478 relations: A Coruña, A1one, Aarhus, Adolf Hitler, Advertising, Aerosol paint, Alexamenos graffito, Alexander Brener, Allston, AlterEgo, Amsterdam, Anarchism, Anarcho-punk, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Maya graffiti, Ancient Rome, Anti-establishment, Anti-graffiti coating, Anti-social Behaviour Act 2003, Anti-war movement, Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction, Arabs, Archaeology, Art exhibition, Art history, Art world, Attica, Auckland, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, Avant-garde, Čakovec, Baluster, Banksy, Barcelona, Basra, Batumi, Beat Street, Beer, Belfast, Belgrade, Berlin, Berlin Anhalter Bahnhof, Berlin Wall, Bethlehem, Bill Daniel (filmmaker), Billboard Utilising Graffitists Against Unhealthy Promotions, Bison, Black Flag (band), Black Panther Party, ..., Blek le Rat, Blondie (band), Bolinas, California, Bomb It, Bomb the System, Boroughs of New York City, Bowser Jr., Boxcar, Boxfresh, Brazil, Breakdancing, Brick Lane, Bristol, Broken windows theory, Brooklyn Museum, Bruniquel, Brunswick, Victoria, Bucharest, Bucky Done Gun, Budapest, Buenos Aires, Burhan Doğançay, Buttermilk, Cairo, Calligraffiti, Calligraphy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Campaigns of 1798 in the French Revolutionary Wars, Camperdown, New South Wales, Can't Stop Won't Stop (book), Caning, Caricature, Catacombs of Rome, Cave of Mayrières supérieure, Centre Georges Pompidou, Ces53, Chalk, Charcoal, Charlie Parker, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chrysalis Records, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Coal, Coca-Cola, Collingwood, Victoria, Concrete Immortalz, Conspiracy (criminal), Constantinople, Consumerism, Contemporary art in Egypt, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Corrugated fiberboard, Counter-Strike (video game), Counterculture, Crass, Crescens, Croatia, Cultural movement, Culture jamming, Debbie Harry, Depiction of Jesus, Diarrhea, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Domus Aurea, DONDI, East Germany, East Timor, East Village, Manhattan, Eastern Bloc, Edward von Lõngus, Emancipation, Ephesus, Epigraphy, Eric Clapton, Estonia, Estonian Reform Party, Exit Through the Gift Shop, Fab Five Freddy, Far-left politics, Far-right politics, Fascism, Fashion Moda, Female graffiti artists, Feminism, File folder, Filippino Lippi, Fine (penalty), Fitzroy, Victoria, Francisco Rodrigues da Silva, Freedom of speech, Frodo Lives!, G20, Galang (song), Galician language, Gavrilo Princip, Georgian scripts, Gladiator, Glossary of graffiti, Grafedia, Graffiti abatement, Graffiti Blasters, Graffiti in Hong Kong, Graffiti Kingdom, Graffiti Research Lab, Graffito (archaeology), Grand Palais, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, Graphic design, Grotesque, Guatemala, Hagia Sophia, Haikou, Hainan, Half-Life (series), Half-Life (video game), Hamburg, Hamshahri, Handstyle, Hashtag, Heart (symbol), Heathcote Williams, Helen Clark, Henry Chalfant, Herald, Heteroglossia, Hip hop, Hip hop music, Hobo, Hualien City, Huey P. 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A Coruña (is a city and municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated city in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country. The city is the provincial capital of the province of the same name, having also served as political capital of the Kingdom of Galicia from the 16th to the 19th centuries, and as a regional administrative centre between 1833 and 1982, before being replaced by Santiago de Compostela. A Coruña is a busy port located on a promontory in the Golfo Ártabro, a large gulf on the Atlantic Ocean. It provides a distribution point for agricultural goods from the region.
A1one (تنها) is the pseudonym of Karan Reshad, an Iranian visual artist who pioneered graffiti and street art in Iran.
Aarhus (officially spelled Århus from 1948 until 31 December 2010) is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in an aerosol spray when depressing a valve button.
The Alexamenos graffito (also known as the graffito blasfemo, or blasphemous graffito) is a piece of Roman graffiti scratched in plaster on the wall of a room near the Palatine Hill in Rome, which has now been removed and is in the Palatine Hill Museum.
Alexander Davidovich Brener (Russian: Александр Бренер) (born 1957, in Alma-Ata), is a Russian-Jewish performance artist, a self-described political activist.
Allston is an officially recognized neighborhood of the City of Boston, Massachusetts.
AlterEgo is a wearable silent speech output-input device developed by MIT Media Lab.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anarcho-punk (or anarchist punk) is punk rock that promotes anarchism.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Maya graffiti are a poorly studied area of folk art of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition to the conventional social, political, and economic principles of a society.
