128 relations: A Brief History of Time, Abdus Salam, Abelian group, B − L, Baryogenesis, Bottom quark, C-symmetry, Causal dynamical triangulation, Causal fermion system, Chiral color, Chirality (physics), Circle group, Classical unified field theories, Color charge, Compact group, Connection form, Cosmic string, Coupling constant, Dimitri Nanopoulos, Domain wall (string theory), Doublet state, Doublet–triplet splitting problem, Down quark, E6 (mathematics), Electric charge, Electromagnetism, Electron, Elementary charge, Elementary particle, Flipped SO(10), Flipped SU(5), Fundamental interaction, Gauge anomaly, Gauge theory, Generation (particle physics), Georgi–Glashow model, Georgi–Jarlskog mass relation, Grand unification energy, Grand unification epoch, Gravity, Group representation, Heterotic string theory, Hierarchy problem, Higgs boson, Higgs mechanism, Higgs sector, Howard Georgi, Hypercharge, Inflation (cosmology), Invariant (mathematics), ..., Irreducible representation, Isospin, Jogesh Pati, John Ellis (physicist), Jordan algebra, Lepton, Lie algebra, Lie group, Lie superalgebra, Little Higgs, Loop quantum gravity, M-theory, Magnetic monopole, Mainstream, Majorana fermion, Mary K. Gaillard, Maxwell's equations, Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, Muon, Nature (journal), Neutrino, Neutrino oscillation, Nuclear Physics (journal), Octonion, Paradigm shift, Particle physics, Particle physics and representation theory, Pati–Salam model, Physical cosmology, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Planck scale, Preon, Proton, Proton decay, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quark, Quaternion, Renormalization, Renormalization group, Representation of a Lie group, Seesaw mechanism, Semisimple algebraic group, Semisimple Lie algebra, Sheldon Lee Glashow, Simple group, Simple Lie group, SO(10) (physics), Special unitary group, Spin connection, Spinor, Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Standard Model, Stephen Hawking, Strange quark, String theory, Strong interaction, SU(6) (physics), Superpartner, Supersymmetry, Symmetric bilinear form, Symplectic group, Tau (particle), Technicolor (physics), Theory of everything, Topological defect, Trinification, Triplet state, Vacuum expectation value, Weak hypercharge, Weak interaction, Weinberg angle, Westview Press, Weyl semimetal, X and Y bosons, Yang–Mills theory, 331 model. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes is a 1988 popular-science book by British physicist Stephen Hawking.
Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.
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In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written (the axiom of commutativity).
In high energy physics, B − L (pronounced "bee minus ell") is the difference between the baryon number (B) and the lepton number (L).
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In physical cosmology, baryogenesis is the generic term for the hypothetical physical processes that produced an asymmetry (imbalance) between baryons and antibaryons produced in the very early universe.
The bottom quark or b quark, also known as the beauty quark, is a third-generation quark with a charge of − ''e''.
In physics, C-symmetry means the symmetry of physical laws under a charge-conjugation transformation.
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Causal dynamical triangulation (abbreviated as CDT) invented by Renate Loll, Jan Ambjørn and Jerzy Jurkiewicz, and popularized by Fotini Markopoulou and Lee Smolin, is an approach to quantum gravity that like loop quantum gravity is background independent.
The theory of causal fermion systems is an approach to describe fundamental physics.
In particle physics phenomenology, chiral color is a speculative model which extends quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the generally accepted theory for the strong interactions of quarks.
A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).
In mathematics, the circle group, denoted by T, is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers with absolute value 1, i.e., the unit circle in the complex plane or simply the unit complex numbers The circle group forms a subgroup of C×, the multiplicative group of all nonzero complex numbers.
Since the 19th century, some physicists have attempted to develop a single theoretical framework that can account for the fundamental forces of nature – a unified field theory.
Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
In mathematics, a compact (topological, often understood) group is a topological group whose topology is compact.
In mathematics, and specifically differential geometry, a connection form is a manner of organizing the data of a connection using the language of moving frames and differential forms.
Cosmic strings are hypothetical 1-dimensional topological defects which may have formed during a symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe when the topology of the vacuum manifold associated to this symmetry breaking was not simply connected.
In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.
Dimitri Nanopoulos (Greek: Δημήτρης Νανόπουλος; born 13 September 1948 in Athens) is a Greek physicist.
In physics, a domain wall is any of several similar things in string theory, magnetism, or optics.
In quantum mechanics, a doublet is a quantum state of a system with a spin of 1/2, such that there are two allowed values of the spin component, −1/2 and +1/2.
In particle physics, the doublet–triplet (splitting) problem is a problem of some Grand Unified Theories, such as SU(5), SO(10), E_6.
The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.
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In mathematics, E6 is the name of some closely related Lie groups, linear algebraic groups or their Lie algebras \mathfrak_6, all of which have dimension 78; the same notation E6 is used for the corresponding root lattice, which has rank 6.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.
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The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negation (opposite) of the electric charge carried by a single electron.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles.
Flipped SO(10) is a grand unified theory which is to standard '''SO'''(10) as flipped '''SU'''(5) is to '''SU'''(5).
