181 relations: AIGLX, Aircraft design process, Alan Kay, Allusion, Amiga, Android (operating system), Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corp., Apple Inc., Apple Lisa, Application software, Ars Technica, Atari ST, Attractiveness, Automated teller machine, BlackBerry OS, BumpTop, CBS, Checkbox, Cinnamon (software), Command-line interface, Compiz, Compositing window manager, Computer, Computer keyboard, Computer mouse, Computer program, Computer science, Computer-aided design, Croquet Project, Cursor (user interface), Cyberspace, D-Bus, David Canfield Smith, Desktop environment, Desktop metaphor, Digital Research, Direct manipulation interface, Display resolution, Distinguishable interfaces, Distributed control system, DOS, Douglas Engelbart, Drop shadow, Dwm, Enlightenment (software), Features new to Windows Vista, File System Visualizer, Firefox OS, Fsn (file manager), General Graphics Interface, ..., George Orwell, GEOS (16-bit operating system), GNOME Shell, Graphics Environment Manager, Head-up display, Head-up display (gaming), Hillcrest Labs, Human factors and ergonomics, Human interface device, Human–computer interaction, Hyperlink, IBM Common User Access, IBM PC compatible, Icon (computing), InfoWorld, Inotify, Input device, Interaction technique, IOS, IPad, IPhone, Ivan Sutherland, Joystick, Jurassic Park (film), KDE Plasma 5, Keyboard shortcut, KWin, Learning curve, Light pen, Linux, Look and feel, Macintosh 128K, MacOS, Menu (computing), Menu bar, Metaverse, Microsoft Bob, Microsoft Windows, Minority Report (film), Mnemonic, Mobile device, Mode (computer interface), Model–view–controller, Molecular graphics, Motif (software), MP3, Multi-touch, Natural user interface, Ncurses, Neal Stephenson, New York University Press, Nineteen Eighty-Four, NLS (computer system), Non-random two-liquid model, Object-oriented user interface, Operating system, Organic user interface, OS/2, Palm OS, PARC (company), PERQ, Personal computer, Personal digital assistant, Point of sale, Pointer (user interface), Pointing device, Pointing stick, Post-WIMP, Presentation Manager, Project Looking Glass, Radio button, Real-time operating system, Rich Internet application, Rolodex, Ryerson Review of Journalism, Science fiction, Science fiction film, Self-checkout, Shell script, Silicon Graphics, Sketchpad, Skeuomorph, Skin (computing), Smartphone, SRI International, Sugar (software), Super Bowl XVIII, Symbian, Symbolics, Text entry interface, Text-based user interface, Theme (computing), Tiling window manager, Tizen, Touchpad, Trackball, Twm, Unity (user interface), Unix-like, Usability, User (computing), User interface, User interface design, User-centered design, Vector-based graphical user interface, Vertical market, Video game, Virtual keyboard, Visi On, Visual language, Volumetric display, WebOS, Widget (GUI), William Gibson, WIMP (computing), Window (computing), Window manager, Windowing system, Windows 10 Mobile, Windows Phone, Windows Vista, X Window System, Xerox Alto, Xerox Star, Xfce, Xgl, Zooming user interface, 1984 (advertisement), 2.5D, 2D computer graphics, 3D computer graphics. Expand index (131 more) » « Shrink index
Accelerated Indirect GLX ("AIGLX") is an open source project founded by Red Hat and the Fedora community, led by Kristian Høgsberg, to allow accelerated indirect GLX rendering capabilities to the X.Org Server and DRI drivers.
The aircraft design process is the engineering design process by which aircraft are designed.
Alan Curtis Kay (born May 17, 1940 published by the Association for Computing Machinery 2012) is an American computer scientist.
Allusion is a figure of speech, in which one refers covertly or indirectly to an object or circumstance from an external context.
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
Apple Computer, Inc.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
The Apple Lisa is a desktop computer developed by Apple, released on January 19, 1983.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
Ars Technica (a Latin-derived term that the site translates as the "art of technology") is a website covering news and opinions in technology, science, politics, and society, created by Ken Fisher and Jon Stokes in 1998.