An anti-graffiti coating is a coating that prevents graffiti paint from bonding to surfaces.
The Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2003 (c.38) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which almost entirely applies only to England and Wales.
An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.
Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction is a subgenre of science fiction, science fantasy or horror in which the Earth's technological civilization is collapsing or has collapsed.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
An art exhibition is traditionally the space in which art objects (in the most general sense) meet an audience.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
The art world comprises everyone involved in producing, commissioning, presenting, preserving, promoting, chronicling, criticizing, and selling fine art.
Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.
Auckland is a city in New Zealand's North Island.
The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal that covers criminological research.
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
Čakovec (Csáktornya; Aquama; Tschakathurn) is a city in northern Croatia, located around north of Zagreb, the Croatian capital.
A baluster—also called spindle or stair stick—is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal, standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase.
Banksy is an anonymous England-based graffiti artist, political activist and film director.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.
Beat Street is a 1984 American drama dance film featuring New York City hip hop culture of the early 1980s, breakdancing, DJ-ing and graffiti.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Anhalter Bahnhof is a former railway terminus in Berlin, Germany, approximately 600 metres (0.5 mi) southeast of Potsdamer Platz.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
Bill Daniel (born 1959) is an American experimental documentary film artist, photographer, film editor, and cinematographer.
Billboard Utilising Graffitists Against Unhealthy Promotions, or B.U.G.A.U.P. ("bugger up") is an Australian subvertising artistic movement.
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.
Black Flag was an American punk rock band formed in 1976 in Hermosa Beach, California.
The Black Panther Party or the BPP (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a political organization founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton in October 1966.
Blek le Rat (born Xavier Prou, 1952) is a French graffiti artist.
Blondie is an American rock band founded by singer Debbie Harry and guitarist Chris Stein.
Bolinas is an unincorporated coastal community in Marin County, California.
Bomb It is an international graffiti and street art documentary directed by Jon Reiss and premiered at the 2007 Tribeca Film Festival.
Bomb the System is a drama film written and directed by Adam Bhala Lough, which was released to film festivals in 2002 (see 2002 in film) and American theaters in 2005.
New York City encompasses five county-level administrative divisions called boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx, and Staten Island.
in Japan) or sometimes simply Junior, is a video game character who appears in Nintendo's Mario franchise as an antagonist.
A boxcar is a North American railroad car that is enclosed and generally used to carry freight.
Boxfresh is a British fashion label founded in 1989 by Roger Wade.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Breakdancing, also called breaking or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance.
Brick Lane (Bengali: ব্রিক লেন) is a street in east London, England, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
The broken windows theory is a criminological theory that visible signs of crime, anti-social behavior and civil disorder create an urban environment that encourages further crime and disorder, including serious crimes.
The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
Bruniquel (Bruniquèth in Occitan) is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France.
Brunswick is an inner-city suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, north of Melbourne's central business district.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
"Bucky Done Gun" is the third single from musician M.I.A.'s album Arular.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Burhan C. Doğançay (11 September 1929 – 16 January 2013) was a Turkish-American artist.
Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calligraffiti is an art form that combines calligraphy, typography, and graffiti.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
1798 was a relatively quiet period in the French Revolutionary Wars.
Camperdown is an inner western suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
Can't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation is a book by Jeff Chang chronicling the early hip hop scene.
Caning is a form of corporal punishment consisting of a number of hits (known as "strokes" or "cuts") with a single cane usually made of rattan, generally applied to the offender's bare or clothed buttocks (see spanking) or hand(s) (on the palm).
A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings.
The Catacombs of Rome (Catacombe di Roma) are ancient catacombs, underground burial places under Rome, Italy, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades.
The Cave of Mayrières supérieure (Grotte de Mayrières supérieure, Upper Mayriere Cave) is an archaeological site near Bruniquel, Tarn-et-Garonne, France, which contained two prehistoric cave paintings of bison until they were erased during an attempt to remove modern graffiti by members of the Eclaireurs de France, a French scouting association.
Centre Georges Pompidou, commonly shortened to Centre Pompidou and also known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, and the Marais.
Ces53 is the graffiti name of Hans Van Vliet, street art/graffiti artist from the Netherlands.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Charles Parker Jr. (August 29, 1920 – March 12, 1955), also known as Yardbird and Bird, was an American jazz saxophonist and composer.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Chrysalis Records is a British record label that was created in 1968.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
Collingwood is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 3 km north-east of Melbourne's central business district.
Concrete Immortalz is an ongoing comic series created by graffiti artist Phetus.
In criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime at some time in the future.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
Contemporary art in Egypt is a term used to visual art including installations, videos, paintings, sculptures developed in the Egyptian art scene.
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions.
Corrugated fiberboard is a material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards.
