359 relations: Adam Zamoyski, Aide-de-camp, Aiguillette, Alcohol, Alexander I of Russia, Ambulance, American Civil War, Ammunition, Amputation, Ancien Régime, André Masséna, Anesthetic, Anne Jean Marie René Savary, Antibiotic, Antimony, Antoine Charles Louis de Lasalle, Armistice, Army of Italy (France), Army of the North (France), Army of the Rhine (1791–1801), Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Artillery, Artillery battery, Artillery brigade, Auguste de Marmont, Austrian Empire, Édouard Mortier, Duke of Trévise, Barge, Battalion, Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, Battle of Aspern-Essling, Battle of Austerlitz, Battle of Bailén, Battle of Bautzen, Battle of Berezina, Battle of Borghetto, Battle of Borodino, Battle of Corunna, Battle of Craonne, Battle of Dennewitz, Battle of Dresden, Battle of Eckmühl, Battle of Eylau, Battle of Friedland, Battle of Großbeeren, Battle of Hanau, Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, Battle of Kulm, Battle of La Rothière, Battle of Laon, ..., Battle of Lützen (1813), Battle of Leipzig, Battle of Leuthen, Battle of Ligny, Battle of Marengo, Battle of Montereau, Battle of Paris (1814), Battle of Somosierra, Battle of the Katzbach, Battle of Ulm, Battle of Wagram, Battle of Waterloo, Bayonet, Bearskin, Beech, Benavente, Zamora, Berezina River, Bicorne, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Brigade, British Army during the Napoleonic Wars, Burgos, Busby, Campaign in north-east France (1814), Canister shot, Canning, Cannon, Captain (armed forces), Carabiniers-à-Cheval, Carbine, Carcass (projectile), Cartridge (firearms), Cavalry, Celsius, Charles Joseph Minard, Charles XIV John of Sweden, Charleville musket, Chasseur, Chasseurs à Cheval de la Garde Impériale, Chef d'escadron, Chevau-léger, Chief warrant officer, Claude Chappe, Claude Testot-Ferry, Colonel (United States), Column (formation), Combined arms, Commander-in-chief, Commanding officer, Company (military unit), Confederation of the Rhine, Congreve rocket, Conscription, Continental System, Corporal, Corps, Cossacks, Counter-battery fire, County of Tyrol, Crimean War, Cuirass, Cuirassier, Curare, Danube, David G. 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Adam Zamoyski is an American-born British historian author.
An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.
An aiguillette, also spelled aguillette, aiglet or aglet (from French "aiguille", needle), is a cord with metal tips or lace tags, or the decorative tip itself.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
An ambulance is a vehicle for transportation, from or between places of treatment, and in some instances will also provide out of hospital medical care to the patient.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
André Masséna, 1st Duc de Rivoli, 1st Prince d'Essling (born Andrea Massena; 16 May 1758 – 4 April 1817) was a French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Anne Jean Marie René Savary, 1st Duke of Rovigo (26 April 17742 June 1833) was a French general and diplomat.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antoine-Charles-Louis, Comte de Lasalle (10 May 1775, Metz6 July 1809, Wagram) was a French cavalry general during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, often called "The Hussar General".
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
The Army of Italy (Armée d'Italie) was a field army of the French Army stationed on the Italian border and used for operations in Italy itself.
The Army of the North or Armée du Nord is a name given to several historical units of the French Army.
The Army of the Rhine (Armée du Rhin) was formed in December 1791, for the purpose of bringing the French Revolution to the German states along the Rhine River.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.
An artillery brigade is a specialised form of military brigade dedicated to providing artillery support.
Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont (20 July 1774 – 22 March 1852) was a French general and nobleman who rose to the rank of Marshal of France and was awarded the title (duc de Raguse).
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Adolphe Édouard Casimir Joseph Mortier, 1st Duc de Trévise (13 February 1768 – 28 July 1835) was a French general and Marshal of France under Napoleon I. He was one of 18 people killed in 1835 during Giuseppe Marco Fieschi's assassination attempt on King Louis Philippe I.
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube (20–21 March 1814) saw an Imperial French army under Napoleon face a much larger Allied army led by Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg during the War of the Sixth Coalition.
