245 relations: Aberdeen, Abrasive blasting, Adamello-Presanella Alps, Aggregate (geology), Aiguille du Dru, Aiguille du Midi, Ailsa Craig, Alkali feldspar, Alkali feldspar granite, Aluminium oxide, Amenemhat III, Amphibole, Amphibolite, Ancient Egypt, Anorogenic magmatism, Aplite, Aswan, Baffin Island, Basalt, Basement (geology), Batholith, Biotite, Bregaglia Range, Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur, Buoyancy, Cairngorms, Cairo, Calcium, Calcium oxide, Carbonic acid, Case hardening of rocks, Catalysis, Cheyenne Mountain Complex, Child labour, Child slavery, Chile, Cleopatra's Needle, London, Climbing wall, Coldspring (company), Colorado, Column, Concrete, Continent, Continental crust, Conway granite, Cordillera Paine, Corsica, Country rock (geology), Craton, Crust (geology), ..., Crystallinity, Curling, Dahshur, Density, Depression (geology), Diapir, Dike (geology), Dimension stone, Diorite, Ductility, Eads Bridge, Early Winters Spires, Egyptian Museum, Egyptian pyramids, Egyptians, Elba, Emery (rock), Engineer, Epoxy granite, Equigranular, Eutectic system, Exfoliating granite, Exfoliation joint, Extrusive rock, Falkenfelsen, Fall River granite, Fault (geology), Feldspar, Felsic, Field research, Fractional crystallization (geology), Fracture (geology), Gabbro, Geiger counter, Geochemistry, Geography of Cornwall, Geologic time scale, Geological Society of London, Georgia (U.S. state), Giorgio Vasari, Grandes Jorasses, Granite dome, Granite Railway, Granitoid, Granulite, Great Pyramid of Giza, Greisen, Grus (geology), Half Dome, Hardenability, Haytor Granite Tramway, Hornblende, Hornfels, Hypersolvus, Igneous differentiation, Igneous rock, India, Intrusive rock, Ireland, Iron, Iron(II) oxide, Iron(III) oxide, Isola del Giglio, Jamb, Kaolinite, Karakoram, Kensal Green Cemetery, Latin, Liberty Bell Mountain, Limestone, Lintel, List of rock types, Lung cancer, Luxullianite, Lysekil, Mafic, Magma, Magnesium, Magnesium oxide, Manganese(II) oxide, Mannerheim Line, Mantle (geology), Marble, Massif, Matrix (geology), Melanosome (geology), Metamorphic rock, Metamorphism, Metasomatism, Mica, Microcline, Migmatite, Mineral, Mineral alteration, Mineralogy, Mississippi River, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Mont Blanc, Mountain, Mourne Mountains, Muscovite, Neponset River, New England, North Cascades, Ogawayama, Orbicular granite, Orogeny, Orthoclase, Outcrop, Palaeochannel, Particle radiation, Parts-per notation, Patagonia, Patrick Hunt (archaeologist), Pegmatite, Permeability (earth sciences), Petrography, Petrology, Phanerite, Phenocryst, Phosphorus pentoxide, Pikes Peak granite, Plagioclase, Plane (geometry), Pluton, Porphyritic, Porphyry (geology), Potassium, Potassium feldspar, Potassium oxide, Potassium-40, Power-law fluid, Precambrian, Protolith, Pyramid of Amenemhat III (Dahshur), Pyramid of Menkaure, Pyramidion, Pyroxene, QAPF diagram, Quartz, Quartz monzonite, Quincy, Massachusetts, Radionuclide, Radon, Raja Raja Chola I, Rapakivi granite, Red Pyramid, Rhyolite, Rock climbing, Sanidine, Sarcophagus, Scotland, Sediment, Sedimentary rock, Sett (paving), Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Sill plate, Sodium, Sodium oxide, Solidus (chemistry), Spoliation of evidence, St. Louis, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stawamus Chief, Stock (geology), Stone Mountain, Stoping (geology), Subduction, Subsolvus, Sugarloaf Mountain, Surface plate, Syenite, Tempering (metallurgy), Thanjavur, The Bugaboos, Thorium, Titanium, Titanium dioxide, Tonalite, Tor (rock formation), Trango Towers, Ultramafic rock, University College London, Uranium, Uranium ore, Viscosity, Volatiles, Water, Weathering, Wicklow Mountains, Yellowstone Caldera, Yosemite National Park, Yosemite Valley, 26th century BC. Expand index (195 more) » « Shrink index
Aberdeen (Aiberdeen,; Obar Dheathain; Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and for the local authority area.
