194 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali, Abu Ibrahim ibn Barun, Adam Bohorič, Aemilius Asper, Affix, Affix grammar over a finite lattice, Afrikaans, Ambiguous grammar, Analytic language, Ancient Greek, Antonio de Nebrija, Arabic, Arabic grammar, Argentina, Aristarchus of Samothrace, Artificial language, Auraicept na n-Éces, Babylonia, Backus–Naur form, Baghdad, Baroque, Bible translations, Bokmål, Brazilian Portuguese, Buenos Aires, Castile and León, Categorial grammar, Classical Arabic, Clause, Codification (linguistics), Cognitive grammar, Cognitive linguistics, Comparative linguistics, Constraint grammar, Constructed language, Construction grammar, Copenhagen School (linguistics), Dante Alighieri, De vulgari eloquentia, Dependency grammar, Dionysius Thrax, Domingo de Santo Tomás, Early New High German, Esperanto, Ethnic group, European Portuguese, Evangelism, First Grammatical Treatise, First language, ..., Florence, Fluid construction grammar, Formal grammar, Franz Bopp, Functional theories of grammar, Generalized phrase structure grammar, Generative grammar, German dialects, Germanic languages, Government and binding theory, Gramática de la lengua castellana, Grammar school, Grammaticality, Grammeme, Grapheme, Graphics, Greek language, Harmonic Grammar, Head-driven phrase structure grammar, Hebrew language, Hellenistic period, High Middle Ages, Higher order grammar, Hindi, Hindustani language, History of English grammars, Inflection, Interlingua, Intonation (linguistics), Iron Age in India, Italian language, Italian literature, Italian Renaissance, Jacob Grimm, John Dryden, Karaite Judaism, Kātyāyana, Knowledge representation and reasoning, Lambda calculus, Language acquisition, Language politics, Late antiquity, Latin, Latin grammar, Learning, Lexical functional grammar, Liberal arts education, Linguistic description, Linguistic prescription, Linguistic typology, Linguistics, Linguistics in education, Link grammar, List of linguists, Lojban, Lucien Tesnière, Lucius Orbilius Pupillus, Madrid, Mandarin Chinese, Marcus Valerius Probus, Middle Ages, Minimalist program, Mishnah, Modern Standard Arabic, Montague grammar, Montenegrin language, Montevideo, Morphology (linguistics), National Grammar Day, Natural language, Noam Chomsky, Norwegian language, Norwegian language conflict, Nynorsk, Observation, Old Irish, Operator grammar, Optimality Theory, Orthography, Paragrammatism, Parse tree, Patanjali, Pāṇini, Phonetics, Phonology, Phrase, Phrase structure grammar, Pietro Bembo, Pingala, Portuguese language, Pragmatics, Preposition stranding, Principles and parameters, Priscian, Quechuan languages, Quran, Reference work, Remmius Palaemon, Renaissance, Republika Srpska, Rhianus, Rioplatense Spanish, Role and reference grammar, Sanskrit, Semantics, Sentence (linguistics), Sentence clause structure, Serbia, Serbian language, Singapore, Slovene language, Spanish grammar, Standard Chinese, Standard English, Standard French, Standard German, Standard language, Stochastic grammar, Structure, Subject–verb–object, Syntax, Synthetic language, Systemic functional grammar, Taiwan, Tamil language, Tanakh, The Art of Grammar, Theoretical linguistics, Tolkāppiyam, Transformational grammar, Tree-adjoining grammar, Trivium, Universal grammar, Urdu, Uruguay, Usage, Vernacular, Verrius Flaccus, William Strunk Jr., Word, Word grammar, Written vernacular Chinese, X-bar theory, Yāska. Expand index (144 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abū 'l-Aswad Ẓālim ibn ‘Amr ibn Sufyān ibn Jandal ibn Yamar ibn Hīls ibn Nufātha ibn Adi ibn ad-Dīl ibn Bakr, surnamed ad-Dīlī, or ad-Duwalī, or Abū 'l-Aswad al-Du'alī (أبو الأسود الدؤلي),(ca.-16/603–69/689), was the poet companion of 'Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and grammarian.