In the Battle of Aspern-Essling (21–22 May 1809), Napoleon attempted a forced crossing of the Danube near Vienna, but the French and their allies were driven back by the Austrians under Archduke Charles.
The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Bailén was fought in 1808 by the Spanish Army of Andalusia, led by Generals Francisco Castaños and Theodor von Reding, and the Imperial French Army's II corps d'observation de la Gironde under General Pierre Dupont de l'Étang.
In the Battle of Bautzen (20–21 May 1813) a combined Russian–Prussian army was pushed back by Napoleon I of France but escaped destruction, some sources claiming that Michel Ney failed to block their retreat.
The Battle of Berezina (or Beresina) took place from 26 to 29 November 1812, between the French army of Napoleon, retreating after his invasion of Russia and crossing the Berezina (near Borisov, Belarus), and the Russian armies under Mikhail Kutuzov, Peter Wittgenstein and Admiral Pavel Chichagov.
The Battle of Borghetto, near Valeggio sul Mincio in the Veneto of northern Italy, took place during the War of the First Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Borodino (la Moskova) was a battle fought on 7 September 1812 in the Napoleonic Wars during the French invasion of Russia.
The Battle of Corunna (or A Coruña, La Corunna, La Coruña, Elviña or La Corogne) took place on 16 January 1809, when a French corps under Marshal of the Empire Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult attacked a British army under Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore.
The Battle of Craonne (7 March 1814) was battle between an Imperial French army under Emperor Napoleon I opposing a combined army of Imperial Russians and Prussians led by Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.
The Battle of Dennewitz (Schlacht von Dennewitz) took place on 6September 1813 between the forces of the First French Empire and an army of Prussians and Russians of the Sixth Coalition.
The Battle of Dresden (26–27 August 1813) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Eckmühl (also known as "Eggmühl") fought on 21 April – 22 April 1809, was the turning point of the 1809 Campaign, also known as the War of the Fifth Coalition.
The Battle of Eylau or Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, 7 and 8 February 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive battle between Napoleon's Grande Armée and the Imperial Russian Army under the command of Levin August, Count von Bennigsen near the town of Preussisch Eylau in East Prussia.
The Battle of Friedland (June 14, 1807) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars between the armies of the French Empire commanded by Napoleon I and the armies of the Russian Empire led by Count von Bennigsen.
In the Battles of Großbeeren and neighboring Blankenfelde and Sputendorf (23 August 1813) an allied Prussian-Swedish army under Crown Prince Charles John – formerly Marshal of France Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte – defeated the French under Marshal Oudinot.
The Battle of Hanau was fought on (30 – 31 October 1813) between Karl Philipp von Wrede’s Austro-Bavarian corps and Napoleon's retreating French during the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the River Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia.
The Battle of Kulm was a battle near the town Kulm (Chlumec) and the village Přestanov in northern Bohemia.
The Battle of La Rothière was fought on 1 February 1814 between the French Empire and allied army of Austria, Prussia, Russia, and German States previously allies with France.
The Battle of Laon (9–10 March 1814) was the victory of Blücher's Prussian army over Napoleon's French army near Laon.
In the Battle of Lützen (German: Schlacht von Großgörschen, May 2, 1813), Napoleon I of France halted the advances of the Sixth Coalition after the French invasion of Russia and the massive French losses in the campaign.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.
The Battle of Leuthen was fought on 5 December 1757, at which Frederick the Great's Prussian army used maneuver and terrain to decisively defeat a much larger Austrian force commanded by Prince Charles of Lorraine and Count Leopold Joseph von Daun.
The Battle of Ligny (16 June 1815) was the last victory of the military career of Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Battle of Marengo was fought on 14 June 1800 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy.
The Battle of Montereau (18 February 1814) was fought during the War of the Sixth Coalition between an Imperial French army led by Emperor Napoleon and a corps of Austrians and Württembergers commanded by Crown Prince Frederick William of Württemberg.
The Battle of Paris was fought on March 30–31, 1814 between the Sixth Coalition—consisting of Russia, Austria, and Prussia against the French Empire.