Counter-Strike (also known as Half-Life: Counter-Strike) is a first-person shooter video game developed by Valve Corporation.
A counterculture (also written counter-culture) is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores.
Crass were an English art collective and punk rock band formed in 1977 who promoted anarchism as a political ideology, a way of life and a resistance movement.
Crescens was an individual who appears in the New Testament.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work.
Culture jamming (sometimes guerrilla communication) is a tactic used by many anti-consumerist social movements"Investigating the Anti-consumerism Movement in North America: The Case of Adbusters';" Binay, Ayse; (2005); dissertation, University of Texas to disrupt or subvert media culture and its mainstream cultural institutions, including corporate advertising.
Deborah Ann Harry (born Angela Tremble; July 1, 1945) is an American singer, songwriter, and actress, known as the lead singer of the new wave band Blondie.
No useful description of the physical appearance of Jesus is given in the New Testament and the depiction of Jesus in pictorial form was controversial in the early Church.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Domenico Ghirlandaio (2 June 1448 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence.
The Domus Aurea (Latin, "Golden House") was a vast landscaped palace built by the Emperor Nero in the heart of ancient Rome after the great fire in 64 AD had destroyed a large part of the city and the aristocratic villas on the Palatine Hill.
Donald Joseph White, "DONDI" (April 7, 1961 – October 2, 1998) was an American graffiti artist.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
East Village is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Edward von Lõngus is an Estonian stencil artist based in Tartu.
Emancipation is any effort to procure economic and social rights, political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, in discussion of such matters.
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Eric Patrick Clapton, (born 1945), is an English rock and blues guitarist, singer, and songwriter.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonian Reform Party (Eesti Reformierakond) is a liberal political party in Estonia.
Exit Through the Gift Shop: A Banksy Film is a 2010 British documentary film, directed by street artist Banksy.
Fred Brathwaite (born August 31, 1959) more popularly known as Fab 5 Freddy, is an American visual artist, filmmaker, rapper and hip hop pioneer.
Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fashion Moda was an art space in the Mott Haven section of the South Bronx, New York.
Female graffiti artists are an active part in hip hop graffiti writing.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
A file folder (US usage) (or folder in British and Australian usage) is a kind of folder that holds loose papers and money together for organization and protection.
Filippino Lippi (April 1457 – April 1504) was an Italian painter working during the High Renaissance in Florence, Italy.
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.
Fitzroy is an inner-city suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3 km north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District in the local government area of the City of Yarra.
Francisco Rodrigues da Silva also known as "Nunca" is a Brazilian artist who uses a graffiti technique to create images that confront modern urban Brazil with its native past.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
"Frodo Lives!" was a popular counterculture slogan in the 1960s and 1970s, referring to the character Frodo Baggins from J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
"Galang" is a song by British musician M.I.A. from her debut album Arular.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Gavrilo Princip (Гаврило Принцип,; 28 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb member of Young Bosnia, a Yugoslavist organization seeking an end to Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.
A number of words and phrases have come to describe different styles and aspects of graffiti.
Grafedia is a type of graffiti, where hyperlinked text is written by hand onto physical surfaces and linking to rich media content including images, video, and sound files.
Graffiti abatement is a joint effort between a given community; its public works division; police department; community development; and parks, recreation, and community services to eliminate graffiti vandalism.
Graffiti Blasters is a program to eliminate graffiti, street art and gang-related vandalism in Chicago, Illinois.
In Hong Kong there are a few types of graffiti that are utilized for different reasons.
Graffiti Kingdom is an action role-playing video game developed by Taito Corporation and Garakuta Studio for the PlayStation 2 console in 2004, and is the sequel to Magic Pengel: The Quest for Color.
Graffiti Research Lab, founded by Evan Roth and James Powderly during their fellowships at the Eyebeam OpenLab, is an art group dedicated to outfitting graffiti writers, artists and protesters with open source technologies for urban communication.
A graffito (plural "graffiti"), in an archaeological context, is a deliberate mark made by scratching or engraving on a large surface such as a wall.
The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English: Great Palace), is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France.
Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is an action-adventure video game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games.
Graphic design is the process of visual communication and problem-solving through the use of typography, photography and illustration.
Since at least the 18th century (in French and German as well as English), grotesque (or grottoesque) has come to be used as a general adjective for the strange, mysterious, magnificent, fantastic, hideous, ugly, incongruous, unpleasant, or disgusting, and thus is often used to describe weird shapes and distorted forms such as Halloween masks.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.
Hǎikǒu, is the capital and most populous city of Hainan province, China.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
Half-Life (stylized HλLF-LIFE) is a series of first-person shooter games developed and published by Valve.
Half-Life (stylized as HλLF-LIFE) is a science fiction first-person shooter video game developed by Valve and published by Sierra Studios for Microsoft Windows in 1998.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hamshahri (همشهری, "Fellow citizen") is a major national Iranian Persian-language newspaper.
