171 relations: ABCG2, Abdominal obesity, Aboriginal Australians, ACE inhibitor, Achilles tendon, Acidosis, Acute uric acid nephropathy, Adverse event, Alfred Baring Garrod, Allopurinol, Anakinra, Anchovy, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Antigen, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Aphorism, Arthralgia, Arthritis, Arthrocentesis, Aspirin, Atorvastatin, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Basal-cell carcinoma, Beta blocker, Birefringence, Blood, Blood plasma, Body mass index, Calcium channel blocker, Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease, Canakinumab, Cardiovascular disease, Caspase 1, Chemotherapy, Chondroitin sulfate, Ciclosporin, Coffee, Colchicine, Collagen, Comorbidity, Complete blood count, COX-2 inhibitor, Crystal, Crystallization, Current Opinion (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), Dairy product, Demon, Diabetes mellitus, ..., Differential diagnosis, Diuretic, Dragon, Dyslipidemia, Electrolyte, Erythema, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Erythromycin, Eunuch, Extracellular matrix, Fatigue, Febuxostat, Fever, Food and Drug Administration, Fructose, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Genetic variability, Glucocorticoid, Gram stain, Heart failure, Helix (ear), Hemolytic anemia, Heredity, High-fructose corn syrup, Hippocrates, Hominidae, Humorism, Hydrochlorothiazide, Hypertension, Hyperuricemia, Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, Ibuprofen, Immunity (medical), Immunosuppressive drug, Indometacin, Inflammasome, Inflammation, Inflammatory arthritis, Injury, Insulin resistance, Interleukin 1 beta, Interleukin-1 family, James Gillray, Joint effusion, Joint injection, Kidney, Kidney failure, Kidney stone disease, Latin, Lead poisoning, Lesch–Nyhan syndrome, Life expectancy, Liquor, Losartan, Macrophage, Māori people, Medullary cystic kidney disease, Menopause, Metabolic syndrome, Metatarsophalangeal joints, Mutation, Myeloproliferative neoplasm, NALP3, Neoplasm, Niacin, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Obesity, Offal, Olecranon, Organ transplantation, Overweight, Oxford English Dictionary, Pegloticase, Physical fitness, Polarization (waves), Polycythemia, Precipitation (chemistry), Primate, Probenecid, Protein toxicity, Proteoglycan, Proton-pump inhibitor, PRPSAP1, Psoriasis, Psoriatic arthritis, Purine, Purine metabolism, Pyrazinamide, Rasburicase, Reactive arthritis, Recombinant DNA, Renal function, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rilonacept, Ritonavir, Septic arthritis, Sexual intercourse, SLC22A12, SLC2A9, Sleep apnea, Steroid, Sue (dinosaur), Synovial fluid, Synovial joint, Tacrolimus, Tamm–Horsfall protein, Tendon, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, The BMJ, The New England Journal of Medicine, Thomas Sydenham, Tissue (biology), Toe, Tophus, Tyrannosaurus, Urate oxidase, Uric acid, Vitamin C, Western world, X-ray, Yeast. Expand index (121 more) » « Shrink index
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCG2 gene.
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
The Achilles tendon or heel cord, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a tendon of the back of the leg, and the thickest in the human body.
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
Acute uric acid nephropathy (AUAN, also acute urate nephropathy) is a rapidly worsening (decreasing) kidney function (renal insufficiency) that is caused by high levels of uric acid in the urine (hyperuricosuria).
An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with this treatment.
Sir Alfred Baring Garrod FRS (3 May 1819 – 28 December 1907) was an English physician.
Allopurinol, sold under the brand name Zyloprim among others, is a medication used to decrease high blood uric acid levels.
Anakinra (brand name Kineret) is a biopharmaceutical drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.
Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
Arthrocentesis (arthros, a joint + kentēsis, puncture) is the clinical procedure of using a syringe to collect synovial fluid from a joint capsule.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Atorvastatin, marketed under the trade name Lipitor among others, is a member of the medication class known as statins, which are used primarily as a lipid-lowering agent and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease.
Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.
Basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), also known as basal-cell cancer, is the most common type of skin cancer.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease, also known as pseudogout and pyrophosphate arthropathy is a rheumatologic disorder with varied symptoms and signs arising from the resultant accumulation of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in the connective tissues.
Canakinumab (INN, trade name Ilaris, previously ACZ885) is a human monoclonal antibody targeted at interleukin-1 beta.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Caspase-1/Interleukin-1 converting enzyme (ICE) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursors of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and interleukin 18 as well as the pyroptosis inducer Gasdermin D, into active mature peptides.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid).
Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Colchicine is a medication most commonly used to treat gout.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Selective COX-2 inhibitors are a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Current Opinion is a series of medical journals published by Wolters Kluwer imprint Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.
Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Febuxostat, sold under the brand names Uloric among others, is a medication used in the treatment of chronic gout and hyperuricemia.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum.
Genetic variability is either the presence of, or the generation of, genetic differences.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative).