The Battle of Somosierra took place on November 30, 1808, during the Peninsular War, when a French army under Napoleon I forced a passage through the Sierra de Guadarrama shielding Madrid.
The Battle of the Katzbach on 26 August 1813, was a major battle of the Napoleonic Wars between the forces of the First French Empire under Marshal MacDonald and a Russo-Prussian army of the Sixth Coalition under Prussian Marshal Graf (Count) von Blücher.
The Battle of Ulm on 16–19 October 1805 was a series of skirmishes, at the end of the Ulm Campaign, which allowed Napoleon I to trap an entire Austrian army under the command of Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich with minimal losses and to force its surrender near Ulm in the Electorate of Bavaria.
The Battle of Wagram (5–6 July 1809) was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife, sword, or spike-shaped weapon designed to fit on the end of a rifles muzzle, allowing it to be used as a pike.
A bearskin is a tall fur cap, usually worn as part of a ceremonial military uniform.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
Benavente is a town and municipality in the north of the province of Zamora, in the autonomous community Castile and León of Spain.
The Berezina or Biarezina (Бярэ́зіна) is a river in Belarus and a tributary of the Dnieper River.
The bicorne or bicorn (two-cornered/horned or twihorn) is a historical form of hat widely adopted in the 1790s as an item of uniform by European and American military and naval officers.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne (Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Boulonne-su-Mér, Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
The British Army during the Napoleonic Wars experienced a time of rapid change.
Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile.
Busby is the English name for the Hungarian prémes csákó ("fur shako") or kucsma, a military head-dress made of fur, originally worn by Hungarian hussars.
The 1814 campaign in north-east France was Napoleon's final campaign of the War of the Sixth Coalition.
Canister shot is a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons.
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.
The Carabiniers-à-Cheval (French for "Horse Carabiniers") were mounted troops in the service of France.
A carbine, from French carabine, is a long gun firearm but with a shorter barrel than a rifle or musket.
A carcass was an early form of incendiary bomb or shell, intended to set targets on fire.
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Charles Joseph Minard (27 March 1781 – 24 October 1870) was a French civil engineer recognized for his significant contribution in the field of information graphics in civil engineering and statistics.
Charles XIV and III John or Carl John, (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl Johan; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death, and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818.
The Charleville muskets were.69 caliber French muskets used in the 18th century and 19th century.
Chasseur, a French term for "hunter", is the designation given to certain regiments of French and Belgian light infantry (chasseurs à pied) or light cavalry (chasseurs à cheval) to denote troops trained for rapid action.
The Chasseurs à Cheval de la Garde Impériale (in English: Horse Chasseurs of the Imperial Guard) constituted a light cavalry regiment in the Consular, then Imperial Guard during the French Consulate and First French Empire respectively.
In the French armed forces (and in the armed forces of former French colonies such as the armed forces of Niger), Chef d'escadron ("squadron leader") is the title of a commandant (major) in the Cavalry, Artillery and Baggage Train Corps and in the Gendarmerie.
The Chevau-légers (from French cheval—horse—and léger—light) was a generic French name for several units of light and medium cavalry.
Chief Warrant Officer is a military rank used by the United States Armed Forces, the Canadian Armed Forces, the Pakistan Air Force, the Israel Defense Forces, the South African National Defence Force, the Lebanese Armed Forces and, since 2012, the Singapore Armed Forces.
Claude Chappe (December 25, 1763 – January 23, 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France.
Général Baron Claude Testot-Ferry (20 May 1773, Arnay-le-Duc – 25 August 1856, Châtillon-sur-Seine, Côte-d'Or) was a cavalry veteran of the armies of the First French Republic, First French Empire and Bourbon Restoration.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general.
A military column is a formation of soldiers marching together in one or more files in which the file is significantly longer than the width of ranks in the formation.
Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The commanding officer (CO) or, if the incumbent is a general officer, commanding general (CG), is the officer in command of a military unit.
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The Congreve rocket was a British military weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804, based directly on Mysorean rockets.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.
Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations.
Corps (plural corps; via French, from the Latin corpus "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organisation.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Counter-battery fire (sometimes called counter-fire) is a battlefield military activity to defeat the enemy's indirect fire elements (guns, rocket launchers, artillery and mortars), including their target acquisition, command and control components.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
A cuirass (cuirasse, coriaceus) is a piece of armour, formed of a single or multiple pieces of metal or other rigid material which covers the front of the torso.