Handstyle or hand style is a term in graffiti culture denoting the unique handwriting or signature of an artist, also known as a writer.
A hashtag is a type of metadata tag used on social networks such as Twitter and other microblogging services, allowing users to apply dynamic, user-generated tagging which makes it possible for others to easily find messages with a specific theme or content; it allows easy, informal markup of folk taxonomy without need of any formal taxonomy or markup language.
The heart shape is an ideograph used to express the idea of the "heart" in its metaphorical or symbolic sense as the center of emotion, including affection and love, especially romantic love.
John Henley Heathcote-Williams (15 November 1941 – 1 July 2017), known as Heathcote Williams, was an English poet, actor, political activist and dramatist.
Helen Elizabeth Clark (born 26 February 1950) is a New Zealand politician who served as the 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1999 to 2008, and was the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme from 2009 to 2017.
Henry Chalfant (born January 2, 1940) is an American photographer and videographer most notable for his work on graffiti, breakdance, and hip hop culture.
A herald, or a herald of arms, is an officer of arms, ranking between pursuivant and king of arms.
The term heteroglossia describes the coexistence of distinct varieties within a single "language" (in Greek: hetero- "different" and glōssa "tongue, language").
Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.
Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.
A hobo is a migrant worker or homeless vagrant, especially one who is impoverished.
Hualien City is a county-controlled city and the county seat of Hualien County, Taiwan.
Huey Percy Newton was an African-American political activist and communist revolutionary who, along with Bobby Seale, co-founded the Black Panther Party in 1966.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
The Ig Nobel Prize is a parody of the Nobel Prize, which is awarded every autumn to celebrate ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research.
Imagery, in a literary text, is an author's use of vivid and descriptive language to add depth to their work.
Independence Rock is a large granite rock, approximately high, long and wide, in southwestern Natrona County, Wyoming, along Wyoming Highway 220.
In a written or published work, an initial or drop cap is a letter at the beginning of a word, a chapter, or a paragraph that is larger than the rest of the text.
Invader (born 1969) is the pseudonym of a French urban artist, whose work is modelled on the crude pixellation of 1970s–1980s 8-bit video games.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
Islington is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israeli West Bank barrier or wall (for further names see here) is a separation barrier in the West Bank or along the Green Line.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Jean-Michel Basquiat (December 22, 1960 – August 12, 1988) was an American artist.
Jef Aérosol is the pseudonym of Jean-François Perroy (born January 15, 1957),, Jefaerosol.com a French stencil graffiti artist.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jet Set Radio, titled Jet Grind Radio on the first North American release, is an action game developed by Smilebit and published by Sega for the Dreamcast in 2000.
John Bull is a national personification of the United Kingdom in general and England in particular, especially in political cartoons and similar graphic works.
John Fekner (born 1950 in New York City) is an American innovative multidisciplinary artist who created hundreds of environmental and conceptual outdoor works consisting of stenciled words, symbols, dates and icons spray painted in New York, Sweden, Canada, England and Germany in the 1970s and 1980s.
Crash (b. John Matos, Bronx, New York, October 11, 1961) is a graffiti artist.
Jon Reiss is a film producer and director, and an author.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Just Cause is an action-adventure video game set in an open world environment.
Brian Donnelly (born 1974), known professionally as Kaws (stylized as KAWS), is an American artist and designer.
Keep Britain Tidy is a UK-based independent environmental charity.
Keith Allen Haring (May 4, 1958 – February 16, 1990) was an American artist whose pop art and graffiti-like work grew out of the New York City street culture of the 1980s.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Kilroy was here is an American popular culture expression that became popular during World War II; it is typically seen in graffiti.
King Robbo (born John Robertson, 23 October 1969 – 31 July 2014) was an English underground graffiti artist.
Klark Kent (born 1973 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany) is a graffiti artist and music producer.
The Kotwica (Polish for "Anchor") was a World War II emblem of the Polish Underground State and Armia Krajowa (Home Army, or AK).
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
Ladbroke Grove is a road in west London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, running north–south between Harrow Road and Holland Park Avenue.
Lady Pink (born Sandra Fabara, 1964) is a graffiti and mural artist based in New York City.
The lanes and arcades of Melbourne, Australia, have collectively become culturally important.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latrinalia is a type of deliberately inscribed marking made on latrines: that is, bathrooms or lavatory walls.
A latrine is a toilet or an even simpler facility which is used as a toilet within a sanitation system.
Lörrach is a city in southwest Germany, in the valley of the Wiese, close to the French and the Swiss borders.
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was the country's largest communist party, and the ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia.
LED art is a form of light art constructed from light-emitting diodes.