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
The helix is the prominent rim of the auricle.
Hemolytic anemia or haemolytic anaemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ or HCT) is a diuretic medication often used to treat high blood pressure and swelling due to fluid build up.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood.
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) is an enzyme encoded in humans by the HPRT1 gene.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
Indometacin (INN; or USAN indomethacin) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used as a prescription medication to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling from inflammation.
The inflammasome is a multiprotein oligomer responsible for the activation of inflammatory responses.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inflammatory arthritis is a group of diseases which includes: rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthropathy, inflammatory bowel disease, adult-onset Still's disease, scleroderma, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) also known as leukocytic pyrogen, leukocytic endogenous mediator, mononuclear cell factor, lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene.
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.
James Gillray (13 August 1756 or 1757 – 1 June 1815) was a British caricaturist and printmaker famous for his etched political and social satires, mainly published between 1792 and 1810.
A joint effusion is the presence of increased intra-articular fluid.
In medicine, a joint injection (intra-articular injection) is a procedure used in the treatment of inflammatory joint conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, tendinitis, bursitis, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, and occasionally osteoarthritis.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Lesch–Nyhan syndrome (LNS), also known as juvenile gout, is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), produced by mutations in the HPRT gene located on the X chromosome.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
Losartan, sold under the trade name Cozaar among others, is a medication mainly used to treat high blood pressure.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is an autosomal dominant kidney disorder characterized by tubulointerstitial sclerosis leading to end-stage renal disease.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
The metatarsophalangeal joints (MTP joints) are the joints between the metatarsal bones of the foot and the proximal bones (proximal phalanges) of the toes.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), previously myeloproliferative diseases (MPDs), are a group of diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced.
NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3), also known as cryopyrin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NLRP3 gene located on the long arm of chromosome 1.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Offal, also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal.
The olecranon from the Greek olene meaning elbow and kranon meaning head is the large, thick, curved bony eminence of the ulna, a long bone in the forearm that projects behind the elbow.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pegloticase (trade name Krystexxa) is a medication for the treatment of severe, treatment-refractory, chronic gout.
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
Polycythemia (also known as polycythaemia or polyglobulia) is a disease state in which the hematocrit (the volume percentage of red blood cells in the blood) is elevated.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Probenecid, also sold under the brandname Probalan, is a medication that increases uric acid excretion in the urine.
Protein toxicity is the effect of the buildup of protein metabolic waste compounds due to insufficient kidney function.
Proteoglycans are proteins that are heavily glycosylated.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-associated protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRPSAP1 gene.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
Psoriatic arthritis is a long-term inflammatory arthritis that occurs in people affected by the autoimmune disease psoriasis.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Purine metabolism refers to the metabolic pathways to synthesize and break down purines that are present in many organisms.
Pyrazinamide is a medication used to treat tuberculosis.
Rasburicase (trade names Elitek in the US and Fasturtec in Europe) is a medication that helps to clear uric acid from the blood.
Reactive arthritis, formerly known as Reiter's syndrome, is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in response to an infection in another part of the body (cross-reactivity).
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Rilonacept, also known as IL-1 Trap (marketed by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals under the trade name Arcalyst), is an interleukin 1 inhibitor.
Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.
Septic arthritis, also known as joint infection or infectious arthritis, is the invasion of a joint by an infectious agent resulting in joint inflammation.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Solute carrier family 22 (organic anion/cation transporter), member 12, also known as SLC22A12 and URAT1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SLC22A12 gene.
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A9 gene.
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Sue is the nickname given to FMNH PR 2081, which is the largest, most extensive and best preserved Tyrannosaurus rex specimen ever found at over 90% recovered by bulk.
Synovial fluid, also called synovia,help 1 is a viscous, non-Newtonian fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints.
A synovial joint, also known as diarthrosis, joins bones with a fibrous joint capsule that is continuous with the periosteum of the joined bones, constitutes the outer boundary of a synovial cavity, and surrounds the bones' articulating surfaces.
The Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein (THP), also known as uromodulin, is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the UMOD gene.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is a monthly peer-reviewed biomedical journal in the field of clinical nutrition.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
Thomas Sydenham (10 September 1624 – 29 December 1689) was an English physician.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod.
A tophus (Latin: "stone", plural tophi) is a deposit of uric acid crystals, in the form of monosodium urate crystals, in people with longstanding hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood).
Tyrannosaurus is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur.
The enzyme urate oxidase (UO), or uricase or factor-independent urate hydroxylase, absent in humans, catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Acute gouty arthritis, Antigout, Arthritic gout, Chronic tophaceuous gout, Chrystal synovitis, Crystal synovitis, Disease of kings, Gouty arthritis, Harrison Syndrome, Harrison syndrome, Metabolic arthritis, Podagra, Poor man's gout, Refractory chronic gout, Rich Man's Disease, The Gout, Urate crystal arthropathy, Urate deposition disease, Uric acid crystal deposition in joint.