132 relations: A Brief History of Time, Abdus Salam, Abelian group, Andrzej Buras, B − L, Baryogenesis, Bottom quark, C-symmetry, Causal dynamical triangulation, Causal fermion system, Chiral color, Chirality (physics), Circle group, Classical unified field theories, Color charge, Compact group, Connection form, Cosmic string, Coupling constant, Dimitri Nanopoulos, Domain wall (string theory), Doublet state, Doublet–triplet splitting problem, Down quark, E6 (mathematics), Electric charge, Electromagnetism, Electron, Elementary charge, Elementary particle, Energy, Family symmetries, Flipped SO(10), Flipped SU(5), Force, Fundamental interaction, Gauge anomaly, Gauge theory, Generation (particle physics), Georgi–Glashow model, Georgi–Jarlskog mass relation, Grand unification energy, Grand unification epoch, Gravity, Group representation, Heterotic string theory, Hierarchy problem, Higgs boson, Higgs mechanism, Higgs sector, ..., Howard Georgi, Hypercharge, Inflation (cosmology), Invariant (mathematics), Irreducible representation, Isospin, Jogesh Pati, John Ellis (physicist), Jordan algebra, Lepton, Lie algebra, Lie group, Lie superalgebra, Little Higgs, Loop quantum gravity, M-theory, Magnetic monopole, Mainstream, Majorana fermion, Mary K. Gaillard, Maxwell's equations, Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, Muon, Nature (journal), Neutrino, Neutrino oscillation, Nuclear Physics (journal), Octonion, Paradigm shift, Particle physics, Pati–Salam model, Physical cosmology, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Planck length, Preon, Proton, Proton decay, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quark, Quaternion, Reductive group, Renormalization, Renormalization group, Representation of a Lie group, Scholarpedia, Seesaw mechanism, Semisimple Lie algebra, Sheldon Lee Glashow, Simple group, Simple Lie group, SO(10) (physics), Special unitary group, Spin connection, Spinor, Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Standard Model, Stephen Hawking, Strange quark, String theory, Strong interaction, SU(6) (physics), Superpartner, Supersymmetry, Symmetric bilinear form, Symplectic group, Tau (particle), Technicolor (physics), Theory of everything, Topological defect, Trinification, Triplet state, Vacuum expectation value, Weak hypercharge, Weak interaction, Weinberg angle, Westview Press, Weyl semimetal, X and Y bosons, Yang–Mills theory, 331 model. Expand index (82 more) » « Shrink index
A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes is a popular-science book on cosmology (the study of the universe) by British physicist Stephen Hawking.
Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.
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In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written.
Andrzej Jerzy Buras (born 26 October 1946 in Warsaw, Poland) is a theoretical physicist, professor emeritus at the Technical University Munich (TUM).
In high energy physics, B − L (pronounced "bee minus ell") is the difference between the baryon number (B) and the lepton number (L).
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In physical cosmology, baryogenesis is the hypothetical physical process that took place during the early universe that produced baryonic asymmetry, i.e. the imbalance of matter (baryons) and antimatter (antibaryons) in the observed universe.
The bottom quark or b quark, also known as the beauty quark, is a third-generation quark with a charge of − ''e''.
Charge conjugation is a transformation that switches all particles with their corresponding antiparticles, and thus changes the sign of all charges: not only electric charge but also the charges relevant to other forces.
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Causal dynamical triangulation (abbreviated as CDT) theorized by Renate Loll, Jan Ambjørn and Jerzy Jurkiewicz, and popularized by Fotini Markopoulou and Lee Smolin, is an approach to quantum gravity that like loop quantum gravity is background independent.
The theory of causal fermion systems is an approach to describe fundamental physics.
In particle physics phenomenology, chiral color is a speculative model which extends quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the generally accepted theory for the strong interactions of quarks.
A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).
In mathematics, the circle group, denoted by T, is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers with absolute value 1, that is, the unit circle in the complex plane or simply the unit complex numbers The circle group forms a subgroup of C×, the multiplicative group of all nonzero complex numbers.
Since the 19th century, some physicists, notably Albert Einstein, have attempted to develop a single theoretical framework that can account for all the fundamental forces of nature – a unified field theory.
Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
In mathematics, a compact (topological) group is a topological group whose topology is compact.
In mathematics, and specifically differential geometry, a connection form is a manner of organizing the data of a connection using the language of moving frames and differential forms.
Cosmic strings are hypothetical 1-dimensional topological defects which may have formed during a symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe when the topology of the vacuum manifold associated to this symmetry breaking was not simply connected.
In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.
Dimitri V. Nanopoulos (Δημήτρης Νανόπουλος; born 13 September 1948) is a Greek physicist.
