146 relations: Alexander Nevsky, Alexius, Metropolitan of Kiev, Algirdas, Andrei Rublev, Autocracy, Öz Beg Khan, Baltic Sea, Battle of Kulikovo, Belozersk, Belsky family (Gediminid), Bely, Tver Oblast, Black Death, Black Sea, Bolghar, Boris Godunov, Boyar, Byzantine Empire, Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Chernihiv, Chester Dunning, Constantine XI Palaiologos, Constantinople, Daniel of Moscow, Denga, Dmitry Donskoy, Dmitry of Suzdal, Dmitry Shemyaka, Dnieper, Donets, Eastern Orthodox Church, Edigu, English language, Feudalism, Foreign policy of the Russian Empire, Gediminas, Genghis Khan, Golden Horde, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Great Perm, Great stand on the Ugra river, House of Golitsyn, House of Romanov, International Studies Quarterly, Ivan I of Moscow, Ivan III of Russia, Ivan the Terrible, Jonah of Moscow, Kazan, Kievan Rus', ..., Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, Kirov, Kirov Oblast, Knyaz, Kolomna, Konda River, List of Byzantine emperors, List of Khans of the Golden Horde, List of Russian rulers, Lithuania, Looting, Mamai, Marshall Poe, Mestnichestvo, Mongol invasion of Rus', Mongols, Monomakh's Cap, Moscow, Moscow Kremlin, Moskva River, Mozhaysk, Mstislavsky, Muscovite Civil War, Muscovite manorialism, Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars, Nationalities Papers, Nizhny Novgorod, Nobility, Nogai Khan, Novgorod Republic, Old East Slavic, Oprichnina, Patriarch, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Perm, Prince, Principality, Principality of Ryazan, Principality of Smolensk, Principality of Tver, Pskov, Pskov Republic, Repnin, Roman Empire, Romodanovsky family, Rostov, Ruble, Rurik dynasty, Russia, Russian Empire, Russian nobility, Russian Orthodox Church, Ruthenia, Ryazan, Rzhev, Saint Peter of Moscow, Salekhard, Sarai (city), Sergius of Radonezh, Sheremetev, Shuysky, Siberia, Smolensk, Solovetsky Monastery, Sophia Palaiologina, Suzdal, Synecdoche, Tatars, Third Rome, Timur, Tokhtamysh, Trubetskoy family, Tsar, Tsardom of Russia, Tver, Tysyatsky, Ulugh Muhammad, Upper Oka Principalities, Vashka River, Vasili III of Russia, Vasily I of Moscow, Vasily II of Moscow, Vasily Kosoy, Veche, Veliky Novgorod, Veliky Ustyug, Vladimir the Bold, Vladimir-Suzdal, Vologda, Volokolamsk, Vorotynsky, Vytautas, White Sea, Yaroslavl, Yugra, Yury of Moscow, Yury of Zvenigorod. Expand index (96 more) » « Shrink index
Saint Alexius (Алексей or Aleksij in Russian) (before 1296–1378) was Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia (from 1354), and presided over the Moscow government during Dmitrii Donskoi's minority.
Algirdas (Альгерд, Ольгерд, Olgierd; – May 1377) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania.
Andrei Rublev (p, also transliterated as Andrey Rublyov; born in the 1360s, died 29 January 1427 or 1430, or 17 October 1428 in Moscow) is considered to be one of the greatest medieval Russian painters of Orthodox icons and frescos.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
Sultan Mohammed Öz Beg, better known as Uzbeg or Ozbeg (1282–1341, reign 1313–1341), was the longest-reigning khan of the Golden Horde, under whose rule the state reached its zenith.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Battle of Kulikovo (Мамаево побоище, Донское побоище, Куликовская битва, битва на Куликовом поле) was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, and various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitry of Moscow.
Belozersk (Белозе́рск) is a town and the administrative center of Belozersky District in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the southern bank of Lake Beloye, from which it takes the name, northwest of Vologda, the administrative center of the oblast.
The Belsky or Belski family (Бельский; plural: Бельские) was a princely family of Gediminid origin in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Bely (Бе́лый) is a town and the administrative center of Belsky District in Tver Oblast, Russia, located on the Obsha River.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bolghar (Болгар, Пăлхар) was intermittently capital of Volga Bulgaria from the 8th to the 15th centuries, along with Bilyar and Nur-Suvar.
Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в,; c. 1551) ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605.
