86 relations: Acid hydrolase, Agranulocyte, Agranulocytosis, Allergy, Anaphylaxis, Antibody, Antimicrobial, Autoimmunity, Azurophilic granule, B cell, Basophil, Blood, Blood transfusion, Bone marrow, Capillary, Cathepsin, Cell nucleus, Cell wall, Chemotaxis, Chondroitin sulfate, Chromatin, Circulatory system, Complement system, Complete blood count, Compounds of oxygen, Cytoplasm, Defensin, Degranulation, Dendritic cell, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Enzyme, Eosinophil, Eosinophil cationic protein, Giemsa stain, Gram-positive bacteria, Granule (cell biology), Granulopoiesis, Haematopoiesis, Hematopoietic stem cell, Heparin, Histamine, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydroxy group, Hypohalite, Immune system, Immunoglobulin E, Immunoglobulin G, Inflammation, Innate immune system, Interleukin 5, ..., Iron, Lactoferrin, Lobation, Lysozyme, Macrophage, Mast cell, Micrometer, Microorganism, Myeloblast, Myelocyte, Myeloperoxidase, Neuroimmune system, Neutropenia, Neutrophil, Neutrophil extracellular traps, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Parasitism, Pathogen, Peroxidase, Phagocyte, Phagocytosis, Platelet-activating factor, Promyelocyte, Prostaglandin, Pus, Serine protease, Specific granule, Spleen, Staining, Superoxide, T helper cell, Trogocytosis, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), White blood cell. Expand index (36 more) » « Shrink index
An acid hydrolase (lysosomal acid lipase) is an enzyme that works best at acidic pHs.
Agranulocytes, also known as mononuclear leukocytes, are white blood cells with a one-lobed nucleus.
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
An azurophilic granule is a cellular object readily stainable with a Romanowsky stain.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Basophils are a type of white blood cells.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Cathepsins (Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS) are proteases (enzymes that degrade proteins) found in all animals as well as other organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.
Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid).
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
The oxidation state of oxygen is −2 in almost all known compounds of oxygen.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Degranulation is a cellular process that releases antimicrobial cytotoxic or other molecules from secretory vesicles called granules found inside some cells.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) also known as ribonuclease 3 is a basic protein located in the eosinophil primary matrix.
Giemsa stain, named after German chemist and bacteriologist Gustav Giemsa, is used in cytogenetics and for the histopathological diagnosis of malaria and other parasites.
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.
In cell biology, a granule is a small particle.
Granulopoiesis (or granulocytopoiesis) is production of granulocytes.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
A hypohalite is an oxyanion containing a halogen in oxidation state +1.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Interleukin 5 (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Lactoferrin (LF), also known as lactotransferrin (LTF), is a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family.
Lobation is a characteristic of the cell nucleus of certain granulocytes, types of white blood cells, where the nucleus is segmented into two or more connected lobes.
Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The myeloblast is a unipotent stem cell, which will differentiate into one of the effectors of the granulocyte series.
A myelocyte is a young cell of the granulocytic series, occurring normally in bone marrow (can be found in circulating blood when caused by certain diseases).
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MPO gene on chromosome 17.
The neuroimmune system is a system of structures and processes involving the biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the nervous system and immune system which protect neurons from pathogens.
Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are networks of extracellular fibers, primarily composed of DNA from neutrophils, which bind pathogens.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Peroxidases (EC number) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Platelet-activating factor, also known as PAF, PAF-acether or AGEPC (acetyl-glyceryl-ether-phosphorylcholine), is a potent phospholipid activator and mediator of many leukocyte functions, platelet aggregation and degranulation, inflammation, and anaphylaxis.
A promyelocyte (or progranulocyte) is a granulocyte precursor, developing from the myeloblast and developing into the myelocyte.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.
Serine proteases (or serine endopeptidases) are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, in which serine serves as the nucleophilic amino acid at the (enzyme's) active site.
Specific granules are secretory vesicles found exclusively in cells of the immune system called granulocytes.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
Trogocytosis (trogo; gnaw) is a process whereby lymphocytes (B, T and NK cells) conjugated to antigen-presenting cells extract surface molecules from these cells and express them on their own surface.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Granulocy, Granulocytes, Granulocytic, Granulocytopenia, PMN cell, POLYS, Polymorphonuclear blood cell, Polymorphonuclear cells, Polymorphonuclear leucocyte, Polymorphonuclear leucocytes, Polymorphonuclear leukocyte, Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Polysegmented neutrophil.