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# Gram

The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass. [1]

## A Greek–English Lexicon

A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.

## Avoirdupois system

The avoirdupois system (abbreviated avdp) is a measurement system of weights which uses pounds and ounces as units.

## Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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## Centimetre–gram–second system of units

The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.

## Chinese units of measurement

Chinese units of measurement, known in Chinese as the shìzhì ("market system"), are the traditional units of measurement of the Han Chinese.

## Coins of the United States dollar

Coins of the United States dollar were first minted in 1792.

## Conversion of units

Conversion of units is the conversion between different units of measurement for the same quantity, typically through multiplicative conversion factors.

## Cubic centimetre

A cubic centimetre (or cubic centimeter in US English) (SI unit symbol: cm3; non-SI abbreviations: cc and ccm) is a commonly used unit of volume that extends the derived SI-unit cubic metre, and corresponds to the volume of a cube that measures 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm.

## Duella

A duella was an ancient Roman unit of weight, equivalent to a third of a Roman ounce (9.056 grams).

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## Foot (unit)

The foot (feet; abbreviation: ft; symbol: &prime;, the prime symbol) is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement.

## General Conference on Weights and Measures

The General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférence générale des poids et mesures – CGPM) is the supreme authority of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures – BIPM), the inter-governmental organization established in 1875 under the terms of the Metre Convention (Convention du Mètre) through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.

## Geoponica

The Geoponica (also spelled Geoponika) is a twenty-book collection of agricultural lore, compiled during the 10th century in Constantinople for the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus.

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## Gold gram

A gold gram is the amount of value represented by exactly one gram of gold.

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## Grain (unit)

A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly.

## Haguenau

Haguenau (Haguenau,; Alsatian: Hàwenau or Hàjenöi; and historically in English: Hagenaw) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department of France, of which it is a sub-prefecture.

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## Imperial units

The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.

## International Bureau of Weights and Measures

The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures) is an intergovernmental organization established by the Metre Convention, through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.

## International Standard Serial Number

An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.

## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

## Joule

The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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## Kilogram

The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

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## Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

## Late Latin

Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.

## Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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## Mass–energy equivalence

In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.

## Medieval Greek

Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

## Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

## Meridian (geography)

A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude.

## Metre

The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).

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## Metric system

The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.

## MKS system of units

The MKS system of units is a physical system of units that expresses any given measurement using base units of the metre, kilogram, and/or second (MKS).

## National Convention

The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.

## Obol (coin)

The obol (ὀβολός, obolos, also ὀβελός (obelós), ὀβελλός (obellós), ὀδελός (odelós). "nail, metal spit"; obolus) was a form of ancient Greek currency and weight.

## OCLC

OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs".

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## Orders of magnitude (mass)

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10&minus;40&thinsp;kg and 1053 kg.

## Ounce

The ounce (abbreviated oz; apothecary symbol: ℥) is a unit of mass, weight, or volume used in most British derived customary systems of measurement.

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## Penny (British decimal coin)

The British decimal one penny (1p) coin, usually simply known as a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one one-hundredth of a pound sterling.

## Priscian

Priscianus Caesariensis, commonly known as Priscian, was a Latin grammarian and the author of the Institutes of Grammar which was the standard textbook for the study of Latin during the Middle Ages.

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## Remmius Palaemon

Quintus Remmius Palaemon or Quintus Rhemnius Fannius Palaemon.

## Scientific notation

Scientific notation (also referred to as scientific form or standard index form, or standard form in the UK) is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form.

## SI base unit

The International System of Units (SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units can be derived.

## SI derived unit

SI derived units are units of measurement derived from the seven base units specified by the International System of Units (SI).

## Troy weight

Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.

## Unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.

## United States customary units

United States customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States.

## Units of measurement in France before the French Revolution

Woodcut dated 1800 illustrating the new decimal units which became the legal norm across all France on 4 November 1800 Before the French Revolution, which started in 1789, French units of measurement were based on the Carolingian system, introduced by the first Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne which in turn were based on ancient Roman measures.

## Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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## 1 euro cent coin

The 1 euro cent coin (€0.01) has a value of one hundredth of a euro and is composed of copper-covered steel.

## 1 yen coin

The is the smallest denomination of the Japanese yen currency.

## References

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