In physics, a domain wall is any of several similar things in string theory, magnetism, or optics.
In quantum mechanics, a doublet is a mixed quantum state of a system with a spin of 1/2, such that there are two allowed values of the spin component, −1/2 and +1/2.
In particle physics, the doublet–triplet (splitting) problem is a problem of some Grand Unified Theories, such as SU(5), SO(10), E_6.
The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.
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In mathematics, E6 is the name of some closely related Lie groups, linear algebraic groups or their Lie algebras \mathfrak_6, all of which have dimension 78; the same notation E6 is used for the corresponding root lattice, which has rank 6.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
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The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
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In particle physics, family symmetries or horizontal symmetries are various discrete, global, or local symmetries between quark-lepton families or generations.
Flipped SO(10) is a grand unified theory which is to standard '''SO'''(10) as flipped '''SU'''(5) is to '''SU'''(5).
The Flipped SU(5) model is a grand unified theory (GUT) theory first contemplated by Stephen Barr in 1982, and by Dimitri Nanopoulos and others in 1984.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
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In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
In theoretical physics, a gauge anomaly is an example of an anomaly: it is a feature of quantum mechanics—usually a one-loop diagram—that invalidates the gauge symmetry of a quantum field theory; i.e. of a gauge theory.
In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.
In particle physics, a generation or family is a division of the elementary particles.
In particle physics, the Georgi–Glashow model is a particular grand unification theory (GUT) proposed by Howard Georgi and Sheldon Glashow in 1974.
In grand unified theories of the SU(5) or SO(10) type, there is a mass relation predicted between the electron and the down quark, the muon and the strange quark and the tau lepton and the bottom quark called the Georgi–Jarlskog mass relations.
The grand unification energy \Lambda_, or the GUT scale, is the energy level above which, it is believed, the electromagnetic force, weak force, and strong force become equal in strength and unify to one force governed by a simple Lie group.
In physical cosmology, assuming that nature is described by a Grand Unified Theory, the grand unification epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe following the Planck epoch, starting at about 10−43 seconds after the Big Bang, in which the temperature of the universe was comparable to the characteristic temperatures of grand unified theories.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
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In the mathematical field of representation theory, group representations describe abstract groups in terms of linear transformations of vector spaces; in particular, they can be used to represent group elements as matrices so that the group operation can be represented by matrix multiplication.
In string theory, a heterotic string is a closed string (or loop) which is a hybrid ('heterotic') of a superstring and a bosonic string.
In theoretical physics, the hierarchy problem is the large discrepancy between aspects of the weak force and gravity.
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.
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In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.
In particle physics, the Higgs sector is the collection of quantum fields and/or particles that are responsible for the Higgs mechanism, i.e. for the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the Higgs field.
Howard Mason Georgi III (born January 6, 1947) is an American theoretical physicist and the Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics and Harvard College Professor at Harvard University.
In particle physics, the hypercharge (from '''hyper'''onic + charge) Y of a particle is related to the strong interaction, and is distinct from the similarly named weak hypercharge, which has an analogous role in the electroweak interaction.
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In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe.
In mathematics, an invariant is a property, held by a class of mathematical objects, which remains unchanged when transformations of a certain type are applied to the objects.
In mathematics, specifically in the representation theory of groups and algebras, an irreducible representation (\rho, V) or irrep of an algebraic structure A is a nonzero representation that has no proper subrepresentation (\rho|_W,W), W \subset V closed under the action of \. Every finite-dimensional unitary representation on a Hermitian vector space V is the direct sum of irreducible representations.
In nuclear physics and particle physics, isospin is a quantum number related to the strong interaction.
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Jogesh C. Pati (born 1937, Baripada, Odisha, India) is an Indian American theoretical physicist at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.
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Jonathan Richard Ellis (born 1 July 1946) is a British theoretical physicist who is currently Clerk Maxwell Professor of Theoretical Physics at King's College London.
In abstract algebra, a Jordan algebra is an nonassociative algebra over a field whose multiplication satisfies the following axioms.
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.
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In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced "Lee") is a vector space \mathfrak g together with a non-associative, alternating bilinear map \mathfrak g \times \mathfrak g \rightarrow \mathfrak g; (x, y) \mapsto, called the Lie bracket, satisfying the Jacobi identity.
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In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced "Lee") is a group that is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure.
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In mathematics, a Lie superalgebra is a generalisation of a Lie algebra to include a Z2-grading.
In particle physics, little Higgs models are based on the idea that the Higgs boson is a pseudo-Goldstone boson arising from some global symmetry breaking at a TeV energy scale.
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.
M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory.
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A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa).
Mainstream is current thought that is widespread.