Cuirassiers were cavalry equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe.
Curare or is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons originating from Central and South America.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
David Geoffrey Chandler (15 January 1934 – 10 October 2004) was a British historian whose study focused on the Napoleonic era.
A demi-brigade (Half-brigade) is a military formation used by the French Army since the French Revolutionary Wars.
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning.
Dispatch is a procedure for assigning employees (workers) or vehicles to customers.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
A Dolman (from Turkish dolaman "robe") is a somewhat vague term for various types of clothing, all of which have sleeves and cover the top part of the body, and sometimes more.
Dominique Jean Larrey (8 July 1766 – 25 July 1842) was a French surgeon in Napoleon's Grande Armée and an important innovator in battlefield medicine and triage.
Donauwörth) is a town and the capital of the Donau-Ries district in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany. It is said to have been founded by two fishermen where the rivers Danube (Donau) and Wörnitz meet. The city is part of the scenic route called "Romantische Straße" (Romantic Road) The city is situated between Munich and Nuremberg, 46 km north of Augsburg.
The Dragons de la Garde impériale (Dragoons of the Imperial Guard) was a heavy cavalry unit formed by Napoleon I through the decree of April 15, 1806.
Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot.
The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
Emmanuel de Grouchy, 2ème Marquis de Grouchy (23 October 1766 – 29 May 1847) was a French general and marshal.
Joséphine de Beauharnais (born Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French as Joséphine.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Epaulette (also spelled epaulet) is a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia of rank by armed forces and other organizations.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
A field hospital is a small mobile medical unit, or mini hospital, that temporarily takes care of casualties on-site before they can be safely transported to more permanent facilities.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces and, in some forces, an appointment.
First sergeant is typically a senior non-commissioned officer rank, used in many countries.
The flag of France (Drapeau français) is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red.
Flintlock is a general term for any firearm that uses a flint striking ignition mechanism.
A flying wedge (also called flying V or wedge formation, or simply wedge) is a configuration created from a body moving forward in a triangular formation.
Francis II (Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman territories of Egypt and Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, weaken Britain's access to British India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region.
The French Imperial Eagle (Aigle de drapeau, lit. "flag eagle") refers to the figure of an eagle on a staff carried into battle as a standard by the Grande Armée of Napoléon I during the Napoleonic Wars.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Army (Armée révolutionnaire française) was the French force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1802.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
In an explosive, pyrotechnic device, or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function.
Fusilier is a name given to various kinds of soldiers; its meaning depends on the historical context.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt (16 December 1742 – 12 September 1819), Graf (count), later elevated to Fürst (sovereign prince) von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall (field marshal).
A gendarme was a heavy cavalryman of noble birth, primarily serving in the French army from the Late Medieval to the Early Modern periods of European history.
The Gendarmes d'élite de la Garde impériale (English: "élite gendarmes of the Imperial Guard") was a gendarmerie unit formed in 1801 by Napoleon as part of the Consular Guard which became the Imperial Guard in 1804.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Grand Battery (Grande Batterie, meaning big or great battery) was a French artillery tactic of the Napoleonic wars.
Grand marshal of the palace (French: Grand Maréchal du Palais) was the title employed to refer to the leader of the Military Household of the Emperor, during the First French Empire.
As with all armed forces throughout history, the French Grande Armée of the Napoleonic Wars used a colorful and extensive vocabulary of slang terms to describe their lives, times and circumstances and express their reactions towards them.
In artillery, grapeshot is a type of shot that is not one solid element, but a mass of small metal balls or slugs packed tightly into a canvas bag.
A grenadier (derived from the word grenade) was originally a specialized soldier, first established as a distinct role in the mid-to-late 17th century, for the throwing of grenades and sometimes assault operations.
The Grenadiers à Cheval de la Garde Impériale (in English: Horse Grenadiers of the Imperial Guard) constituted a heavy cavalry regiment in the Consular, then Imperial Guard during the French Consulate and First French Empire respectively.