Abrasive blasting, more commonly known as sandblasting, is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface or remove surface contaminants.
The Adamello-Presanella Alps Alpine group is a mountain range in the Southern Limestone Alps mountain group of the Eastern Alps.
In the Earth sciences, aggregrate has three possible meanings.
The Aiguille du Dru (also the Dru or the Drus; French, Les Drus) is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif in the French Alps.
The Aiguille du Midi (3,842 m / 12,605 ft) is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif within the French Alps.
Ailsa Craig (Creag Ealasaid) is an island of in the outer Firth of Clyde, west of mainland Scotland, upon which blue hone granite has long been quarried to make curling stones.
The alkali feldspar group are those feldspar minerals rich in the alkali elements like potassium and sodium.
Alkali feldspar granite, some varieties of which are called 'red granite', is a felsic igneous rock and a type of granite rich in the mineral potassium feldspar (K-spar).
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III, was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt.
Amphibole is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.
Amphibolid is a metamorphic rock that contains amphibole, especially the species hornblende and actinolite, as well as plagioclase.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
In geology anorogenic magmatism is the formation, intrusion or eruption of magmas in other settings than convergent plate margins such as continental collision and subduction where orogeny is common.
Aplite is an intrusive igneous rock in which the mineral composition is the same as granite, but in which the grains are much finer, under 1 mm across.
Aswan (أسوان; ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ) is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.
Baffin Island (ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ, Qikiqtaaluk, Île de Baffin or Terre de Baffin), in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest island in the world.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
In geology, basement and crystalline basement are the rocks below a sedimentary platform or cover, or more generally any rock below sedimentary rocks or sedimentary basins that are metamorphic or igneous in origin.
A batholith (from Greek bathos, depth + lithos, rock) is a large mass of intrusive igneous rock (also called plutonic rock), larger than in area, that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earth's crust.
Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula.
The Bregaglia Range (commonly the Bregaglia) is a small group of mostly granite mountains in Graubünden, Switzerland and the Province of Sondrio, northern Italy.
Brihadishvara Temple, also called Rajarajesvaram or Peruvudaiyar Kovil, is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva located in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
The Cairngorms (Scottish Gaelic: Am Monadh Ruadh) are a mountain range in the eastern Highlands of Scotland closely associated with the mountain of the Cairn Gorm.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
Case hardening is a weathering phenomenon of rock surface induration.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The Cheyenne Mountain Complex is a military installation and defensive bunker located in unincorporated El Paso County, Colorado, next to Colorado Springs, at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, which hosts the activities of several tenant units.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Child slavery is the slavery of children.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Cleopatra's Needle in London is one of three similarly named Egyptian obelisks and is located in the City of Westminster, on the Victoria Embankment near the Golden Jubilee Bridges.
A climbing wall is an artificially constructed wall with grips for hands and feet, usually used for indoor climbing, but sometimes located outdoors.
Coldspring is a quarrier and fabricator of granite and other natural stone and a bronze manufacturing company in the United States.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.
Conway granite is a typically pink mineral-rich igneous (or mesoperthitic) biotite granite.
The Cordillera Paine is a small sophia mendoza mountain group in Torres del Paine National Park in Chilean Patagonia.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Country rock is a geological term meaning the rock native to an area.
A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles.
DahshurAlso transliterated Dahshour (in English often called Dashur; دهشور) is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately south of Cairo.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area.
A diapir (French, from Greek diapeirein, to pierce through) is a type of geologic intrusion in which a more mobile and ductily deformable material is forced into brittle overlying rocks.
A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body.
Dimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and finished (i.e., trimmed, cut, drilled, ground, or other) to specific sizes or shapes.