Lee Myung-bak (born 19 December 1941) is a South Korean politician and businessman who served as President of South Korea from 2008 to 2013.
George Lee Quiñones (born 1960) is a Puerto Rican artist and actor.
Liberty Leading the People (La Liberté guidant le peuple) is a painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled King Charles X of France.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
is a quarter in the Bergedorf borough of the Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburg in northern Germany.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Lucy Lippard (born April 14, 1937) is an American writer, art critic, activist and curator.
Mathangi "Maya" Arulpragasam (born 18 July 1975), better known by her stage name M.I.A. (pronounced as distinct initials), is a British rapper, singer-songwriter, record producer, and activist.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Manslaughter is a common law legal term for homicide considered by law as less culpable than murder.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
The term maracatu denotes any of several performance genres found in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.
Marc Eckō's Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure is a video game released in February 2006 for PlayStation 2, Xbox, and Windows.
Marc Louis "Eckō" Milecofsky (born August 29, 1972) is an American fashion designer, entrepreneur, and artist.
Marie Claire is an international monthly magazine first published in France in 1937, followed by the UK in 1941.
() is a fictional character in the ''Mario'' video game franchise, owned by Nintendo and created by Japanese video game designer Shigeru Miyamoto.
A marker pen, fineliner, marking pen, felt-tip marker, felt-tip pen, flow marker, texta (in Australia), sketch pen (in India) or koki (in South Africa), is a pen which has its own ink-source and a tip made of porous, pressed fibers such as felt.
A mascot is any person, animal, or object thought to bring luck, or anything used to represent a group with a common public identity, such as a school, professional sports team, society, military unit, or brand name.
The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Mayor of Belgrade is the head of the City of Belgrade (capital of Serbia).
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Melitopol (Меліто́поль, translit. Melitópol’, Мелитополь) is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast (region) of southeastern Ukraine.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
In folklore, a mermaid is an aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish.
Michael Peter Fay (born May 30, 1975), better known simply as Michael Fay, is a United States citizen who was the subject of international attention in 1994 when he was sentenced to six strokes of the cane in Singapore for theft and vandalism at age 18.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Miss Van (born 1973 in Toulouse, France), also known as Vanessa Alice, is a graffiti and street artist.
Miss.Tic is a French artist born in Paris on 20 February 1956.
Missing Foundation was an industrial music and performance art project active in the late 1980s and early 1990s and led by Peter Missing.
Montclair is a city in the Pomona Valley, in southwestern San Bernardino County, California.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Moss graffiti is a recent trend in street art that uses living moss to write on the walls of public spaces.
Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
MTV (originally an initialism of Music Television) is an American cable and satellite television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks (a division of Viacom) and headquartered in New York City.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The City of Philadelphia Mural Arts Program is an anti-graffiti mural program in Philadelphia and Pennsylvania, in the United States.
Murals in Northern Ireland have become symbols of Northern Ireland, depicting the region's past and present political and religious divisions.
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, and is produced for promotional or artistic purposes.
Na Nach Nachma Nachman Me'uman (נַ נַחְ נַחְמָ נַחְמָן מְאוּמַן) is a Hebrew language name and song used by a subgroup of Breslover Hasidim colloquially known as the Na Nachs.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
The World War II Memorial is a memorial of national significance dedicated to Americans who served in the armed forces and as civilians during World War II.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
NetHack is a single-player roguelike video game originally released in 1987 with ASCII graphics.
New England Comics is a comic book retail chain and publisher headquartered in Brockton, Massachusetts, USA.
The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA).
Newgrange (Sí an Bhrú or Brú na Bóinne) is a prehistoric monument in County Meath, Ireland, located west of Drogheda on the north side of the River Boyne.
Next: A Primer on Urban Painting is a 2005 documentary film from Canadian filmmaker Pablo Aravena, exploring graffiti around the world.
Northcote is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 6 km north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
Now Gallery was a New York City art gallery based in East Village, Manhattan active in 1983 - 1989.
The Obelisco de Buenos Aires (Obelisk of Buenos Aires) is a national historic monument and icon of Buenos Aires.
Olinda, is an historic city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, located on the country's northeastern Atlantic Ocean coast, in Greater Recife (capital of Pernambuco State). It has a population of 389,494 people, covers, and has a population of 9 inhabitants per square kilometer. It is noted as one of the best-preserved colonial cities in Brazil. Olinda features a number of major tourist attractions, such as a historic downtown area (World Heritage Site), churches, and the Carnival of Olinda, a popular street party, very similar to traditional Portuguese carnivals, with the addition of African influenced dances. Unlike in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador, in Olinda, admission to Carnival is free. All the festivities are celebrated on the streets, and there are no bleachers or roping. There are hundreds of small musical groups (sometimes featuring a single performer) in many genres.
