goths (Getae) after their migration from Scandinavia (Scandza) during the first half of the 1st century A.D. Jordanes relates that the East Germanic tribe of Goths were led from Scandza by their king Berig.
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Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local language Gutnish, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
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The Gutes or the Gotlanders (in Swedish gutar) are the population of the island of Gotland.
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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.
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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
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Gregory of Nyssa, also known as Gregory Nyssen (Γρηγόριος Νύσσης; c. 335 – c. 395), was bishop of Nyssa from 372 to 376 and from 378 until his death.
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Gregory Thaumaturgus or Gregory the Miracle-Worker (Γρηγόριος ο Θαυματουργός, Grēgórios o Thaumatourgós; 213 – 270), also known as Gregory of Neocaesarea, was a Christian bishop of the 3rd century.
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The Greuthungs, Greuthungi, or Greutungi were a Gothic people of the Black Sea steppes in the third and fourth centuries.
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Grimm's Law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule), named after Jakob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
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Gutasaga (Gutasagan) is a saga treating the history of Gotland before its Christianization.
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The Gutians (also Guteans, Guti, Quti, Qurtie, Qurti, and Kurdu) were a tribe from northern and central ranges of the Zagros Mountains that overran southern Mesopotamia when the Akkadian empire collapsed in approximately 2154 BC.
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Gutnish, or Gotlandic, is a Scandinavian language spoken on the island of Gotland in Sweden – generally considered to be a dialect of Swedish.
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Hachette,, is a French publisher.
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Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus;In Classical Latin, Hadrian's name would be inscribed as PVBLIVS AELIVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.As emperor his name was Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus. 24 January, 76 AD – 10 July, 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. He is also known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Britannia. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family. Although Italica near Santiponce (in modern-day Spain) is often considered his birthplace, his place of birth remains uncertain. However, it is generally accepted that he comes of a family with centuries-old roots in Hispania. His predecessor Trajan was a maternal cousin of Hadrian's father. Trajan never officially designated an heir, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. Trajan's wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well-disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian traveled to nearly every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and ordered the construction of many opulent temples in the city. He used his relationship with his Greek lover Antinous to underline his philhellenism and led to the creation of one of the most popular cults of ancient times. He spent extensive amounts of his time with the military; he usually wore military attire and even dined and slept amongst the soldiers. He ordered military training and drilling to be more rigorous and even made use of false reports of attack to keep the army alert. Upon his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajan's conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia, and even considered abandoning Dacia. Late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina. In 136 an ailing Hadrian adopted Lucius Aelius as his heir, but the latter died suddenly two years later. In 138, Hadrian resolved to adopt Antoninus Pius if he would in turn adopt Marcus Aurelius and Aelius' son Lucius Verus as his own eventual successors. Antoninus agreed, and soon afterward Hadrian died at Baiae.
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is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), on the western coast of Sweden.
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Heraclea Pontica (Ἡράκλεια Ποντική Hērakleia Pontikē) was an ancient city on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus.
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Hermann Dessau (April 6, 1856, Frankfurt am Main - April 12, 1931, Berlin) was a German ancient historian and epigrapher.
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The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were an East Germanic tribe who migrated from Scandinavia to the Black Sea in the third century AD.
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Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks (The Saga of Hervör and Heidrek) is a legendary saga from the 13th century combining matter from several older sagas.
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A hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use.
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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
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Histria or Istros (Ἰστρίη, Thracian river god, Danube), was a Greek colony or polis (πόλις, city) near the mouths of the Danube (known as Ister in Ancient Greek), on the western coast of the Black Sea.
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Hlöðskviða or The Battle of the Goths and Huns is sometimes counted among the Eddic Poems.
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Honorius (Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423), was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423.
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The Huns were a nomadic group of people who are known to have lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia between the 1st century AD and the 7th century.
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The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe and is divided among four states: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and France; as well as Gibraltar, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.
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In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language that has significantly influenced the modern Indo-European languages.
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The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
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Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
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Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636) served as Archbishop of Seville for more than three decades and is considered, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world".
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe (the other two being the Iberian Peninsula and Balkan Peninsula), spanning from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927), known as J. B. Bury, was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman Historian and philologist.
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The Jastorf culture was an Iron Age material culture in what is now north Germany, spanning the 6th to 1st centuries BC, forming the southern part of the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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Saint Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 347 – 30 September 420) was a Catholic priest, confessor, theologian and historian, who also became a Doctor of the Church.
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Jordanes, also written Jordanis or, uncommonly, Jornandes, was a 6th-century Roman bureaucrat, who turned his hand to history later in life.