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
The hackle is a clipped feather plume that is attached to a military headdress.
Heavy cavalry is a class of cavalry whose primary role was to engage in direct combat with enemy forces, and are heavily armed and armoured compared to light cavalry.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Horse artillery was a type of light, fast-moving, and fast-firing artillery which provided highly mobile fire support, especially to cavalry units.
A hot air balloon is a lighter-than-air aircraft consisting of a bag, called an envelope, which contains heated air.
The Household Cavalry (HCav) is made up of the two most senior regiments of the British Army, the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons).
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
The Hundred Days (les Cent-Jours) marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 110 days).
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Eastern and Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, originally Hungarian.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The III Corps of the Grande Armée was the designation of a few military units during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Imperial Guard (French: Garde Impériale) was originally a small group of elite soldiers of the French Army under the direct command of Napoleon I, but grew considerably over time.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Historically an infantry square, also known as a hollow square, is a combat formation an infantry unit forms in close order usually when threatened with cavalry attack.
Napoleon's Irish Legion (Légion irlandaise) was a French light infantry battalion established in 1803 for an anticipated invasion of Ireland.
Jean Baptiste Eblé (December 21, 1758 – December 31, 1812) was a French General, Engineer and Artilleryman during the Napoleonic Wars.
Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montebello, 1st Prince de Siewierz (10 April 1769 – 31 May 1809), was a Marshal of the Empire.
Jean Victor Marie Moreau (14 February 1763 – 2 September 1813) was a French general who helped Napoleon Bonaparte to power, but later became a rival and was banished to the United States.
Jean-Baptiste Bessières, 1st Duc d' Istria (6 August 17681 May 1813) was a Marshal of France of the Napoleonic Era.
Lieutenant General Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (15 September 1715 – 9 May 1789) was a French artillery officer and engineer who revolutionized French cannon, creating a new production system that allowed lighter, more uniform guns without sacrificing range.
Marshal General Jean-de-Dieu Soult, 1st Duke of Dalmatia, (29 March 1769 – 26 November 1851) was a French general and statesman, named Marshal of the Empire in 1804 and often called Marshal Soult.
Jinn (الجن), also romanized as djinn or anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source)Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 p. 22 (German) are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology.
Joachim-Napoléon Murat (born Joachim Murat; Gioacchino Napoleone Murat; Joachim-Napoleon Murat; 25 March 1767 – 13 October 1815) was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon.
Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore,, (13 November 1761 – 16 January 1809) was a British soldier and General, also known as Moore of Corunna.
Julius August Reinhold von Grawert (1746–1821) was a Prussian general.Julius was the son of Johann Benjamin von Grawert (1709–1759) and his wife Christiane Sophie, née von Schollenstern (1717–1796).
Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich (25 August 1752 – 22 December 1828) was an Austrian soldier.
Karl Philipp, Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (or Charles Philip, Prince of Schwarzenberg; 18/19 April 1771 – 15 October 1820) was an Austrian field marshal.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska; Regnum Croatiae Horvát Királyság Königreich Kroatien) was part of the Habsburg Monarchy that existed between 1527 and 1868 (also known between 1804 and 1867 as the Austrian Empire), as well as a part of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia; Royaume d'Italie) was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
The Kingdom of Westphalia was a kingdom in Germany, with a population of 2.6 million, that existed from 1807 to 1813.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
La caravane du Caire is an opéra-ballet in three acts by André Grétry, set to a libretto by Étienne Morel de Chédeville.
La Maraude describes the tactic employed by Napoleonic armies of scavenging local villages or enemy populations for supplies instead of relying on extended lines of supply.
A lancer was a type of cavalryman who fought with a lance.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Les Invalides, commonly known as Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose.
An example of levée en masse (or, in English, "mass levy") was the policy of forced mass military conscription of all able-bodied, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 adopted in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789.
Count Levin August Gottlieb Theophil von Bennigsen (10 February 1745 in Braunschweig – 3 December 1826 in Banteln) was a German general in the service of the Russian Empire.
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
In the United States Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force, a lieutenant colonel is a field grade military officer rank just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
Light cavalry comprises lightly armed and lightly armoured troops mounted on horses, as opposed to heavy cavalry, where the riders (and sometimes the horses) are heavily armored.