Diorite is an intrusive igneous rock composed principally of the silicate minerals plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine), biotite, hornblende, and/or pyroxene.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
The Eads Bridge is a steel combined road and railway bridge over the Mississippi River connecting the cities of St. Louis, Missouri and East St. Louis, Illinois.
The Early Winters Spires are two rock formations in the Liberty Bell Group of the North Cascade Range, near Liberty Bell Mountain in Washington State, United States.
The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities.
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
Emery (or corundite) is a dark granular rock used to make abrasive powder.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.
Epoxy granite, also known as synthetic granite, is a mixture of epoxy and granite commonly used as an alternative material for machine tool bases.
An equigranular material is composed chiefly of crystals of similar orders of magnitude to one another.
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
Exfoliating granite is granite that is exfoliating.
Exfoliation joints or sheet joints are surface-parallel fracture systems in rock, and often leading to erosion of concentric slabs.
Extrusive rock refers to the mode of igneous volcanic rock formation in which hot magma from inside the Earth flows out (extrudes) onto the surface as lava or explodes violently into the atmosphere to fall back as pyroclastics or tuff.
The Falkenfelsen (Falcon Rock) is a granite rock formation in the Northern Black Forest of Germany's Baden-Württemberg state.
Fall River granite is a Precambrian bedrock underlying the City of Fall River, Massachusetts and surrounding areas along the eastern shores of Narragansett Bay.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
In geology, felsic refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
Fractional crystallization, or crystal fractionation, is one of the most important geochemical and physical processes operating within the Earth's crust and mantle.
A fracture is any separation in a geologic formation, such as a joint or a fault that divides the rock into two or more pieces.
Gabbro refers to a large group of dark, often phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusive igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt, being its coarse-grained analogue.
The Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
The geography of Cornwall describes the extreme southwestern peninsula of England west of the River Tamar.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.
The Grandes Jorasses (4,208 m; 13,806 ft) is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif, on the boundary between Haute-Savoie in France and Aosta Valley in Italy.
Granite domes are domical hills composed of granite with bare rock exposed over most of the surface.
The Granite Railway was one of the first railroads in the United States, built to carry granite from Quincy, Massachusetts to a dock on the Neponset River in Milton.
A granitoid or granitic rock is a variety of coarse grained plutonic rock similar to granite which mineralogically is composed predominantly of feldspar and quartz.
Granulites are a class of high-grade metamorphic rocks of the granulite facies that have experienced high-temperature and moderate-pressure metamorphism.
The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.
Greisen is a highly altered granitic rock or pegmatite.
Grus is an accumulation of angular, coarse-grained fragments (particles of sand and gravel) resulting from the granular disintegration by the processes of chemical and mechanical weathering of crystalline rocks (most notably granitoids) generally in an arid or semiarid region.
Half Dome is a granite dome at the eastern end of Yosemite Valley in Yosemite National Park, California.
The hardenability of a metal alloy is the depth up to which a material is hardened after putting through a heat treatment process.
The Haytor Granite Tramway was a tramway built to convey granite from Haytor Down, Dartmoor, Devon to the Stover Canal.
Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).
Hornfels (German, meaning "hornstone") is called so because of its exceptional toughness and texture both reminiscent of animal horns.
In hypersolvus granites, as used by Tuttle and Bowen in 1958, crystallization at relatively low water pressures results in the formation of a single feldspar as opposed to subsolvus granites in which two distinct types of feldspar are present.
In geology, igneous differentiation, or magmatic differentiation, is an umbrella term for the various processes by which magmas undergo bulk chemical change during the partial melting process, cooling, emplacement, or eruption.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Intrusive rock (also called plutonic rock) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
Isola del Giglio (Giglio Island) is an Italian island and comune situated in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the coast of Tuscany, and is part of the Province of Grosseto.
A jamb (from French jambe, "leg"), in architecture, is the side-post or lining of a doorway or other aperture.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
The Karakoram, or Karakorum is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan, India, and China, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan.