A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Wallachian and Moldavian and later, Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Chernihiv (Чернігів) also known as Chernigov (p, Czernihów) is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast (province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion (district) within the oblast.
Chester S. L. Dunning (born January 27, 1949) is an American professor of Russian and European history at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas.
Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Daniil Aleksandrovich (Russian: Даниил Александрович) (1261 – 4 March 1303) was the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky and forefather of all the Grand Dukes of Moscow.
A denga (деньга, earlier денга) was a Russian monetary unit with a value latterly equal to ½ kopek (100 kopeks.
Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й, also known as Dimitrii or Demetrius), or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitry (12 October 1350 in Moscow – 19 May 1389 in Moscow), son of Ivan II the Fair of Moscow (1326–1359), reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death.
Dmitri Konstantinovich of Suzdal (Дми́трий Константи́нович Су́здальский) (1324 – 5 June 1383) ("the one-eyed" or "Odnook") was a powerful Prince of Suzdal and Nizhny Novgorod who dominated Russian politics during the minority of his son-in-law, Dmitri Donskoi.
Dmitriy Yurievich Shemyaka (Дмитрий Юрьевич Шемяка in Russian) (died 1453) was the second son of Yury of Zvenigorod by Anastasia of Smolensk and grandson of Dmitri Donskoi.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Siverskyi Donets (Siverśkyj Doneć) or Seversky Donets (Severskij Donec), usually simply called the Donets, is a river on the south of the East European Plain.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Edigu (or Edigey) (also İdegäy or Edege Mangit) (1352–1419) was a Mongol Muslim Emir of the White Horde who founded a new political entity, which came to be known as the Nogai Horde.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Foreign policy of the Russian Empire covers Russian foreign relations down to 1917.
Gediminas (– December 1341) was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
Great Perm (Пермь Великая), or simply Perm, Latinised Permia, was a medieval Komi state in what is now the Perm Krai of the Russian Federation.
The Great Stand on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between the forces of Akhmat, Khan of the Great Horde, and the Grand Prince Ivan III of Muscovy in 1480, which ended when the Tatars departed without conflict. It is seen in Russian historiography as the end of Tatar rule over Moscow.Michael Khodarkovsky, Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500-1800, (Indiana University Press, 2002), 80.
The Golitsyn (ɡɐˈlʲitsɨn) family, one of the largest and most princely of the noble houses of Russia, originated in the Duchy of Lithuania.
The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.
Ivan I Daniilovich Kalita (Russian: Ива́н I Дании́лович Калита́; 1288 – 31 March 1340 or 1341Basil Dmytryshyn, Medieval Russia:A source book, 850-1700, (Academic International Press, 2000), 194.) was Grand Duke of Moscow from 1325 and Vladimir from 1332.
Ivan III Vasilyevich (Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus'.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Saint Jonah or Saint Jonas (Иона in Russian) (died 1461?), was the Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus' from 1448 to his death in 1461.
Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery (Кирилло-Белозерский монастырь), translated into English as White Lake St.
Kirov (p), formerly known as Vyatka (Вя́тка) and Khlynov (Хлы́нов), is a city and the administrative center of Kirov Oblast, Russia, located on the Vyatka River.
Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands.
Kolomna (p) is an ancient city of Moscow Oblast, Russia, situated at the confluence of the Moskva and Oka Rivers, (by rail) southeast of Moscow.
Konda (Конда) is a river in the Khanty–Mansia district of Russia.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
This is a complete list of Khans of the White Horde, Blue Horde, Golden Horde and of the Great Horde.
This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
Mamai (Мамай, Mamay, 1335 - 1380), of Kiyat descent, was a powerful military commander of the Golden Horde.
Marshall Tillbrook Poe (born December 29, 1961) is an American historian, writer, editor and founder of the New Books Network, an online collection of podcast interviews with a wide range of non-fiction authors.
In Russian history, Mestnichestvo (Ме́стничество,; from ме́сто, a position) was a feudal hierarchical system in Russia from the 15th to 17th centuries.
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Monomakh's Cap (Russian: шапка Мономаха, shapka Monomakha), also called the Golden Cap (Shapka Zolotaya), is a chief relic of the Russian Grand Princes and Tsars.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
The Moskva River (река Москва, Москва-река, Moskva-reka) is a river of western Russia.
MozhayskAlternative transliterations include Mozhaisk, Mozhajsk, Mozhaĭsk, and Možajsk.