The Atari ST is a line of home computers from Atari Corporation and the successor to the Atari 8-bit family.
#REDIRECT Attractiveness or attraction is a quality that causes an interest, desire in, or gravitation to something or someone.
An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.
BlackBerry OS is a proprietary mobile operating system developed by BlackBerry Limited for its BlackBerry line of smartphone handheld devices.
BumpTop was a skeuomorphic desktop environment app that stimulates the normal behavior and physical properties of a real-world desk and enhances it with automatic tools to organize its contents.
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.
A checkbox (check box, tickbox, tick box) is a GUI widget that permits the user to make a binary choice, i.e. a choice between one of two possible mutually exclusive options.
Cinnamon is a free and open-source desktop environment for the X Window System that derives from GNOME 3 but follows traditional desktop metaphor conventions.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
Compiz is a compositing window manager for the X Window System, using 3D graphics hardware to create fast compositing desktop effects for window management.
A compositing window manager, or compositor, is a window manager that provides applications with an off-screen buffer for each window.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
The Croquet Project was a software project intended to promote the continued development of the Croquet open source software development kit to create and deliver collaborative multi-user online applications.
In computer user interfaces, a cursor is an indicator used to show the current position for user interaction on a computer monitor or other display device that will respond to input from a text input or pointing device.
Cyberspace is interconnected technology.
In computing, D-Bus (for "Desktop Bus"), a software bus, is an inter-process communication (IPC) and remote procedure call (RPC) mechanism that allows communication between multiple computer programs (that is, processes) concurrently running on the same machine.
David Canfield Smith is an American computer scientist best known for inventing computer user interface icons.
In computing, a desktop environment (DE) is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs running on top of a computer operating system, which share a common graphical user interface (GUI), sometimes described as a graphical shell.
In computing, the desktop metaphor is an interface metaphor which is a set of unifying concepts used by graphical user interfaces to help users interact more easily with the computer.
Digital Research, Inc. (also known as DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.
In computer science, direct manipulation is a human–computer interaction style which involves continuous representation of objects of interest and rapid, reversible, and incremental actions and feedback.
The display resolution or display modes of a digital television, computer monitor or display device is the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed.
Distinguishable interfaces use computer graphic principles to automatically generate easily distinguishable appearance for computer data.
A distributed control system (DCS) is a computerised control system for a process or plant usually with a large number of control loops, in which autonomous controllers are distributed throughout the system, but there is central operator supervisory control.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer.
In graphic design, a drop shadow is a visual effect consisting of a drawing element which looks like the shadow of an object, giving the impression that the object is raised above the objects behind it.
dwm is a dynamic, minimalist tiling window manager for the X Window System that has influenced the development of several other X window managers, including xmonad and awesome.
Enlightenment, also known simply as E, is a compositing window manager for the X Window System.
Compared with previous versions of Microsoft Windows, new features of Windows Vista are numerous, covering most aspects of the operating system.
File System Visualizer, also known as fsv, is a 3D file browser using OpenGL, created by Daniel Richard G. It is a clone of SGI's fsn file manager for IRIX systems, aimed to run on modern Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.
Firefox OS (project name: Boot to Gecko, also known as B2G) is a discontinued open-source operating system made for smartphones, tablet computers and smart TVs designed by Mozilla and external contributors.
File System Navigator (fsn; pronounced "fusion") is an experimental application to view a file system in 3D, made by SGI for IRIX systems.
General Graphics Interface (GGI) is a project that aims to develop a reliable, stable and fast computer graphics system that works everywhere.
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
GEOS (also later known as Geoworks Ensemble, NewDeal Office and Breadbox Ensemble) is a computer operating environment, graphical user interface, and suite of application software.
GNOME Shell is the graphical shell of the GNOME desktop environment starting with version 3, which was released on April 6, 2011.
Graphics Environment Manager (GEM) was an operating environment created by Digital Research (DRI) for use with the DOS operating system on Intel 8088 and Motorola 68000 microprocessors.
