51 relations: Acute myeloid leukemia, Amgen, Basophil, Biochemical cascade, Biological target, CFU-GM, Chromosome 5q deletion syndrome, Cytokine, Dendritic cell, Embryokine, Endothelium, Eosinophil, Fibroblast, Filgrastim, Genetics Institute, Inc., Genzyme, Glycoprotein, Granulocyte, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, Growth factor, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Immune system, Infection, Inflammation, Interleukin 13, Interleukin 3, Interleukin 4, Interleukin 5, Macrophage, Mast cell, Medication, Molgramostim, Monocyte, Monomer, Natural killer cell, Neutrophil, Novartis, Pegfilgrastim, PEGylation, Reactive oxygen species, Recombinant DNA, Rheumatoid arthritis, Sanofi, Sargramostim, STAT3, STAT5, Stem cell, T cell, T helper cell, ..., White blood cell. Expand index (1 more) » « Shrink index
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.
Amgen Inc. (formerly Applied Molecular Genetics Inc.) is an American multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California.
Basophils are a type of white blood cells.
A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
CFU-GM (or "GMP", for "granulocyte-macrophage progenitor") is a colony forming unit.
Chromosome 5q deletion syndrome (chromosome 5q monosomy, 5q- syndrome) is an acquired, hematological disorder characterized by loss of part of the long arm (q arm, band 5q33.1) of human chromosome 5 in bone marrow myelocyte cells.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Embryokines (Greek: embryuon "embryo" + kinōs "movement") are regulatory molecules produced by the reproductive tract that modulate embryonic development.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Filgrastim, sold under the brand name Neupogen among others, is a medication used to treat low blood neutrophils.
Genetics Institute, Inc. was a biotechnology research and development company founded by Thomas Maniatis and Mark Ptashne, two Harvard molecular biologists, in 1980 in Massachusetts.
Sanofi Genzyme is an American biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream.
The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor also known as CD116 (Cluster of Differentiation 116), is a receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which stimulates the production of white blood cells.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL13 gene.
Interleukin 3 (IL-3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL3 gene.
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
Interleukin 5 (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Molgramostim is a recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor which functions as an immunostimulator.
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
Pegfilgrastim is a PEGylated form of the recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) analog filgrastim.
PEGylation (often styled pegylation) is the process of both covalent and non-covalent attachment or amalgamation of polyethylene glycol (PEG, in pharmacy called macrogol) polymer chains to molecules and macrostructures, such as a drug, therapeutic protein or vesicle, which is then described as PEGylated (pegylated).
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Sanofi S.A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Gentilly, France, as of 2013 the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales.
Sargramostim (tradename Leukine) is a recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that functions as an immunostimulator.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor which in humans is encoded by the STAT3 gene.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) refers to two highly related proteins, STAT5A and STAT5B, which are part of the seven-membered STAT family of proteins.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
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