Rabbi Yitzhak ben Barun ben Yosef Benveniste (יצחק בן ברון בן יוסף בנבנשת), also known by his Arabic name Abū Ibrahīm Iṣḥāq ibn Barūn (died 1128 in Málaga) was an 11th-century Spanish grammarian of Arabic and Hebrew, mainly known for his influential book entitled The Book of Comparison between the Hebrew and the Arabic Languages, in which he traces parallels between hundreds of Arabic and Hebrew words.
Adam Bohorič (– after 20 November 1598) was a Slovene Protestant preacher, teacher and author of the first grammar of Slovene.
Aemilius Asper, Latin grammarian, possibly lived in the 1st century AD or late 2nd century AD.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
In linguistics, the affix grammars over a finite lattice (AGFL) formalism is a notation for context-free grammars with finite set-valued features, acceptable to linguists of many different schools.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
In computer science, an ambiguous grammar is a context-free grammar for which there exists a string that can have more than one leftmost derivation or parse tree, while an unambiguous grammar is a context-free grammar for which every valid string has a unique leftmost derivation or parse tree.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Antonio de Nebrija (14415 July 1522), also known as Antonio de Lebrija, Elio Antonio de Lebrija, Antonius Nebrissensis, and Antonio of Lebrixa, was a Spanish Renaissance scholar.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic grammar (اَلنَّحْو اَلْعَرَبِي or قَوَاعِد اَللُّغَة اَلْعَرَبِيَّة) is the grammar of the Arabic language.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Aristarchus of Samothrace (Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σαμόθραξ; c. 220 – c. 143 BC) was a grammarian noted as the most influential of all scholars of Homeric poetry.
Artificial languages are languages of a typically very limited size which emerge either in computer simulations between artificial agents, robot interactions or controlled psychological experiments with humans.
Auraicept na n-Éces ("the scholars' primer ") is claimed as a 7th-century work of Irish grammarians, written by a scholar named Longarad.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
In computer science, Backus–Naur form or Backus normal form (BNF) is a notation technique for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languages, document formats, instruction sets and communication protocols.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
Bokmål (literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Castile and León (Castilla y León; Leonese: Castiella y Llión; Castela e León) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain.
Categorial grammar is a term used for a family of formalisms in natural language syntax motivated by the principle of compositionality and organized according to the view that syntactic constituents should generally combine as functions or according to a function-argument relationship.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
In linguistics, codification is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language.
Cognitive grammar is a cognitive approach to language developed by Ronald Langacker, which considers the basic units of language to be symbols or conventional pairings of a semantic structure with a phonological label.
Cognitive linguistics (CL) is an interdisciplinary branch of linguistics, combining knowledge and research from both psychology and linguistics.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
Constraint grammar (CG) is a methodological paradigm for natural language processing (NLP).
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.
In linguistics, construction grammar groups a number of models of grammar that all subscribe to the idea that knowledge of a language is based on a collection of "form and function pairings".
The Copenhagen School, officially the Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen (French: Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague), is a group of scholars dedicated to the study of linguistics.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the vernacular) is the title of a Latin essay by Dante Alighieri.
Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of modern grammatical theories that are all based on the dependency relation (as opposed to the constituency relation) and that can be traced back primarily to the work of Lucien Tesnière.
Dionysius Thrax (Διονύσιος ὁ Θρᾷξ,, Contemporary Koine:; 170–90 BC) was a Hellenistic grammarian and a pupil of Aristarchus of Samothrace.
Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás, O.P. (1499 – 28 February 1570) was a Spanish Dominican missionary, bishop, and grammarian in the Viceroyalty of Peru.
Early New High German (ENHG) is a term for the period in the history of the German language, generally defined, following Wilhelm Scherer, as the period 1350 to 1650.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The First Grammatical Treatise (Fyrsta málfræðiritgerðin digital reproduction at Old Norse etexts.) is a 12th-century work on the phonology of the Old Norse or Old Icelandic language.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Fluid construction grammar (FCG) is an open-source computational construction grammar formalism that allows computational linguists to formally write down the inventory of lexical and grammatical constructions as well as to do experiments in language learning and language evolution.