Kensal Green Cemetery is in Kensal Green in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Liberty Bell Mountain is located in the North Cascades, approximately one mile south of Washington Pass on the North Cascades Highway.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
A lintel or lintol is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports.
The following is a list of rock types recognized by petrologists.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Luxullianite (also Luxulyanite, Luxulianite) is a rare type of granite, notable for the presence of clusters of radially arranged acicular tourmaline crystals enclosed by phenocrysts of orthoclase and quartz in a matrix of quartz, tourmaline, alkali feldspar, brown mica, and cassiterite.
Lysekil is a locality and the seat of Lysekil Municipality in Västra Götaland County, Sweden.
Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and '''f'''err'''ic'''.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Manganese(II) oxide is an inorganic compound with chemical formula MnO.
The Mannerheim Line (Mannerheim-linja, Mannerheimlinjen) was a defensive fortification line on the Karelian Isthmus built by Finland against the Soviet Union.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures.
The matrix or groundmass of rock is the finer-grained mass of material wherein larger grains, crystals or clasts are embedded.
In geology, a melanosome is a dark,Recommendations by the IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Metamorphic Rocks, Part 6.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
Metasomatism is the chemical alteration of a rock by hydrothermal and other fluids.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral.
Migmatite is a rock that is a mixture of metamorphic rock and igneous rock.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mineral alteration refers to the various natural processes that alter a mineral's chemical composition or crystallography.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco), meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia's Caucasus peaks.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
The Mourne Mountains (na Beanna Boirche), also called the Mournes or Mountains of Mourne, are a granite mountain range in County Down in the south-east of Northern Ireland.
Muscovite (also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(FOH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).
The Neponset River is a river in eastern Massachusetts in the United States.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The North Cascades are a section of the Cascade Range of western North America.
is a 2,418m tall mountain on the border of Nagano and Yamanashi prefectures in Japan.
Orbicular granite (also known as orbicular rock or orbiculite) is an uncommon plutonic rock type which is usually granitic in composition.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar (endmember formula KAlSi3O8), is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock.
An outcrop or rocky outcrop is a visible exposure of bedrock or ancient superficial deposits on the surface of the Earth.
A palaeochannel, or paleochannel, is a remnant of an inactive river or stream channel that has been filled or buried by younger sediment.
Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of fast-moving subatomic particles.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Patrick Hunt (born 1951 in California) is an American archeologist and author.
A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
Petrography is a branch of petrology that focuses on detailed descriptions of rocks.
Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.
A phanerite is an igneous rock whose microstructure is made up of crystals large enough to be distinguished with the unaided eye.
1 euro coin (diameter 2.3 cm) for scale. A phenocryst is an early forming, relatively large and usually conspicuous crystal distinctly larger than the grains of the rock groundmass of an igneous rock.
Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5).
The Pikes Peak granite is a 1.08 billion year old widespread geologic formation found in the central part of the Front Range of Colorado.
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group.
In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.
In geology, a pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock (called a plutonic rock) that is crystallized from magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth.
Porphyritic is an adjective used in geology, specifically for igneous rocks, for a rock that has a distinct difference in the size of the crystals, with at least one group of crystals obviously larger than another group.
Porphyry is a textural term for an igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals such as feldspar or quartz dispersed in a fine-grained silicate rich, generally aphanitic matrix or groundmass.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium feldspar refers to a number of minerals in the feldspar group, and containing potassium.
Potassium oxide (2O) is an ionic compound of potassium and oxygen.
Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251 years.
A power-law fluid, or the Ostwald–de Waele relationship, is a type of generalized Newtonian fluid for which the shear stress, τ, is given by where.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
A protolith is the original, unmetamorphosed rock from which a given metamorphic rock is formed (proto-: first; lithos: rock; both Greek).
The Black Pyramid was built by King Amenemhat III during the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2055-1650 BC).
The Pyramid of Menkaure is the smallest of the three main Pyramids of Giza, located on the Giza Plateau in the southwestern outskirts of Cairo, Egypt.