Ong Teng Cheong (22 January 1936 – 8 February 2002), was a Singaporean politician and businessman who was President of Singapore from 1993 to 1999.
The Oregon Trail is a historic East–West, large-wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail in the United States that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon.
Orion Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture producer and distributor that produced and released films from 1978 until 1999 and was also involved in television production and syndication throughout the 1980s until the early 1990s.
OSGEMEOS (also known as Os Gemeos or Os Gêmeos, Portuguese for The Twins), born 1974 in São Paulo, Brazil, are graffiti and street artists who are identical twin brothers Otavio Pandolfo and Gustavo Pandolfo.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The peace lines or peace walls are a series of separation barriers in Northern Ireland that separate predominantly Republican and Nationalist Catholic neighbourhoods from predominantly Loyalist and Unionist Protestant neighbourhoods.
A number of peace symbols have been used many ways in various cultures and contexts.
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.
In Hellenistic Greek and Roman architecture a peristyle (from Greek περίστυλος) is a continuous porch formed by a row of columns surrounding the perimeter of building or a courtyard.
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A phallus is a penis (especially when erect), an object that resembles a penis, or a mimetic image of an erect penis.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
PHASE 2, born Lonny WoodGeorge,.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philae (Φιλαί, فيله, Egyptian: p3-jw-rķ' or 'pA-jw-rq; Coptic) is currently an island in the reservoir of the Aswan Low Dam, downstream of the Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser, Egypt.
Brishen Mahoney Mike Tran --> Piece By Piece is a documentary film directed by Nic Hill.
Pieksämäki is a town and municipality of Finland.
Pintoricchio or Pinturicchio whose formal name was Bernardino di Betto, also known as Benetto di Biagio or Sordicchio, was an Italian painter of the Renaissance.
"Planet Rock" (also known as 'Don't Stop... Planet Rock') is a 1982 song by Afrika Bambaataa & the Soulsonic Force.
The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console that was developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
The PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a handheld game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
In philosophy, a point of view is a specified or stated manner of consideration, an attitude how one sees or thinks of something, as in "from my personal point of view".
Pol Pot (ប៉ុល ពត; 19 May 1925 – 15 April 1998) was a Cambodian revolutionary and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea from 1976 to 1979.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Portal is a puzzle-platform video game developed and published by Valve Corporation.
Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.
A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface.
A pothole is a structural failure in a road surface, usually asphalt pavement, due to water in the underlying soil structure and traffic passing over the affected area.
The President of the Republic of Singapore is the country's head of state.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
Procuring or pandering is the facilitation or provision of a prostitute or sex worker in the arrangement of a sex act with a customer.
Property damage (or, in England and Wales criminal damage) is damage to or the destruction of public or private property, caused either by a person who is not its owner or by natural phenomena.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
Public art is art in any media that has been planned and executed with the intention of being staged in the physical public domain, usually outside and accessible to all.
Punk rock (or "punk") is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia.
Quality of Life, also known as Against the Wall, is a 2004 drama film about the story of two graffiti writers in the Mission District of San Francisco.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
"Rapture" is a song by the American pop rock band Blondie from their fifth studio album, Autoamerican (1980).
Rash, written RASH, is a 2005 Australian documentary film, directed by Nicholas Hansen.
The Reichstag (Reichstagsgebäude; officially: Deutscher Bundestag - Plenarbereich Reichstagsgebäude) is a historic edifice in Berlin, Germany, constructed to house the Imperial Diet (German: Reichstag) of the German Empire.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Reverse graffiti, also known as clean tagging, dust tagging, grime writing, clean graffiti, green graffiti or clean advertising, is a method of creating temporary or semi-permanent images on walls or other surfaces by removing dirt from a surface.
Richard Michael Daley (born April 24, 1942) is an American politician, lawyer, and author who served as the 43rd Mayor of Chicago, Illinois from 1989 to 2011.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
Rolling is an extreme sports video game released in 2003 for PlayStation 2 and Xbox.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rudolph William Louis Giuliani (born May 28, 1944) is an American politician, attorney, businessman, public speaker, former mayor of New York City, and attorney to President Donald Trump.
The ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Saber (born 1976, Glendale, California) is an American graffiti artist, and painter working in Los Angeles.
Safaitic is a variety of the South Semitic script used by the nomads of the basalt desert of southern Syria and northern Jordan, the so-called Ḥarrah, to carve rock inscriptions in various dialects of Old Arabic.
, subtitled Sidetracked in the North American release, is a beat 'em up video game for PlayStation 2.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Sap is a fluid transported in xylem cells (vessel elements or tracheids) or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
The Scandinavian Institute of Comparative Vandalism (Skandinavisk institut for sammenlignende vandalisme) is a non-profit cultural institute based in Denmark.