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Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
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Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was an Austrian linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism.
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The Kattegat (Danish, from Dutch, commonly used in English), or Kattegatt (Swedish) is a 30,000 km2 sea area bounded by the Jutlandic peninsula in the west, the Danish straits islands of Denmark to the south and the provinces of Västergötland, Scania, Halland and Bohuslän in Sweden in the east.
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Kievan Rus' (Old East Slavic Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Greek Ῥωσία, Latin Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Old Norse Garðaríki) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
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Geatish kings (Rex Getarum/Gothorum), ruling over the provinces of Götaland (Gautland/Geatland), appears in several sources for early Swedish history.
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The Kingdom of Asturias (Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias (Pelayo).
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The Kingdom of the Lombards (regnum Langobardorum), later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic-speaking people, on the Italian Peninsula between 568–69.
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Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author (c. 250 – c. 325) who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his religious policy as it developed, and a tutor to his son.
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Lemnos (Λήμνος, Limnos) is an island of Greece in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.
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The Lemovii (Lemovier) were a Germanic tribe, only once named by Tacitus in the late 1st century.
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The following is a list of ethnic slurs (ethnophaulisms) that are, or have been, used as insinuations or allegations about members of a given ethnicity or to refer to them in a derogatory (critical or disrespectful), pejorative (disapproving or contemptuous), or insulting manner.
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Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union.
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The Lombards or Langobards (Langobardī, Italian Longobardi), were a Germanic tribe who ruled Italy from 568 to 774.
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Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the northern periphery of Classical Greece and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.
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Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine.
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Marcianopolis or Marcianople (Greek: Μαρκιανούπολις) was an ancient Roman city in Thracia.
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The Marcomannic Wars (Latin: bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum, "German and Sarmatian War") were a series of wars lasting over a dozen years from about AD 166 until 180.
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Tacitus (Marcus Claudius Tacitus Augustus;Jones, pg. 873 c. 200 – June 276), was Roman Emperor from 275 to 276.
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A menhir (French, from Middle Breton: maen, "stone" and hir, "long"), standing stone, orthostat, lith or masseba/matseva is a large upright standing stone.
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The Metropolitanate of Gothia (also of Gothia and Caffa; also known as the Eparchy of Gothia, in Russian Готская епархия, or as Metropolitanate of Doros, Доросская митрополия), was a diocese of the Patriarchate of Constantinople in the Middle Ages.
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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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The Migration Period, better known as the Barbarian Invasions also referred to as the Völkerwanderung (in German), was a period of intensified barbarian invasion in Europe, often defined from the period when it seriously impacted the Roman world, as running from about 376 to 800 AD during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.
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Milan (or; Milano; Milanese: Milan), the second-most populous city in Italy, serves as the capital of Lombardy.
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The Moesogoths were a branch of the Goths who settled in Moesia, a region north of Thrace within the Roman Empire.
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The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
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The Moors were Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
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The Nestos or Mesta, formerly the Mesta Karasu (Ottoman Turkish), is a river in Bulgaria and Greece.
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Nicaea or Nicea (İznik Νίκαια) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.
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Nicolaus Ragvaldi (Latinized form of Swedish Nils Ragvaldsson) (born in the early 1380s and died on 17 February 1448) was bishop of Växjö and from 1438-1448 archbishop of Uppsala, Sweden.
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Nicomedia (Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient city in what is now Turkey, founded in 712/11 BC as a Megarian colony and was originally known as Astacus (Ancient Greek: Ἀστακός, "lobster").
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The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC.
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Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe.
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Flavius Odoacer (433–493), also known as Flavius Odovacer (Odoacre, OdoacerusLouis Maimbourg, The History of Arianism, Volume 2, 1729 Odoaker), was a soldier, who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).
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Oium or Aujum was a name for an area in Scythia, where arguably the Goths under their king Filimer settled after leaving Gothiscandza, according to the Getica by Jordanes, written around 551.
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The Oksywie culture (ger. Oxhöft-Kultur) was an archaeological culture that existed in the area of modern-day Eastern Pomerania around the lower Vistula river from the 2nd century BC to the early 1st century AD.
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Pontic Olbia (Ὀλβία Ποντική, Ольвія) or simply Olbia was an ancient Greek city on the shore of the Southern Bug estuary (Hypanis or Ὕπανις) in Ukraine, opposite Berezan Island.
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Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries.
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Olympia (Greek: Ὀλυμπία;; Olympía), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times.