Mstislavsky (Russian Мстиславский) was a Russian princely family of Gediminid origin who prior to their move to Russia ruled the principality of Mstislavl.
The Muscovite Civil War, or Great Feudal War, was a prolonged conflict that cast its shadow over the entire reign of Vasily II of Moscow (from 1425 to 1453).
The development of feudal society in the region of Rus' took a different course to that in Western Europe.
The Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars)The conflicts are referred to as 'Muscovite wars' (wojny moskiewskie) in Polish historiography and as 'Lithuanian wars' in Russian one; English historiography uses both, ex.
Nationalities Papers is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Routledge for the Association for the Study of Nationalities.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Nogai (died 1299/1300), also called Nohai, Nokhai, Nogay, Noqai, Kara Nokhai, and Isa Nogai, was a general and de facto ruler of the Golden Horde and a great-great-grandson of Genghis Khan.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
The oprichnina (опри́чнина) was a state policy implemented by Tsar Ivan the Terrible in Russia between 1565 and 1572.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
Pereslavl-Zalessky (p, lit. Pereslavl beyond the woods), also known as Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located on the main Moscow–Yaroslavl road and on the southeastern shore of Lake Pleshcheyevo at the mouth of the Trubezh River.
Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
The Grand Duchy of Ryazan existed from 1078 when it was separated from the Chernigov Principality as the provincial Murom Principality.
The Principality of Smolensk (eventually Grand Principality of Smolensk) was a Kievan Rus' lordship from the eleventh to the fifteenth century.
Principality of Tver (Тверское княжество) was a Russian principality or duchy, which existed between the 13th and the 15th centuries.
Pskov (p; see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.
Pskov, known at various times as the Principality of Pskov (Псковское княжество, Pskovskoye knyazhestvo) or the Pskov Republic (Псковская Республика, Pskovskaya Respublika), was a medieval state on the south shore of Lake Pskov.
Repnin (Репнин), the name of an old Russian princely family of Rurikid stock.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romodanovsky (Ромодановские) was a Rurikid princely family descending from sovereign rulers of Starodub-on-the-Klyazma.
Rostov (p) is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring.
The ruble or rouble (p) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia.
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian nobility (дворянство. dvoryanstvo) arose in the 14th century.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
Ryazan (a) is a city and the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southeast of Moscow.
Rzhev (p) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, located southwest of Staritsa and from Tver, on the highway and railway connecting Moscow and Riga.
Saint Peter, Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia (Пётр; died on 20 December 1326) was the Russian metropolitan who moved his see from Vladimir to Moscow in 1325.
Salekhard (Салеха́рд; Khanty: Пуӆңават, Pułñawat; Саляʼ харад, Salja’ harad - lit. house on a peninsula) is a town and the administrative center of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia.
Sarai (also transcribed as Saraj or Saray, from Persian sarāi, "palace" or "court") was the name of two cities, which were successively capital cities of the Golden Horde, the Mongol kingdom which ruled much of Central Asia and Eastern Europe, in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Venerable Sergius of Radonezh (Се́ргий Ра́донежский, Sergii Radonezhsky; 14 May 1314 – 25 September 1392), also transliterated as Sergey Radonezhsky or Serge of Radonezh, was a spiritual leader and monastic reformer of medieval Russia.
The Sheremetev family (Шереме́тевы) was one of the wealthiest and most influential noble families in Russia.
The Princes Shuysky (Шуйские) is a Rurikid Princely family of former boyars descending from Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich of Vladimir-Suzdal and Prince Andrey Yaroslavich, brother to Alexander Nevsky.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.
The Solovetsky Monastery (p) is a fortified monastery located on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea in northern Russia.
Zoe Palaiologina (Ζωή Παλαιολογίνα), who later changed her name to Sophia Palaiologina (София Фоминична Палеолог; ca. 1440/49. – 7 April 1503), was a Byzantine princess, member of the Imperial Palaiologos family by marriage, Grand Princess of Moscow as the second wife of Grand Prince Ivan III.
Suzdal (p) is a town and the administrative center of Suzdalsky District in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Kamenka River, north of the city of Vladimir, the administrative center of the oblast.
A synecdoche (from Greek συνεκδοχή, synekdoche,. "simultaneous understanding") is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of something refers to the whole of something or vice versa.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Third Rome is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Tokhtamysh (tat. Tuqtamış) The spelling of Tokhtamysh varies, but the most common spelling is Tokhtamysh.