A head-up display or heads-up display, also known as a HUD, is any transparent display that presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints.
In video gaming, the HUD (head-up display) or status bar is the method by which information is visually relayed to the player as part of a game's user interface.
Hillcrest Labs is a sensor processing technology pioneer that develops freespace motion-control technology and the first motion-controlled remote for television.
Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems.
A human interface device or HID is a type of computer device usually used by humans that takes input from humans and gives output to humans.
Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.
In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking, tapping, or hovering.
Common User Access (CUA) is a standard for user interfaces to operating systems and computer programs.
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.
In computing, an icon is a pictogram or ideogram displayed on a computer screen in order to help the user navigate a computer system or mobile device.
InfoWorld (formerly The Intelligent Machines Journal) is an information technology media business.
Inotify (inode notify) is a Linux kernel subsystem that acts to extend filesystems to notice changes to the filesystem, and report those changes to applications.
In computing, an input device is a piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance.
An interaction technique, user interface technique or input technique is a combination of hardware and software elements that provides a way for computer users to accomplish a single task.
iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.
iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS mobile operating system.
iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone line of products use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software.
Ivan Edward Sutherland (born May 16, 1938) is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer, widely regarded as the "father of computer graphics." His early work in computer graphics as well as his teaching with David C. Evans in that subject at the University of Utah in the 1970s was pioneering in the field.
A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling.
Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science-fiction adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and produced by Kathleen Kennedy and Gerald R. Molen.
KDE Plasma 5 is the fifth and current generation of the desktop environment created by KDE primarily for Linux systems.
In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a series of one or several keys, such as Ctrl+F to search a character string.
KWin is a window manager for the X Window System and is currently in the process of becoming a Wayland compositor.
A learning curve is a graphical representation of how an increase in learning (measured on the vertical axis) comes from greater experience (the horizontal axis); or how the more someone (or thing) does something, the better they get at it.
A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with a computer's CRT display.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
In software design, look and feel is a term used in respect of a graphical user interface and comprises aspects of its design, including elements such as colors, shapes, layout, and typefaces (the "look"), as well as the behavior of dynamic elements such as buttons, boxes, and menus (the "feel").
The Macintosh 128K, originally released as the Apple Macintosh, is the original Apple Macintosh personal computer.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
In computing and telecommunications, a menu is a list of options or commands presented to the user of a computer or communications system.
A menu bar is a graphical control element which contains drop-down menus.
The Metaverse is a collective virtual shared space, created by the convergence of virtually enhanced physical reality and physically persistent virtual space, including the sum of all virtual worlds, augmented reality, and the internet.
Microsoft Bob was a Microsoft software product that was released on March 11, 1995 and discontinued in early 1996.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Minority Report is a 2002 American neo-noir science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg and loosely based on the short story "The Minority Report" by Philip K. Dick.
A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.
In user interface design, a mode is a distinct setting within a computer program or any physical machine interface, in which the same user input will produce perceived results different to those that it would in other settings.
Model–view–controller is commonly used for developing software that divides an application into three interconnected parts.
Molecular graphics (MG) is the discipline and philosophy of studying molecules and their properties through graphical representation.
In computing, Motif refers to both a graphical user interface (GUI) specification and the widget toolkit for building applications that follow that specification under the X Window System on Unix and Unix-like operating systems.
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is an audio coding format for digital audio.
In computing, multi-touch is technology that enables a surface (a trackpad or touchscreen) to recognize the presence of more than one or more than two points of contact with the surface.
In computing, a natural user interface, or NUI, or natural interface is a user interface that is effectively invisible, and remains invisible as the user continuously learns increasingly complex interactions.
ncurses (new curses) is a programming library providing an application programming interface (API) that allows the programmer to write text-based user interfaces in a terminal-independent manner.
Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer and game designer known for his works of speculative fiction.
New York University Press (or NYU Press) is a university press that is part of New York University.
Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published in 1949 by English author George Orwell.
NLS, or the "oN-Line System", was a revolutionary computer collaboration system from the 1960s.