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Olympiodorus (Ὀλυμπιόδωρος; born c. 380, fl. c. 412–425) was an historical writer of classical education, a "poet by profession" as he says of himself, who was born at Thebes in Egypt, and was sent on a mission to the Huns on the Black Sea by Emperor Honorius about 412, and later lived at the court of Theodosius II, to whom his History was dedicated.
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The Optimatoi (Ὀπτιμάτοι, from Optimates, "the Best Men") were initially formed as an elite Byzantine military unit.
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Paulus Orosius (born c. 375, died after 418 AD) — less often Paul Orosius in English — was a Gallaecian Christian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo.
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The Ostrogothic Kingdom was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.
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The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi) were a branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
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In antiquity, Paeonia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Ancient Greek Παίονες).
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XII Panegyrici Latini or Twelve Latin Panegyrics is the conventional title of a collection of twelve ancient Roman panegyric orations.
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Paulinus the Deacon, also Paulinus of Milan was the notary of Ambrose of Milan, and his biographer.
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Pelagius (c. 685 – 737) was a Visigothic nobleman who founded the Kingdom of Asturias, ruling it from 718 until his death.
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Pelagonia (Greek: Πελαγονíα, Macedonian: Пелагонија, Pelagonija) is a geographical region of Macedonia.
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Peuce in ancient geography was an island located in the Danube Delta, in Scythia Minor (present-day Tulcea County, Romania).
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Philostorgius (Φιλοστόργιος; 368 – c. 439 AD) was an Anomoean Church historian of the 4th and 5th centuries.
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Pitsunda or Bichvinta (ბიჭვინთა; Пиҵунда; Пицунда) is a resort town in Gagra district of Abkhazia.
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Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23 – August 25, AD 79), better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian.
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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.
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Polychrome is the "'practice of decorating architectural elements, sculpture, etc., in a variety of colors." The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, pottery or sculpture in multiple colors.
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Pomerania (Pomorze, Pommern, Pomerania) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea.
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The Pontic–Caspian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and western Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.
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Pontus (Πόντος, "sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.
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The Pope (papa; from πάππας pappas, a child's word for father) is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe.
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The Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe (5th/4th–1st century BC) was the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia, northern Germany, and the Netherlands north of the Rhine River.
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The Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
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Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς, Procopius Caesarensis; c. AD 500 – c. AD 560) was a prominent late antique scholar from Palaestina Prima.
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Proto-Germanic (PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
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Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European refers to the reconstructed ancestor language common to all Indo-European languages.
Prussia (Prusy) was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centered on the region of Prussia.
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The Przeworsk culture is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD.
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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos,; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Egyptian writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
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Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης; Latin: Massilia; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
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Raetia (or,, also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
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The Rök Runestone (Rökstenen; Ög 136) is one of the most famous runestones, featuring the longest known runic inscription in stone.
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The Reconquista ("reconquest") is a historical period of approximately 770 years in the history of the Iberian Peninsula, beginning after the Islamic conquest 711-718, to the fall of Granada, the last Islamic state on the peninsula, in 1492.
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Reidgotaland, Reidgothland, Reidgotland, Hreidgotaland or Hreiðgotaland was a land in Scandinavian sagas as well as in the pre-Viking English Widsith, which usually referred to the land of the Goths.
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Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
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Ruderic (also spelled Roderic, Roderik, Roderich, or Roderick; Spanish and Rodrigo, Ludharīq, لذريق; died 711 or 712) was the Visigothic King of Hispania for a brief period between 710 and 712.
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The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus, literally: Roman Army; Ancient Greek: στρατός/φοσσᾶτον Ῥωμαίων, transcription: stratos/fossaton Romaion) is a term encompassing the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC), the Roman Republic (500–31 BC), the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395/476 AD) and its successor the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.
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A consul was the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, and the consulship was considered the highest level of the cursus honorum (the sequential order of public offices through which aspiring politicians sought to ascend).
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Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana and Dacia Felix) was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in the Roman Empire, in modern-day France, southern Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, western Switzerland and western Germany.
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The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome.
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The Roman navy (Classis, lit. "fleet") comprised the naval forces of the Ancient Roman state.
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The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sassanid.
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The Rugii, also Rugians, Rygir, Ulmerugi, or Holmrygir (Rugiere, Rugier) were an East Germanic tribe who also appeared in southwest Norway and who in 100 AD lived near the Vistula River south of the Baltic Sea in an area 900 years later known as Pomerania.
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Sabbas (also Sava, Savo, Saba, or Savva; died 12 April, 372 A. D.) the Goth is a fourth-century Christian martyr and saint.
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The Sack of Rome occurred on August 24, 410.