The Trubetskoy family (English), Трубецкой (Russian), Трубяцкі (Belarusian), Trubecki (Polish), Trubetsky (Ruthenian), Трубецький (Ukrainian), Troubetzkoy (French), Trubezkoi or Trubetzkoy (German), is a Ruthenian Gediminid gentry family of Black Ruthenian stock, like many other princely houses of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later prominent in Russian history, science, and arts.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Tver (p; IPA: tvʲerʲi) is a city and the administrative center of Tver Oblast, Russia.
A tysyatsky (p, "thousandman"), sometimes translated dux or herzog, was a military leader in ancient Rus' who commanded a people's volunteer army called a thousand (tysyacha).
Ulugh Muhammad (died 1445; Urdu, Persian and Arabic:; Олуг Мөхәммәт; Улуг Мухаммед), written as Ulanus by orientalists, was twice Khan of the Golden Horde and founder of the Khanate of Kazan.
In Russian historiography the term Upper Oka Principalities (Верховские княжества - literally: "Upper Principalities") traditionally applies to about a dozen tiny and ephemeral polities situated along the upper course of the Oka River at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries.
The Vashka (Вашка) is a river in Udorsky District of the Komi Republic and Leshukonsky and Mezensky Districts of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia.
Vasili III Ivanovich (Василий III Иванович, also Basil; 26 March 14793 December 1533, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533.
Vasily I Dmitriyevich (Василий I Дмитриевич; 30 December 137127 February 1425) was the Grand Prince of Moscow (r. 1389—1425), heir of Dmitry Donskoy (r. 1359—1389).
Vasily Vasiliyevich (Василий Васильевич; 10 March 141527 March 1462), known as Vasily II the Blind (Василий II Темный), was the Grand Prince of Moscow whose long reign (1425–1462) was plagued by the greatest civil war of Old Russian history.
Vasiliy Yuryevich Kosoy (the Squint) (Василий Юрьевич Косой) (1421–1448) had been Grand Prince of Moscow in 1434–35.
Veche (вече, wiec, віче, веча, вѣштє) was a popular assembly in medieval Slavic countries.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
Veliky Ustyug (Вели́кий У́стюг) is a town in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast at the confluence of the Sukhona and Yug Rivers.
Vladimir Andreyevich the Bold (July 15, 1353 – 1410) was the most famous prince of Serpukhov.
Vladimir-Suzdal (Владимирско-Су́здальская, Vladimirsko-Suzdal'skaya), formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir (1157–1331) (Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество, Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo), was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma.
Vologda (p) is a city and the administrative, cultural, and scientific center of Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the Vologda River within the watershed of the Northern Dvina.
Volokolamsk (Волокола́мск) is a town and the administrative center of Volokolamsky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the Gorodenka River, not far from its confluence with the Lama River, northwest of Moscow.
Vorotynsky was one of the most eminent Rurikid princely houses of Muscovite Russia.
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.
Yaroslavl (p) is a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Moscow.
Yugra or Iuhra (Old Russian Югра Jugra; Byzantine Greek Οὔγγροι Oὔggroi) was a collective name for lands and peoples between the Pechora River and Urals (modern north-west Russia), in the Russian annals of the 12th–17th Centuries.
Yuriy Danilovich, also known as Georgiy Danilovich (Юрий Данилович in Russian) (1281 – 21 November 1325) was Prince of Moscow (1303–1325) and Grand Prince of Vladimir (from 1318).
Yury Dmitrievich (26 November 1374, Pereslavl-Zalessky — 5 June 1434), also known as George II of Moscow, Yury of Zvenigorod and Jurij Zwenihorodski, was the second son of Dmitri Donskoi.
Duchy of Moscow, Gathering of the Russian lands, Grand Duchy of Muscovy, Grand Duke of Muscovy, Grand Prince of Muscovy, Grand Principality of Moscow, Grand duchy of Moscow, Great Duchy of Moscow, Moscouia, Moscovia, Moscovite state, Moscovy, Moscow Duchy, Moscow Princedom, Moscow Rus, Moscow princedom, Moscow principality, Muscovite Russia, Muscovy, Muscovy (Grand Duchy), Muscovy Rus, Muskovy, Of All Rus, Of All Rus', Of all Rus, Of all Rus', Principality of Moscow, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye, Великое Княжество Московское.