The Flipped SU(5) model is a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) theory first contemplated by Stephen Barr in 1982, and by Dimitri Nanopoulos and others in 1984.
Fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions in physical systems that don't appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
In theoretical physics, a gauge anomaly is an example of an anomaly: it is an effect of quantum mechanics—usually a one-loop diagram—that invalidates the gauge symmetry of a quantum field theory; i.e. of a gauge theory.
In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under a continuous group of local transformations.
In particle physics, a generation (or family) is a division of the elementary particles.
In particle physics, the Georgi–Glashow model is a particular grand unification theory (GUT) proposed by Howard Georgi and Sheldon Glashow in 1974.
In grand unified theories of the SU(5) or SO(10) type, there is a mass relation predicted between the electron and the down quark, the muon and the strange quark and the tau lepton and the bottom quark called the Georgi–Jarlskog mass relations.
The grand unification energy \Lambda_, or the GUT scale, is the energy level above which, it is believed, the electromagnetic force, weak force, and strong force become equal in strength and unify to one force governed by a simple Lie group.
In physical cosmology, assuming that nature is described by a Grand unification theory, the grand unification epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe following the Planck epoch, starting at about 10−43 seconds after the Big Bang, in which the temperature of the universe was comparable to the characteristic temperatures of grand unified theories.
Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.
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In the mathematical field of representation theory, group representations describe abstract groups in terms of linear transformations of vector spaces; in particular, they can be used to represent group elements as matrices so that the group operation can be represented by matrix multiplication.
In string theory, a heterotic string is a closed string (or loop) which is a hybrid ('heterotic') of a superstring and a bosonic string.
In theoretical physics, the hierarchy problem is the large discrepancy between aspects of the weak force and gravity.
The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.
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In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.
In particle physics, the Higgs sector is the collection of quantum fields and/or particles that are responsible for the Higgs mechanism, i.e. for the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the Higgs field.
Howard Mason Georgi III (born January 6, 1947, San Bernardino, California) is Harvard College Professor and Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics at Harvard University.
In particle physics, the hypercharge (from '''hyper'''onic + charge) Y of a particle is related to the strong interaction, and is distinct from the similarly named weak hypercharge, which has an analogous role in the electroweak interaction.
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In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation is the exponential expansion of space in the early universe.
In mathematics, an invariant is a property, held by a class of mathematical objects, which remains unchanged when transformations of a certain type are applied to the objects.
In mathematics, specifically in the representation theory of groups and algebras, an irreducible representation (\Pi, V) or irrep of an algebraic structure A is a nonzero representation that has no proper subrepresentation (\Pi,W), W \subset V closed under the action of \Pi(a), a\in A. Every finite-dimensional unitary representation on a Hermitian vector space V is the direct sum of irreducible representations.
In nuclear physics and particle physics, isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a quantum number related to the strong interaction.
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Jogesh C. Pati (born 1937 in Baripada, Odisha, India) is an Indian American theoretical physicist at the University of Maryland, College Park.
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Jonathan Richard Ellis CBE FRS (born 1 July 1946) is a British theoretical physicist who is currently Clerk Maxwell Professor of Theoretical Physics at King's College London.
In abstract algebra, a Jordan algebra is an (nonassociative) algebra over a field whose multiplication satisfies the following axioms.
A lepton is an elementary, half-integer spin (spin) particle that does not undergo strong interactions, but is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle.
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In mathematics, a Lie algebra (not) is a vector space together with a non-associative multiplication called "Lie bracket".
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In mathematics, a Lie group is a group that is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure.
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In mathematics, a Lie superalgebra is a generalisation of a Lie algebra to include a Z2-grading.
In particle physics, little Higgs models are based on the idea that the Higgs boson is a pseudo-Goldstone boson arising from some global symmetry breaking at a TeV energy scale.
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory that attempts to describe the quantum properties of the universe and gravity.
M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory.
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A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa).
Mainstream is current thought that is widespread.
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A Majorana fermion (uploaded 19 April 2013, retrieved 5 October 2014; and also based on the physicist's name's pronunciation.), also referred to as a Majorana particle, is a fermion that is its own antiparticle.
Mary Katharine Gaillard (born 1939) is an American theoretical physicist with a focus on particle physics.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electrodynamics, classical optics, and electric circuits.
The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is an extension to the Standard Model that realizes supersymmetry.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with electric charge of −1 e and a 2, but with a much greater mass.
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Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A neutrino (or, in Italian) is an electrically neutral elementary particle with half-integer spin.
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Neutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanical phenomenon whereby a neutrino created with a specific lepton flavor (electron, muon or tau) can later be measured to have a different flavor.
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
In mathematics, the octonions are a normed division algebra over the real numbers, usually represented by the capital letter O, using boldface O or blackboard bold \mathbb O. There are only four such algebras, the other three being the real numbers R, the complex numbers C, and the quaternions H. The octonions are the largest such algebra, with eight dimensions; twice the number of dimensions of the quaternions, of which they are an extension.
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A paradigm shift is a phrase that was popularized by Thomas Kuhn in his influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962), and used to describe a change or "revolution" in the basic concepts of a scientific discipline.