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Salvian, (or Salvianus) was a Christian writer of the fifth century in Gaul (modern France).
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The Sarmatians (Latin: Sarmatæ or Sauromatæ, Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large confederation of Iranian people during classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
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Scandinavia is a historical and cultural-linguistic region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethno-cultural North Germanic heritage and related languages.
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Scandza was described as a "great island" by the Roman historian Jordanes in his work Getica, written while in Constantinople around 551 AD.
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Scania, also known by its local name Skåne (in Swedish and in Scanian), is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden which consists of a peninsula on the southern tip of the Scandinavian Peninsula and some islands close to it.
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The Scirii (also Sciri, Scirians, Skirii, Skiri or Skirians) were an East Germanic tribe of Eastern Europe, attested in historical works between the 2nd century BC and 5th century AD.
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Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River and Central Asia, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
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The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi, Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis (Προποντίς), is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
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Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat.
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The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World refers to remarkable constructions of classical antiquityAnon.
Silistra (Силистра, pronounced) is a port city in the far northeast of Bulgaria, lying on the southern bank of the lower Danube at the country's border with Romania.
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Skyros (Greek: Σκύρος) is an island in Greece, the southernmost of the Sporades, an archipelago in the Aegean Sea.
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Salminius Hermias Sozomenus (Σωζομενός; c. 400 – c. 450) was a historian of the Christian Church.
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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
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The Spali (Spalaei, Palaei) was a tribe mentioned by Pliny (23–79) and Jordanes (551), located in the region south of Kiev.
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Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
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Spanish nobles are persons who possess the legal status of hereditary nobility according to the laws and traditions of the Spanish monarchy.
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Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) or Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων, Lakedaímōn) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese.
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The stadion (στάδιον; stadium), formerly also anglicized as stade, was an ancient Greek unit of length, based on the length of a typical sports stadium of the time.
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The stone circles of the Iron Age (ca. 500 BC – ca. 400 AD) were a characteristic burial custom of southern Scandinavia, especially on Gotland and in Götaland during the Pre-Roman Iron Age and the Roman Iron Age.
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Svealand, Swealand or (rarely or historically) Sweden proper is the historical core region of Sweden.
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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
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Synesius (Συνέσιος; c. 373 – c. 414), a Greek bishop of Ptolemais in the Libyan Pentapolis after 410, was born of wealthy parents, who claimed descent from Spartan kings, at Balagrae (Bayda now) near Cyrene between 370 and 375.
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Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. AD 56 – after 117) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
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A tax (from the Latin taxo; "rate") is a financial charge or other levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity) by a state or the functional equivalent of a state to fund various public expenditures.
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Teia (died 552 or 553), also known as Teja, Theia, Thila, Thela, Teias, was the last Ostrogothic king in Italy.
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The Temple of Artemis or Artemision (Ἀρτεμίσιον, Artemis Tapınağı), also known less precisely as the Temple of Diana, was a Greek temple dedicated to the goddess Artemis and is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
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Terry Jones' Barbarians is a 4-part TV documentary series first broadcast on BBC 2 in 2006.
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The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: De Republica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BCE, concerning the definition of justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state and the just man—for this reason, ancient readers used the name On Justice as an alternative title (not to be confused with the spurious dialogue also titled On Justice).
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Themistius (Θεμίστιος, Themistios; 317, Paphlagonia – c. 390 AD, Constantinople), named εὐφραδής (eloquent), was a statesman, rhetorician, and philosopher.
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Theodemir was king of the Ostrogoths of the Amal Dynasty, and father of Theoderic the Great.
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Theoderic the Great (thē-ŏd'ə-rik, 𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃; Flāvius Theodericus; Θευδέριχος, Theuderikhos; Þēodrīc; Theoderich; 454 – August 30, 526), often referred to as Theodoric, was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Roman Empire.
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Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. AD 393 – c. 458/466) was an influential theologian of the School of Antioch, Biblical commentator, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457).
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Theodoric I (Þiudareiks; Theodorid or Theodorich; Theodericus; died in 451 AD), called in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian Teodorico, was the Germanic King of the Visigoths from 418 to 451 AD.
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Saint Theophanes the Confessor (Θεοφάνης Ὁμολογητής; c. 758/760 – March 12, 817/818) was a member of the Byzantine aristocracy, who became a monk and chronicler.
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The Thervingi, Tervingi, or Teruingi (sometimes pluralised "Tervings" or "Thervings") were a Gothic people of the Danubian plains west of the Dnestr River in the 3rd and 4th Centuries CE.