The non-random two-liquid model (short NRTL equation) is an activity coefficient model that correlates the activity coefficients \gamma_i of a compound i with its mole fractions x_i in the liquid phase concerned.
In computing, an object-oriented user interface (OOUI) is a type of user interface based on an object-oriented programming metaphor.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
In human–computer interaction, an organic user interface (OUI) is defined as a user interface with a non-flat display.
OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.
Palm OS (also known as Garnet OS) is a discontinued mobile operating system initially developed by Palm, Inc., for personal digital assistants (PDAs) in 1996.
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.
The PERQ, also referred to as the Three Rivers PERQ or ICL PERQ, was a pioneering workstation computer produced in the late 1970s through the early 1980s.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.
The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed.
In computing, a pointer or mouse cursor (as part of a personal computer WIMP style of interaction) is a symbol or graphical image on the computer monitor or other display device that echoes movements of the pointing device, commonly a mouse, touchpad, or stylus pen.
A pointing device is an input interface (specifically a human interface device) that allows a user to input spatial (i.e., continuous and multi-dimensional) data to a computer.
A pointing stick is an isometric joystick used as a pointing device, as with a touchpad or trackball, typically mounted in a computer keyboard.
In computing, post-WIMP ("windows, icons, menus, pointer") comprises work on user interfaces, mostly graphical user interfaces, which attempt to go beyond the paradigm of windows, icons, menus and a pointing device, i.e. WIMP interfaces.
Presentation Manager (PM) is the graphical user interface (GUI) that IBM and Microsoft introduced in version 1.1 of their operating system OS/2 in late 1988.
Project Looking Glass is a now inactive free software project under the GPL to create an innovative 3D desktop environment for Linux, Solaris, and Windows.
A radio button or option button is a graphical control element that allows the user to choose only one of a predefined set of mutually exclusive options.
A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays.
A Rolodex is a rotating file device used to store business contact information.
The Ryerson Review of Journalism is a Canadian magazine, published twice annually by final year journalism students at Ryerson University.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Science fiction film (or sci-fi film) is a genre that uses speculative, fictional science-based depictions of phenomena that are not fully accepted by mainstream science, such as extraterrestrial lifeforms, alien worlds, extrasensory perception and time travel, along with futuristic elements such as spacecraft, robots, cyborgs, interstellar travel or other technologies.
Self-checkout (also known as self-service checkout and as semi-attended customer-activated terminal, SACAT) machines provide a mechanism for customers to process their own purchases from a retailer.
A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix shell, a command-line interpreter.
Silicon Graphics, Inc. (later rebranded SGI, historically known as Silicon Graphics Computer Systems or SGCS) was an American high-performance computing manufacturer, producing computer hardware and software.
Sketchpad (a.k.a. Robot Draftsman) was a revolutionary computer program written by Ivan Sutherland in 1963 in the course of his PhD thesis, for which he received the Turing Award in 1988, and the Kyoto Prize in 2012.
A skeuomorph is a derivative object that retains ornamental design cues (attributes) from structures that are inherent to the original.
In computing, a skin (also known as visual styles in Windows XP) is a custom graphical appearance preset package achieved by the use of a graphical user interface (GUI) that can be applied to specific computer software, operating system, and websites to suit the purpose, topic, or tastes of different users.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.
Sugar is a free and open-source desktop environment designed for interactive learning by children.
Super Bowl XVIII was an American football game between the National Football Conference (NFC) champion Washington Redskins and the American Football Conference (AFC) champion Los Angeles Raiders to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion for the 1983 season.
Symbian is a discontinued mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones.
Symbolics refers to two companies: now-defunct computer manufacturer Symbolics, Inc., and a privately held company that acquired the assets of the former company and continues to sell and maintain the Open Genera Lisp system and the Macsyma computer algebra system.
A text entry interface or text entry device is an interface that is used to enter text information in very light and does not damaged to users into an electronic device.
Text-based user interface (TUI), also called textual user interface or terminal user interface, is a retronym coined sometime after the invention of graphical user interfaces.
In computing, a theme is a preset package containing graphical appearance details.