Light infantry is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or armament or a more mobile or fluid function than other types of infantry, such as heavy infantry or line infantry.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
The line formation is a standard tactical formation which was used in early modern warfare.
Line infantry was the type of infantry that composed the basis of European land armies from the middle of the 17th century to the middle of the 19th century.
The following list of French general officers (Peninsular War) lists the générals (général de brigade and général de division) and maréchals d'Empire, that is, the French general officers who served in the First French Empire's Grande Armée in Spain and Portugal during the Peninsular War (1808–1814).
Marshal of France (Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
Louis Lepic (September 20, 1765 Montpellier – January 7, 1827 Andrésy) was a French cavalry commander of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
Louis-Alexandre Berthier (20 November 1753 – 1 June 1815), 1st Prince of Wagram, Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel, was a French Marshal and Vice-Constable of the Empire, and Chief of Staff under Napoleon.
Louis-Nicolas d'Avout (10 May 17701 June 1823), better known as Davout, 1st Duke of Auerstaedt, 1st Prince of Eckmühl, was a French general who was Marshal of the Empire during the Napoleonic era.
Johann David Ludwig Graf Yorck von Wartenburg (26 September 1759 – 4 October 1830) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall instrumental in the switching of the Kingdom of Prussia from a French alliance to a Russian alliance during the War of the Sixth Coalition.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, major is a field grade military officer rank above the rank of captain and below the rank of lieutenant colonel.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
A mallet is a kind of hammer, often made of rubber or sometimes wood, that is smaller than a maul or beetle, and usually has a relatively large head.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Maréchal de camp (sometimes incorrectly translated as field marshal) was a general officer rank used by the French Army until 1848.
A marksman is a person who is skilled in precision shooting, using accurate precision scoped projectile weapons (in modern days most commonly a designated marksman rifle or a sniper rifle) to shoot at high-value targets at longer-than-usual ranges.
Marshal of the Empire (Maréchal d'Empire) was a civil dignity during the First French Empire.
Melee (or, French: mêlée) or pell-mell battle generally refers to disorganized close combat in battles fought at abnormally close range with little central control once it starts.
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.
Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (–) was a Russian Field Marshal and Minister of War during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition.
Marshal of the Empire Michel Ney, 1st Duke of Elchingen, 1st Prince of the Moskva (10 January 1769 – 7 December 1815), popularly known as Marshal Ney, was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter (24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) was a Dutch admiral.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications.
The Military Household of the Emperor (French: Maison Militaire de l'Empereur) was the immediate entourage of the Emperor of the French during the First French Empire.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state.
The Mixed Order (Ordre Mixte) was a tactical formation originally used by ''demi-brigades'' of the French Revolutionary Army and then later by Napoleon's Grande Armée to great effect.
The Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) refers to a United States Army medical unit serving as a fully functional hospital in a combat area of operations.
Morale, also known as esprit de corps, is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
A moustache (mustache) is facial hair grown on the upper lip.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom at the start of the War of the Third Coalition, although never carried out, was a major influence on British naval strategy and the fortification of the coast of southeast England.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The casualties of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815), direct and indirect, break down as follows: Note that the following deaths listed include both killed in action as well as deaths from other causes; Deaths from diseases such as those from wounds; of starvation; exposure; drowning; friendly fire; and atrocities; Medical treatments were changed drastically at this time.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nicolas Appert (17 November 1749 Châlons-sur-Marne (present Châlons-en-Champagne), present Marne – 1 June 1841 Massy) was the French inventor of airtight food preservation.
Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light.
Paul Britten Austin (5 April 1922 – 25 July 2005) was an English author, translator, broadcaster, administrator, and scholar of Swedish literature.
The fourth Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg; Preßburger Frieden; Traité de Presbourg) was signed on 26 December 1805 between Napoleon and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II as a consequence of the French victories over the Austrians at Ulm (25 September – 20 October) and Austerlitz (2 December).
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
A pistol is a type of handgun.
Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A pom-pom – also spelled pom-pon, pompom or pompon – is a decorative ball or tuft of fibrous material.