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A Majorana fermion (uploaded 19 April 2013, retrieved 5 October 2014; and also based on the physicist's name's pronunciation.), also referred to as a Majorana particle, is a fermion that is its own antiparticle.
Mary Katharine Gaillard (born April 1, 1939) is an American theoretical physicist with a focus on particle physics.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is an extension to the Standard Model that realizes supersymmetry.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
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Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
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Neutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanical phenomenon whereby a neutrino created with a specific lepton flavor (electron, muon, or tau) can later be measured to have a different flavor.
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
In mathematics, the octonions are a normed division algebra over the real numbers, usually represented by the capital letter O, using boldface O or blackboard bold \mathbb O. There are three lower-dimensional normed division algebras over the reals: the real numbers R themselves, the complex numbers C, and the quaternions H. The octonions have eight dimensions; twice the number of dimensions of the quaternions, of which they are an extension.
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A paradigm shift (also radical theory change), a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1922–1996), is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
In physics, the Pati–Salam model is a Partial Unification Theory proposed in 1974 by nobel laureate Abdus Salam and Jogesh Pati.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
In physics, the Planck length, denoted, is a unit of length, equal to metres.
In particle physics, preons are point particles, conceived of as subcomponents of quarks and leptons.
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In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.
In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
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In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.
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In mathematics, a reductive group is a type of linear algebraic group over a field.
Renormalization is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions.
In theoretical physics, the renormalization group (RG) refers to a mathematical apparatus that allows systematic investigation of the changes of a physical system as viewed at different scales.
In mathematics and theoretical physics, the idea of a representation of a Lie group plays an important role in the study of continuous symmetry.
Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.
In the theory of grand unification of particle physics, and, in particular, in theories of neutrino masses and neutrino oscillation, the seesaw mechanism is a generic model used to understand the relative sizes of observed neutrino masses, of the order of eV, compared to those of quarks and charged leptons, which are millions of times heavier.
In mathematics, a Lie algebra is semisimple if it is a direct sum of simple Lie algebras, i.e., non-abelian Lie algebras \mathfrak g whose only ideals are and \mathfrak g itself.
Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.
In mathematics, a simple group is a nontrivial group whose only normal subgroups are the trivial group and the group itself.
In group theory, a simple Lie group is a connected non-abelian Lie group G which does not have nontrivial connected normal subgroups.
In particle physics, SO(10) refers to a grand unified theory (GUT) based on the spin group Spin(10).
In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree, denoted, is the Lie group of unitary matrices with determinant 1.
In differential geometry and mathematical physics, a spin connection is a connection on a spinor bundle.
In geometry and physics, spinors are elements of a (complex) vector space that can be associated with Euclidean space.
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Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
SU(6) is a grand unified theory which includes the Georgi–Glashow SU(5) gauge group.
In particle physics, a superpartner (also sparticle) is a hypothetical elementary particle.
In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.
A symmetric bilinear form on a vector space is a bilinear map from two copies of the vector space to the field of scalars such that the order of the two vectors does not affect the value of the map.
In mathematics, the name symplectic group can refer to two different, but closely related, collections of mathematical groups, denoted and, the latter is called the compact symplectic group.
The tau (τ), also called the tau lepton, tau particle, or tauon, is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a 2.
Technicolor theories are models of physics beyond the standard model that address electroweak gauge symmetry breaking, the mechanism through which W and Z bosons acquire masses.
A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
In mathematics and physics, a topological soliton or a topological defect is a solution of a system of partial differential equations or of a quantum field theory homotopically distinct from the vacuum solution.
In physics, the trinification model is a GUT theory.
In quantum mechanics, a triplet is a quantum state of a system with a spin of quantum number s.
In quantum field theory the vacuum expectation value (also called condensate or simply VEV) of an operator is its average, expected value in the vacuum.
In the Standard Model of electroweak interactions of particle physics, the weak hypercharge is a quantum number relating the electric charge and the third component of weak isospin.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
The Weinberg angle or weak mixing angle is a parameter in the Weinberg–Salam theory of the electroweak interaction, part of the Standard Model of particle physics, and is usually denoted as.
Westview Press was an American publishing house.
Weyl fermions are massless chiral fermions that play an important role in quantum field theory and the standard model.
In particle physics, the X and Y bosons (sometimes collectively called "X bosons") are hypothetical elementary particles analogous to the W and Z bosons, but corresponding to a new type of force predicted by the Georgi–Glashow model, a grand unified theory.
Yang–Mills theory is a gauge theory based on the SU(''N'') group, or more generally any compact, reductive Lie algebra.
The 331 model in particle physics offers an explanation of why there must be three families of quarks and leptons.
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