In computing, a tiling window manager is a window manager with an organization of the screen into mutually non-overlapping frames, as opposed to the more popular approach of coordinate-based stacking of overlapping objects (windows) that tries to fully emulate the desktop metaphor.
Tizen is a mobile operating system developed by Samsung that runs on a wide range of Samsung devices, including smartphones; tablets; in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) devices; smart televisions; smart cameras; smartwatches; Blu-ray players; smart home appliances (refrigerators, lighting, washing machines, air conditioners, ovens/microwaves); and robotic vacuum cleaners.
A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system that is made output to the screen.
A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball held by a socket containing sensors to detect a rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse with an exposed protruding ball.
twm (Tab Window Manager) is a window manager for the X Window System.
Unity is a graphical shell for the GNOME desktop environment originally developed by Canonical Ltd. for its Ubuntu operating system.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
Usability is the ease of use and learnability of a human-made object such as a tool or device.
A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
User interface design (UI) or user interface engineering is the design of user interfaces for machines and software, such as computers, home appliances, mobile devices, and other electronic devices, with the focus on maximizing usability and the user experience.
User-centered design (UCD) or user-driven development (UDD) is a framework of processes (not restricted to interfaces or technologies) in which usability goals, user characteristics, environment, tasks and workflow of a product, service or process are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process.
A vector-based graphical user interface is a mostly conceptual type of graphical user interface where elements are drawn using vector rather than raster information.
A vertical market is a market in which vendors offer goods and services specific to an industry, trade, profession, or other group of customers with specialized needs.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
A virtual keyboard is a software component that allows the input of characters without the need for physical keys.
VisiCorp Visi On was a short-lived but highly influential graphical user interface-based operating environment program for IBM compatible personal computers running MS-DOS.
The visual language is a system of communication using visual elements.
A volumetric display device is a graphic display device that forms a visual representation of an object in three physical dimensions, as opposed to the planar image of traditional screens that simulate depth through a number of different visual effects.
webOS, also known as LG webOS and previously known as Open webOS, HP webOS and Palm webOS, is a Linux kernel-based multitasking operating system for smart devices such as smart TVs and it has been used as a mobile operating system.
A control element (sometimes called a control or widget) in a graphical user interface is an element of interaction, such as a button or a scroll bar.
William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as cyberpunk.
In human–computer interaction, WIMP stands for "windows, icons, menus, pointer", denoting a style of interaction using these elements of the user interface.
In computing, a window is a graphical control element.
A window manager is system software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface.
In computing, a windowing system (or window system) is software that manages separately different parts of display screens.
Windows 10 Mobile is a mobile operating system developed by Microsoft, released in 2015.
Windows Phone (WP) is a family of discontinued mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune.
Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
The Xerox Alto is the first computer designed from its inception to support an operating system based on a graphical user interface (GUI), later using the desktop metaphor.
The Star workstation, officially named Xerox 8010 Information System, was the first commercial system to incorporate various technologies that have since become standard in personal computers, including a bitmapped display, a window-based graphical user interface, icons, folders, mouse (two-button), Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers, and e-mail.
Xfce (pronounced as four individual letters) is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix and Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux, Solaris, and BSD.
Xgl is an obsolete display server implementation supporting the X Window System protocol designed to take advantage of modern graphics cards via their OpenGL drivers, layered on top of OpenGL.
In computing, a zooming user interface or zoomable user interface (ZUI, pronounced zoo-ee) is a graphical environment where users can change the scale of the viewed area in order to see more detail or less, and browse through different documents.
"1984" is an American television commercial that introduced the Apple Macintosh personal computer.
The two-and-a-half-dimensional (2.5D, alternatively three-quarter and pseudo-3D) perspective is either 2D graphical projections and similar techniques used to cause images or scenes to simulate the appearance of being three-dimensional (3D) when in fact they are not, or gameplay in an otherwise three-dimensional video game that is restricted to a two-dimensional plane or has a virtual camera with a fixed angle.
2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital images) and by techniques specific to them.
3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.
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