Scribing, also known as scratchitti, is a style or method of graffiti in which a scribe is used to tag on glass or plastic surfaces.
Segregation in Northern Ireland is a long-running issue in the political and social history of Northern Ireland.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
Sgraffito (plural: sgraffiti; sometimes spelled scraffito) is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface, or in pottery, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers of contrasting slip or glaze, and then in either case scratching so as to reveal parts of the underlying layer.
Frank Shepard Fairey (born February 15, 1970) is an American contemporary street artist, graphic designer, activist, illustrator and founder of OBEY Clothing who emerged from the skateboarding scene.
Sigiriya or Sinhagiri (Lion Rock සීගිරිය, சிகிரியா, pronounced see-gi-ri-yə) is an ancient rock fortress located in the northern Matale District near the town of Dambulla in the Central Province, Sri Lanka.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Singapore American School (SAS) is a non-profit, independent, co-educational day school located in the Woodlands area of Singapore.
Sīstān (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: سیستان), known in ancient times as Sakastan (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: ساكاستان; "the land of the Saka"), is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province), southern Afghanistan (Nimruz, Kandahar) and the Nok Kundi region of Balochistan (western Pakistan).
Sliema (Maltese: "Tas-Sliema") is a town located on the northeast coast of Malta in the Northern Harbour District.
Smirnoff is a brand of vodka owned and produced by the British company Diageo.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
Cape Sounion (Modern Greek: Aκρωτήριο Σούνιο Akrotírio Soúnio; Ἄκρον Σούνιον Άkron Soúnion, latinized Sunium; Venetian: Capo Colonne "Cape of Columns") is the promontory at the southernmost tip of the Attic peninsula, south of the town of Lavrio (ancient Thoricus), and southeast of Athens.
The South Bronx is an area of the New York City borough of the Bronx.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The won (원,; symbol: ₩; code: KRW) or the Korean Republic Won is the currency of South Korea.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Space Hijackers is a group originating in the United Kingdom that defines itself as "an international band of anarchitects who battle to save our streets, towns and cities from the evils of urban planners, architects, multinationals and other hoodlums".
Speedy Graphito, or Olivier Rizzo, is a French painter who was born in Paris in 1961.
Spray paint art is the application of spray paint a non-porous material, such as wood, metal, glass, ceramic or plastic.
Spray painting is a painting technique where a device sprays a coating (paint, ink, varnish, etc.) through the air onto a surface.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka.
St Kilda is an inner suburb (neighbourhood) of the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 6 km south-east of Melbourne's Central Business District.
Stations of the Elevated is a 1981 documentary film by Manfred Kirchheimer about graffiti in New York City.
Stencilling produces an image or pattern by applying pigment to a surface over an intermediate object with designed gaps in it which create the pattern or image by only allowing the pigment to reach some parts of the surface.
Stencil graffiti is a form of graffiti that makes use of stencils made out of paper, cardboard, or other media to create an image or text that is easily reproducible.
A sticker is a type of label: a piece of printed paper, plastic, vinyl, or other material with pressure sensitive adhesive on one side.
Street art is visual art created in public locations, usually unsanctioned artwork executed outside of the context of traditional art venues.
Style Wars is an American 1983 documentary film on hip hop culture and its American roots, directed by Tony Silver and produced in collaboration with Henry Chalfant.
Subvertising (a portmanteau of subvert and advertising) is the practice of making spoofs or parodies of corporate and political advertisements.
Subway Art is a collaborative book by Martha Cooper and Henry Chalfant, which documents the early history of New York City's graffiti movement.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sundsvall is a city and the seat of Sundsvall Municipality in Västernorrland County, Sweden.
Super Mario Sunshine is a platform game in the Super Mario series developed and published by Nintendo for the GameCube.
The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, Mongolian and Siberian shamanisms.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tarn-et-Garonne (Occitan: Tarn e Garona) is a department in the southwest of France.
Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.
TATS CRU, Inc.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Techno Kitten Adventure is a side-scrolling video game developed by 21st Street Games and published by creative design studio Elite Gudz for the iOS App Store, Xbox Live Indie Games market, Android Market and Windows Phone market.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Terrance Lindall (born 1944) is an American artist and the co-director and chief administrator of the Williamsburg Art and Historical Center in Brooklyn, New York.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York.
The Darkness is a first-person shooter video game developed by Starbreeze Studios and published by 2K Games for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien.
"The Message" is a song by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thekla is a former cargo ship moored in the Mud Dock area of Bristol's Floating Harbour, England.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
The Urbz: Sims in the City is a video game that was released in 2004 for the PlayStation 2, Xbox, Nintendo GameCube, Game Boy Advance, and Nintendo DS as a launch title for that system.
The Warriors is a beat 'em up video game, developed by Rockstar Toronto and published by Rockstar Games.