In formal language theory, a grammar (when the context is not given, often called a formal grammar for clarity) is a set of production rules for strings in a formal language.
Franz Bopp (14 September 1791 – 23 October 1867) was a German linguist known for extensive and pioneering comparative work on Indo-European languages.
Functional theories of grammar are those approaches to the study of language that see functionality of language and its elements to be the key to understanding linguistic processes and structures.
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages.
Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.
German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Government and binding (GB, GBT) is a theory of syntax and a phrase structure grammar in the tradition of transformational grammar developed principally by Noam Chomsky in the 1980s.
Gramática de la lengua castellana ("Grammar of the Castilian Language", originally titled in Latin: Grammatica Antonii Nebrissensis) is a book written by Antonio de Nebrija and published in 1492.
A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic Secondary Modern Schools.
In theoretical linguistics, a speaker's judgement on the well-formedness of a linguistic utterance—called a grammaticality judgement—is based on whether the sentence is produced and interpreted in accordance with the rules and constraints of the relevant grammar.
A grammeme in linguistics is a unit of grammar, just as a lexeme is a lexical unit and a morpheme is a morphological unit.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
Graphics (from Greek γραφικός graphikos, "belonging to drawing") are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Harmonic Grammar is a linguistic model proposed by Geraldine Legendre, Yoshiro Miyata, and Paul Smolensky in 1990.
Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) is a highly lexicalized, constraint-based grammar developed by Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
Higher order grammar (HOG) is a grammar theory based on higher-order logic.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
The history of English grammars begins late in the sixteenth century with the Pamphlet for Grammar by William Bullokar.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
In the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent, an "Iron Age" is recognized as succeeding the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
Karaite Judaism or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.
Kātyāyana (कात्यायन) (c. 300 BC) was a Sanskrit grammarian, mathematician and Vedic priest who lived in ancient India.
Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR, KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.
Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
Language politics is the way language and linguistic differences between peoples are dealt with in the political arena.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a constraint-based grammar framework in theoretical linguistics.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Linguistics in education refers to a small but growing field of linguistics which advocates a greater use of linguistic theory and in primary and secondary education.
Link grammar (LG) is a theory of syntax by Davy Temperley and Daniel Sleator which builds relations between pairs of words, rather than constructing constituents in a phrase structure hierarchy.
A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies natural language (an academic discipline known as linguistics).
Lojban (pronounced) is a constructed, syntactically unambiguous human language, succeeding the Loglan project.
Lucien Tesnière (May 13, 1893 – December 6, 1954) was a prominent and influential French linguist.
Lucius Orbilius Pupillus (114 BC – c. 14 BC) was a Latin grammarian of the 1st century BC, who taught at school, first at Benevento and then at Rome, where the poet Horace was one of his pupils.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Marcus Valerius Probus (c. 20/30 – 105 AD) of Berytus, was a Roman grammarian and critic, who flourished during Nero's reign.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
In linguistics, the minimalist program (MP) is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside generative grammar since the early 1990s, starting with a 1993 paper by Noam Chomsky.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Montague grammar is an approach to natural language semantics, named after American logician Richard Montague.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
National Grammar Day is observed in the United States on March 4.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
The Norwegian language conflict (målstriden, språkstriden or sprogstriden) is an ongoing controversy within Norwegian culture and politics related to the written versions of the Norwegian language.
Nynorsk (translates to New Norwegian or New Norse) is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
Operator grammar is a mathematical theory of human language that explains how language carries information.
In linguistics, Optimality Theory (frequently abbreviated OT; the term is normally capitalized by convention) is a linguistic model proposing that the observed forms of language arise from the optimal satisfaction of conflicting constraints.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Paragrammatism is the confused or incomplete use of grammatical structures, found in certain forms of speech disturbance.
A parse tree or parsing tree or derivation tree or concrete syntax tree is an ordered, rooted tree that represents the syntactic structure of a string according to some context-free grammar.
(पतञ्जलि) is a proper Indian name.
(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
The term phrase structure grammar was originally introduced by Noam Chomsky as the term for grammar studied previously by Emil Post and Axel Thue (Post canonical systems).