A pyramidion (plural: pyramidia) is the uppermost piece or capstone of an Egyptian pyramid or obelisk, in archaeological parlance.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
A QAPF diagram is a double ternary diagram which is used to classify igneous rocks based on mineralogic composition.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quartz monzonite or adamellite is an intrusive, felsic, igneous rock that has an approximately equal proportion of orthoclase and plagioclase feldspars.
Quincy is the largest city in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Raja Raja Cholan I (or Rajaraja Cholan I) born as Arul Mozhi Varman known as Raja Raja Cholan was a Chola Emperor from present day South India who ruled over the Chola kingdom of Ancient Tamilnadu (parts of southern India), parts of northern India, two third's of Sri Lankan territory (Eezham), Maldives and parts of East Asia, between 985 and 1014 CE.
Rapakivi granite is a hornblende-biotite granite containing large rounded crystals of orthoclase each with a rim of oligoclase (a variety of plagioclase).
The Red Pyramid, also called the North Pyramid, is the largest of the three major pyramids located at the Dahshur necropolis in Cairo, Egypt.
Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 – see the TAS classification).
Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls.
Sanidine is the high temperature form of potassium feldspar with a general formula K(AlSi3O8).
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
A sett, usually referred to in the plural and known in some places as a Belgian block or sampietrino, is a broadly rectangular quarried stone used for paving roads.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
A sill plate or sole plate in construction and architecture is the bottom horizontal member of a wall or building to which vertical members are attached.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.
In chemistry, materials science, and physics, the solidus is the locus of temperatures (a curve on a phase diagram) below which a given substance is completely solid (crystallized).
The spoliation of evidence is the intentional, reckless, or negligent withholding, hiding, altering, fabricating, or destroying of evidence relevant to a legal proceeding.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
The Stawamus Chief, officially Stawamus Chief Mountain (often referred to as simply The Chief, or erroneously as the Squamish Chief), is a granite dome located adjacent to the town of Squamish, British Columbia, Canada.
In geology, a stock is an igneous intrusion that has a surface exposure of less than, differing from batholiths only in being smaller.
Stone Mountain is a quartz monzonite dome monadnock and the site of Stone Mountain Park near Stone Mountain, Georgia.
Stoping is a process accommodating the ascent of magmatic bodies from their sources in the mantle or lower crust to the surface.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
In subsolvus or two feldspar granites crystallisation occurs at high water pressures resulting in the formation of two types of feldspar as opposed to hypersolvus granites in which crystallization at relatively low water pressures results in the formation of a single feldspar variety.
Sugarloaf Mountain (Pão de Açúcar) is a peak situated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, at the mouth of Guanabara Bay on a peninsula that juts out into the Atlantic Ocean.
A surface plate is a solid, flat plate used as the main horizontal reference plane for precision inspection, marking out (layout), and tooling setup.
Syenite is a coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock with a general composition similar to that of granite, but deficient in quartz, which, if present at all, occurs in relatively small concentrations (.
Tempering is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron-based alloys.
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,Pletcher 2010, p. 195 is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Bugaboos are a mountain range in the Purcell Mountains of eastern British Columbia, Canada.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
Tonalite is an igneous, plutonic (intrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with phaneritic texture.
A tor, which is also known by geomorphologists as either a castle koppie or kopje, is a large, free-standing rock outcrop that rises abruptly from the surrounding smooth and gentle slopes of a rounded hill summit or ridge crest.
The Trango Towers (ٹرینگو ٹاورز) are a family of rock towers situated in Gilgit-Baltistan, in the north of Pakistan.
Ultramafic (also referred to as ultrabasic rocks, although the terms are not wholly equivalent) are igneous and meta-igneous rocks with a very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% MgO, high FeO, low potassium, and are composed of usually greater than 90% mafic minerals (dark colored, high magnesium and iron content).
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
The Wicklow Mountains (archaic: Cualu) form the largest continuous upland area in Ireland.
The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic caldera and supervolcano in Yellowstone National Park in the Western United States, sometimes referred to as the Yellowstone Supervolcano.
Yosemite National Park is an American national park lying in the western Sierra Nevada of California.
Yosemite Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California.
The 26th century BC was a century which lasted from the year 2600 BC to 2501 BC.