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Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), also known as Thessalonica, Salonika or Salonica, is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
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Thrace (demonym Thracian; Θρᾴκη, Thrāikē; modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakija; Trakya; in Antiquity also referred to as Europe prior to extending the meaning for the whole continent) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe, centered on the modern borders of Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey.
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The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a cloth of perhaps in length which was wrapped around the body and was generally worn over a tunic.
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Totila, original name Baduila (died July 1, 552) was the penultimate King of the Ostrogoths, reigning from 541 to 552 AD.
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Trabzon (see other names) is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.
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Troy (Ἴλιον, Ilion, or Ἴλιος, Ilios; and Τροία, Troia; Trōia and Īlium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusa or Truwisa; Truva) was a city situated in what is known from Classical sources as Asia Minor, now northwest Anatolia in modern Turkey, located south of the southwest end of the Dardanelles/Hellespont and northwest of Mount Ida at Hisarlık.
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Tyras (Τύρας) was an ancient Greek city on the northern coast of the Black Sea.
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Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
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Ulfilas (–383), also known as Ulphilas and Orphila, all Latinized forms of Wulfila (𐍅𐌿𐌻𐍆𐌹𐌻𐌰, "Little Wolf"), was a Goth of Cappadocian Greek descent who served as a bishop and missionary, translated the Bible, and participated in the Arian controversy.
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The Umayyad Caliphate (الخلافة الأموية, trans. Al-Khilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
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The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The Ural Mountains (p; Урал тауҙары), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
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Valamir (c. 420 – c. 465) was an Ostrogothic king in the ancient country of Pannonia from AD 447 until his death.
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Valens (328 – 9 August 378), fully Flavius Julius Valens Augustus (flavivs ivlivs valens avgvstvs), was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
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Vandalic was a Germanic language probably closely related to Gothic.
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The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe, or group of tribes, who were first heard of in southern Poland, but later moved around Europe establishing kingdoms in Spain and later North Africa in the 5th century.
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Vänern is the largest lake in Sweden, the largest lake in the European Union and the third-largest lake entirely in Europe after Ladoga and Onega in Russia.
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Västergötland (English exonym: West Gothland), is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), situated in the southwest of Sweden.
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Vikings (Norwegian and Vikinger; Swedish and Vikingar; Víkingar), from Old Norse víkingr, were Germanic Norse seafarers, speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Scandinavian homelands across wide areas of northern and central Europe, as well as European Russia, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
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The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
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The Visigoths (UK:; US:, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi) were branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
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The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel, ווייסל) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length.
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The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe; it is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and watershed.
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Walafrid, alternatively spelt Walahfrid, surnamed Strabo (or Strabus, i.e. "squint-eyed") (c. 808 – 18 August 849), was an Alemannic monk and theological writer.
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The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages and include German, English, Scots, Dutch, Afrikaans, the Frisian languages, Low German languages and Yiddish.
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The Wielbark culture (Wielbark-Willenberg-Kultur, Kultura wielbarska, Вельбарська культура/Vel’bars’ka kul’tura) or East Pomeranian-Mazovian is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 1st century AD to the 4th century AD.
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dark green: Nordic Bronze Age dark red: Jastorf culture yellow: Harpstedt-Nienburg group orange: Celtic groups olive: Pomeranian culture green: House urns culture reddish: East Baltic culture lilac: West Baltic cairns culture turquoise; Milogrady culture black: estonic group --> The Zarubintsy or Zarubinets culture was a culture that from the 3rd century BC until 1st century AD flourished in the area north of the Black Sea along the upper and middle Dnieper and Pripyat Rivers, stretching west towards the Southern Bug river.
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Zeno the Isaurian (Flavius Zeno Augustus; Ζήνων; c. 425 – 9 April 491), originally named Tarasis Kodisa RousombladadiotesThe sources call him "Tarasicodissa Rousombladadiotes", and for this reason it was thought his name was Tarasicodissa. However, it has been demonstrated that this name actually means "Tarasis, son of Kodisa, Rusumblada", and that "Tarasis" was a common name in Isauria (R.M. Harrison, "The Emperor Zeno's Real Name", Byzantinische Zeitschrift 74 (1981) 27–28)., was Byzantine Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire under Julius Nepos, but he contributed much to stabilizing the eastern Empire. In ecclesiastical history, Zeno is associated with the Henotikon or "instrument of union", promulgated by him and signed by all the Eastern bishops, with the design of solving the monophysite controversy.
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Zosimus (Ζώσιμος; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Historicus, i.e. "Zosimus the Historian"; fl. 490s–510s) was a Byzantine historian who lived in Constantinople during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I (491–518).
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