Pietro Bembo, (20 May 1470 – either 11 January or 18 January, 1547) was an Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist, member of the Knights Hospitaller and a cardinal.
Pingala (Devanagari: पिङ्गल) (c. 3rd/2nd century BC) was an ancient Indian mathematician who authored the (also called Pingala-sutras), the earliest known treatise on Sanskrit prosody.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
Preposition stranding, sometimes called P-stranding, is the syntactic construction in which a preposition with an object occurs somewhere other than immediately adjacent to its object; for example, at the end of a sentence.
Principles and parameters is a framework within generative linguistics in which the syntax of a natural language is described in accordance with general principles (i.e. abstract rules or grammars) and specific parameters (i.e. markers, switches) that for particular languages are either turned on or off.
Priscianus Caesariensis, commonly known as Priscian, was a Latin grammarian and the author of the Institutes of Grammar which was the standard textbook for the study of Latin during the Middle Ages.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
A reference work is a book or periodical (or its electronic equivalent) to which one can refer for information.
Quintus Remmius Palaemon or Quintus Rhemnius Fannius Palaemon.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Republika Srpska (Република Српскa,; literally "Serb Republic") is one of two constitutional and legal entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Rhianus (Greek: Ῥιανὸς ὁ Κρής) was a Greek poet and grammarian, a native of Crete, friend and contemporary of Eratosthenes (275 BC – 195 BC).
Rioplatense Spanish (español rioplatense, locally castellano rioplatense) is a dialect of the Spanish language spoken mainly in the areas in and around the Río de la Plata Basin of Argentina and Uruguay.
Role and reference grammar (RRG) is a model of grammar developed by William A. Foley and Robert Van Valin, Jr. in the 1980s, which incorporates many of the points of view of current functional grammar theories.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
In grammar, sentence clause structure is the classification of sentences based on the number and kind of clauses in their syntactic structure.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Spanish grammar is the grammar of the Spanish language (español), which is a Romance language that originated in north central Spain and is spoken today throughout Spain, some twenty countries in the Americas, and Equatorial Guinea.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.
Standard French (in French: le français standard, le français normé, le français neutre or le français international, the last being a Quebec invention) is an unofficial term for a standard variety of the French language.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
A stochastic grammar (statistical grammar) is a grammar framework with a probabilistic notion of grammaticality.
Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.
Systemic functional grammar (SFG) is a form of grammatical description originated by Michael Halliday.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική or (romanized) Téchnē Grammatikḗ) is a treatise on Greek grammar, attributed to Dionysius Thrax, who wrote in the 2nd century BC.
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The Tholkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், literally Paleo-literature) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature and linguistics.
In linguistics, transformational grammar (TG) or transformational-generative grammar (TGG) is part of the theory of generative grammar, especially of natural languages.
Tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) is a grammar formalism defined by Aravind Joshi.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).
Universal grammar (UG) in linguistics, is the theory of the genetic component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Usage is the manner in which written and spoken language is used, the "points of grammar, syntax, style, and the choice of words", and "the way in which a word or phrase is normally and correctly used".
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Marcus Verrius Flaccus (c. 55 BC – AD 20) was a Roman grammarian and teacher who flourished under Augustus and Tiberius.
William Strunk Jr. (July 1, 1869 – September 26, 1946) was an American professor of English at Cornell University and author of The Elements of Style (1918).
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
Word grammar is a theory of linguistics, developed by Richard Hudson since the 1980s.
Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.
X-bar theory is a theory of syntactic category formation.
was an early Sanskrit grammarian who preceded Pāṇini (fl. 6-5th century BCE, Quote: "Ashtadhyayi, Sanskrit Aṣṭādhyāyī (“Eight Chapters”), Sanskrit treatise on grammar written in the 6th to 5th century BCE by the Indian grammarian Panini."), assumed to have lived in the 7th century BCE.
Gramatical, Grammar framework, Grammar frameworks, Grammars, Grammatical, Grammatical mistake, Grammatical rule, Grammatical structure, Grammatically, Grammaticalness, History of grammar, Language structure, Methods Used in teaching Grammar, Rules of language, Semantic rule, Semantical rule.