Particle physics is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter (particles with mass) and radiation (massless particles).
There is a natural connection between particle physics and representation theory, as first noted in the 1930s by Eugene Wigner.
In physics, the Pati–Salam model is a Grand Unification Theory (GUT) proposed in 1974 by nobel laureate Abdus Salam and Jogesh Pati.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
In particle physics and physical cosmology, the Planck scale (named after Max Planck) is an energy scale around 1.22 × 1019 GeV (which corresponds to the mass–energy equivalence of the Planck mass 2.17645 × 10−8 kg) at which quantum effects of gravity become strong.
In particle physics, preons are "point-like" particles, conceived to be subcomponents of quarks and leptons.
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In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.
In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions, a fundamental force describing the interactions between quarks and gluons which make up hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
A quark is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
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In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.
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In quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, renormalization is any of a collection of techniques used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities.
In theoretical physics, the renormalization group (RG) refers to a mathematical apparatus that allows systematic investigation of the changes of a physical system as viewed at different distance scales.
In mathematics and theoretical physics, the idea of a representation of a Lie group plays an important role in the study of continuous symmetry.
In the theory of grand unification of particle physics, and, in particular, in theories of neutrino masses and neutrino oscillation, the seesaw mechanism is a generic model used to understand the relative sizes of observed neutrino masses, of the order of eV, compared to those of quarks and charged leptons, which are millions of times heavier.
In mathematics, especially in the areas of abstract algebra and algebraic geometry studying linear algebraic groups, a semisimple algebraic group is a type of matrix group which behaves much like a semisimple Lie algebra or semisimple ring.
In mathematics, a Lie algebra is semisimple if it is a direct sum of simple Lie algebras, i.e., non-abelian Lie algebras \mathfrak g whose only ideals are and \mathfrak g itself.
Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.
In mathematics, a simple group is a nontrivial group whose only normal subgroups are the trivial group and the group itself.
In group theory, a simple Lie group is a connected non-abelian Lie group G which does not have nontrivial connected normal subgroups.
In particle physics, one of the grand unified theories (GUT) is based on the SO(10) Lie group.
In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree, denoted, is the Lie group of unitary matrices with determinant 1 (i.e., real-valued determinant, not complex as for general unitary matrices).
In differential geometry and mathematical physics, a spin connection is a connection on a spinor bundle.
In geometry and physics, spinors are elements of a (complex) vector space that can be associated with Euclidean space.
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Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a mode of realization of symmetry breaking in a physical system, where the underlying laws are invariant under a symmetry transformation, but the system as a whole changes under such transformations, in contrast to explicit symmetry breaking.
The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known.
Stephen William Hawking born 8 January 1942) is an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge.
The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force, nuclear strong force or colour force), one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction and gravitation.
SU(6) is a grand unified theory which includes the Georgi–Glashow SU(5) gauge group.
In particle physics, a Superpartner (also Sparticle) is a hypothetical elementary particle.
Supersymmetry (SUSY), a theory of particle physics, is a proposed type of spacetime symmetry that relates two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.
A symmetric bilinear form on a vector space is a linear map from two copies of the vector space to the field of scalars such that the order of the two vectors does not affect the value of the map.
In mathematics, the name symplectic group can refer to two different, but closely related, collections of mathematical groups, denoted and.
The tau (τ), also called the tau lepton, tau particle or tauon, is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a 2.
Technicolor theories are models of physics beyond the standard model that address electroweak gauge symmetry breaking, the mechanism through which W and Z bosons acquire masses.
A theory of everything (ToE) or final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
In mathematics and physics, a topological soliton or a topological defect is a solution of a system of partial differential equations or of a quantum field theory homotopically distinct from the vacuum solution; it can be proven to exist because the boundary conditions entail the existence of homotopically distinct solutions.
In physics, the trinification model is a GUT theory.
In quantum mechanics, a triplet is a quantum state of a system with a spin of 1, such that there are three allowed values of the spin component, −1, 0 and +1.
In quantum field theory the vacuum expectation value (also called condensate or simply VEV) of an operator is its average, expected value in the vacuum.
The weak hypercharge in particle physics is a quantum number relating the electric charge and the third component of weak isospin.
In particle physics, the weak interaction is the mechanism responsible for the weak force or weak nuclear force, one of the four known fundamental interactions of nature, alongside the strong interaction, electromagnetism, and gravitation.
The Weinberg angle or weak mixing angle is a parameter in the Weinberg–Salam theory of the electroweak interaction, and is usually denoted as θW.
Westview Press is an American publishing house.
Weyl fermions are massless chiral fermions that play an important role in quantum field theory and the standard model.
In particle physics, the X and Y bosons (sometimes collectively called "X bosons") are hypothetical elementary particles analogous to the W and Z bosons, but corresponding to a new type of force predicted by the Georgi–Glashow model, a grand unified theory.
Yang–Mills theory is a gauge theory based on the SU(''N'') group, or more generally any compact, semi-simple Lie group.
The 331 model in particle physics offers an explanation of why there must be three families of quarks and leptons.
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