The World Ends with You is an action role-playing game with urban fantasy elements developed by Square Enix and Jupiter for the Nintendo DS.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Thrissur (originally Thiru Siva Peroor and previously known by its anglicised form as Trichur), is the fourth largest city, the third largest urban agglomeration in Kerala (Pop. 1,854,783) and the 20th largest in India.
Tikal (Tik’al in modern Mayan orthography) is the ruin of an ancient city, which was likely to have been called Yax Mutal, found in a rainforest in Guatemala.
A tomb (from τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Tony Hawk's is a skateboarding video game series published by Activision and endorsed by professional skateboarder Tony Hawk from 1999 to 2015.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
Trespass is an area of criminal law or tort law broadly divided into three groups: trespass to the person, trespass to chattels and trespass to land.
Tsang Tsou Choi, or the "King of Kowloon" (12 November 1921 – 15 July 2007) was a Hong Kong citizen known for his calligraphy graffiti.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.
Tver (p; IPA: tvʲerʲi) is a city and the administrative center of Tver Oblast, Russia.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ulster loyalism is a political ideology found primarily among working class Ulster Protestants in Northern Ireland, whose status as a part of the United Kingdom has remained controversial.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The terms underground press or clandestine press refer to periodicals and publications that are produced without official approval, illegally or against the wishes of a dominant (governmental, religious, or institutional) group.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of Sydney (informally, USyd or USYD) is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia.
Upper Manhattan denotes the most northern region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urban decay (also known as urban rot and urban blight) is the process by which a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude.
Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (3 September 1900 – 31 August 1986) was a Finnish politician who served as the eighth and longest-serving President of Finland (1956–82).
V for Vendetta is a 2005 dystopian political thriller film directed by James McTeigue and written by The Wachowski Brothers, based on the 1988 DC/Vertigo Comics limited series of the same name by Alan Moore and David Lloyd.
Vandalism is an "action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property".
The Vandalism Act is a statute of the Parliament of Singapore that criminalizes a number of different acts done in relation to public and private property, namely, stealing, destroying or damaging public property; and, without the property owner's written consent, writing, drawing, painting, marking or inscribing the property; affixing posters, placards, etc., to the property; and suspending or displaying on or from the property any flag, banner, etc. In addition to a fine or jail term, the Act imposes mandatory corporal punishment of between three and eight strokes of the cane for second or subsequent convictions.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Verdun (official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Visual culture is the aspect of culture expressed in visual images.
Visual pollution is an aesthetic issue and refers to the impacts of pollution that impair one's ability to enjoy a vista or view.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
The Von der Heydt Museum is a museum in Wuppertal, Germany.
Walī (ولي, plural أولياء) is an Arabic word whose literal meanings include "custodian", "protector", "helper", and "friend".
War on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Wheat paste (also known as flour paste, or simply paste) is a gel or liquid adhesive made from wheat flour or starch and water.
Wholetrain is a 2006 German drama film directed by Florian Gaag.
Wild Style is an American 1983 hip hop film produced by Charlie Ahearn.
Wildstyle is a complicated and intricate form of graffiti.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in and around the Wupper valley, east of Düsseldorf and south of the Ruhr.
Ximending (Romaji:; sometimes Ximenting) is a neighborhood and shopping district in the Wanhua District of Taipei, Taiwan.
Yahoo! Graffiti was a multiplayer game and a member of the Yahoo! Games network of online computer games.
Yarn bombing (or yarnbombing) is a type of graffiti or street art that employs colourful displays of knitted or crocheted yarn or fibre rather than paint or chalk.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN), often referred to as the Zapatistas, is a left-wing revolutionary political and militant group based in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico.
ZEPHYR, born Andrew Witten, is a graffiti artist, lecturer and author from New York City.
A zero-tolerance policy is one which imposes strict punishment for infractions of a stated rule, with the intention of eliminating undesirable conduct.
Zumaia (Zumaya) is a small town in the north of Spain in the Basque Country.
123Klan is a French graffiti crew, founded in 1992 by husband and wife Scien and Klor.
80 Blocks from Tiffany's is a 1979 documentary directed by Gary Weis.
Art graffiti, Artistic Aerosol, Gang Graffiti, Graffadi, Graffiti Art, Graffiti art, Graffiti artist, Graffiti culture, Graffiti poetry, Graffiti writer, GraffitiArt, Graffitied, Graffiting, Graffitis, Graffitti, Graffitto, Graffity, Grafitti, Graphiti, Hipster Art, Microbo (artist), Scratching (street art), Street Art Post-Graffiti, Subway Graffiti, Tag (graffiti), Tag Artist, Tagging (graffiti), Tree graffiti, Types of Graffiti, Types of graffiti, Wall vandalism.