A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Legion (French Légion portugaise and Portuguese Legião Portuguesa) was the 9 000 men strong Portuguese military force integrated in the Napoleon's Imperial Armies, mobilized after the occupation of Portugal by the army of General Junot, in 1807.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to NATO Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in).
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Pyotr Bagration (10 July 1765 – 24 September 1812) was a Russian general and prince of Georgian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
A Pyrrhic victory is a victory that inflicts such a devastating toll on the victor that it is tantamount to defeat.
The Réaumur scale (°Ré, °Re, °r), also known as the "octogesimal division", is a temperature scale for which the freezing and boiling points of water are defined as 0 and 80 degrees respectively.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.
A regiment is a military unit.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rochefort is a commune in southwestern France, a port on the Charente estuary.
Rocket artillery is a type of artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional guns or mortars.
Rosin, also called colophony or Greek pitch (pix græca), is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components.
A round shot (or solid shot, or a cannonball, or simply ball) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon.
The Royal Saxon Army (Königlich Sächsische Armee) was the military force of the Electorate (1682—1807) and later the Kingdom of Saxony (1807—1918).
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The sabre (British English) or saber (American English) is a type of backsword with a curved blade associated with the light cavalry of the early modern and Napoleonic periods.
A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties such as breaching fortifications, demolitions, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, preparing field defenses as well as building, and working on road and airfield construction and repair.
A scimitar is a backsword or sabre with a curved blade, originating in the Middle East.
Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.
A semaphore telegraph is a system of conveying information by means of visual signals, using towers with pivoting shutters, also known as blades or paddles.
Senior captain is a rare military rank which is used in some countries' armed forces, navies and merchant marines.
Senior lieutenant colonel ("SLTC") is a senior officer rank in the Singapore Armed Forces, ranking just above lieutenant colonel and below colonel.
Sergeant (abbreviated to Sgt and capitalized when used as a named person's title) is a rank in many uniformed organizations, principally military and policing forces.
Sergeant major is a senior non-commissioned rank or appointment in many militaries around the world.
Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma (also called saturation or intensity) or lightness (or value, tone, or brightness), or in two or three of these qualities.
A shako is a tall, cylindrical military cap, usually with a visor, and sometimes tapered at the top.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
Shock troops or assault troops are formations created to lead an attack.
A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug.
Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
The Siege of Acre of 1799 was an unsuccessful French siege of the Ottoman-defended, walled city of Acre (now Akko in modern Israel) and was the turning point of Napoleon's invasion of Egypt and Syria.
Sirwal, also saroual, seroual, sarouel or serouelSmith, Robin (1996) At Google Books.
The Six Days Campaign (10–15 February 1814) was a final series of victories by the forces of Napoleon I of France as the Sixth Coalition closed in on Paris.
Skirmishers are light infantry or cavalry soldiers in the role of skirmishing—stationed to act as a vanguard, flank guard, or rearguard, screening a tactical position or a larger body of friendly troops from enemy advances.
Sky blue is the name of a colour that resembles the colour of the sky at noon.
Slonim (Сло́нім, Сло́ним, Slanimas, Słonim, סלאָנים, Slonim) is a city in Grodno Region, Belarus, capital of the Slonim district.
Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.
A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling.
The Spanish Army of the Peninsular War refers to the Spanish military units that fought against France's Grande Armée from 2 May 1808 to 17 April 1814) a period which coincided with what is also termed the Spanish War of Independence (Guerra de la Independencia Española). These regular troops were supplemented throughout the country by the guerrilla actions of local militias which, in the case of Catalonia, ran to thousands of well-organised "miquelets", or "somatenes", who had already proved their worth in the Catalan revolt of 1640 and in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), while in Andalusia, they were more modest in number, and sometimes little more than brigands who were, in some cases, feared by French troops and the civilian population alike but which were nevertheless a constant source of harassment to the French army and its lines of communication, as were the numerous spontaneous popular uprisings. So much so, that by summer 1811, French commanders deployed 70,000 troops only to keep said lines open between Madrid and the border with France.Bowen, Wayne H. and José E. Alvarez (2007) At Google Books. Retrieved 26 September 2013. A list drawn up in 1812 puts the figure of such irregular troops at 38,520 men, divided into 22 guerrilla bands. At some battles, such as the Battle of Salamanca, the Army of Spain fought side-by-side with their allies of the Anglo-Portuguese Army, led by General Wellesley (who would not become the Duke of Wellington until after the Penininsular War was over).
A squadron was historically a cavalry subunit, a company sized military formation.
Stralsund, (Swedish: Strålsund) is a Hanseatic town in the Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
During the French Revolutionary Wars, the revolutionary armies marched eastward, enveloping Switzerland in their battles against Austria.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
The Trachenberg Plan was a campaign plan created by Allied commanders in the 1813 German Campaign during the War of the Sixth Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars, and named for the conference held at the palace of Trachenberg.
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland.
The Treaty of Schönbrunn (Traité de Schönbrunn; Friede von Schönbrunn), sometimes known as the Peace of Schönbrunn or Treaty of Vienna, was signed between France and Austria at Schönbrunn Palace near Vienna on 14 October 1809.
Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition.
A trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles.
The types of military forces in the Napoleonic Wars represented the unique tactical use of distinct military units, or their origin within different European regions.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Uhlans (Polish: Ułan; German: Ulan) were Polish light cavalry armed with lances, sabres and pistols.
Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube.
The Ulm Campaign was a series of French and Bavarian military maneuvers and battles to outflank and capture an Austrian army in 1805 during the War of the Third Coalition.
The uniforms of La Grande Armée, the army of Napoleon I, are described in this article.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The vanguard (also called the advance guard) is the leading part of an advancing military formation.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The VI Corps of the Grande Armée was the name of a French military unit that existed during the Napoleonic Wars.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.
The Voltigeurs were French military skirmish units created in 1804 by Emperor Napoleon I.
A War Hawk, or simply hawk, is a term used in politics for someone favouring war in a debate over whether to go to war, or whether to continue or escalate an existing war.
The War of the Fifth Coalition was fought in 1809 by a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against Napoleon's French Empire and Bavaria.
The Fourth Coalition fought against Napoleon's French Empire and was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba.
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806.
Homing pigeons have long played an important role in war.
A warrant officer (WO) is an officer in a military organisation who is designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer who is designated an officer by a commission, and a non-commissioned officer who is designated an officer, often by virtue of seniority.
The Waterloo Campaign (15 June – 8 July 1815) was fought between the French Army of the North and two Seventh Coalition armies, an Anglo-allied army and a Prussian army.
Weapons of Honour (French: Armes d'honneur) are ceremonial weapons awarded for service or assistance to France.
The White Elster is a long river in central Europe, right tributary of the Saale.
Major-General Sir William Ponsonby (13 October 177218 June 1815), styled The Honourable from 1806, was an Irish politician and British Army officer who served in the Peninsula War and was killed at the Battle of Waterloo.
The yard (abbreviation: yd) is an English unit of length, in both the British imperial and US customary systems of measurement, that comprises 3 feet or 36 inches.
The 1st Polish Light Cavalry Regiment of the Imperial Guard (Polish: 1 Pułk Lekkokonny Gwardii Cesarskiej; French: 1er Régiment des chevaux-légers de la Garde Impériale) was a formation of Polish light cavalry that served Emperor Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
The 2e régiment de chevau-légers lanciers de la Garde Impériale (English: 2nd Regiment of Light Cavalry Lancers of the Imperial Guard) was a light cavalry regiment in Napoleon I's Imperial Guard.
The 4th Hussar Regiment (4e régiment de hussards) is a hussar regiment in the French Army, raised and embodied in 1783 and still in existence.
Armee des cotes de l'Ocean, Armée des côtes de l'Océan, French Imperial Army, Grand Armee, Grand Army, Grand Armée, Grande Armee, Grande Armée (Premier Empire), Grande Armée d'Allemagne, Grande armée, Imperial French Army, La Grande Armee, La Grande Armee d'Allemagne, La Grande Armée, La Grande Armée d'Allemagne, Le Grande Armee, Napoleonic Army, Napoleonic French soldiers, Napoleonic army, Napoleonic french soldiers, The Grand Army.