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Graphics processing unit

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A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device. [1]

271 relations: Accelerated Graphics Port, Advanced Micro Devices, AI accelerator, Algorithm, Aliasing, AMD Accelerated Processing Unit, AMD APP SDK, AMD CrossFireX, AMD FirePro, AMD FireStream, AMD Radeon 400 series, Amiga, ANTIC, Application programming interface, Arcade game, Arcade system board, Arm Holdings, Atari 2600, Atari 8-bit family, ATi Radeon R300 Series, ATI Technologies, Audi, Autonomous car, Blitter, Brute-force attack, Bubbles (video game), Bump mapping, C (programming language), Cache (computing), Capcom, Central processing unit, Centuri, Codec, Color space, Comparison of OpenGL and Direct3D, Compute kernel, Computer graphics, Computer hardware, Computer memory, Computer monitor, Context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding, Context-adaptive variable-length coding, Control flow, Conventional PCI, Coordinate system, Coprocessor, CP System, CUDA, Data parallelism, Deblocking filter, ..., Deeplearning4j, Deinterlacing, Dell, Die (integrated circuit), Digital image processing, Digital signal processor, Digital video, Direct3D, DirectDraw, DirectX, DirectX Video Acceleration, Discrete cosine transform, Display device, DivX, Drive PX-series, Electronic circuit, Electronic hardware, Embarrassingly parallel, Embedded system, Evolutionary computation, Expansion card, ExpressCard, Fifth generation of video game consoles, Fitness function, Fixed-function, Floating-point arithmetic, FM Towns, Folding@home, Framebuffer, Fujitsu, GDDR SDRAM, GeForce, GeForce 10 series, GeForce 256, GeForce 3 series, GeForce 8 series, General-purpose computing on graphics processing units, Genetic programming, Geometry, Glide (API), Golden age of arcade video games, GPU cluster, Graphical user interface, Graphics hardware, Graphics library, Gremlin Industries, Gun Fight, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, Hardware acceleration, Hardware overlay, Hercules Computer Technology, High Bandwidth Memory, High-definition video, Home video game console, HTC Vive, Huffman coding, Hydrocarbon exploration, HyperMemory, IBM 8514, IBM PC compatible, Image, Imagination Technologies, Integrated circuit, Intel, Intel GMA, Intel HD, UHD and Iris Graphics, Interlaced video, Interpolation, Irem, Joust (video game), Kepler (microarchitecture), Konami, Larrabee (microarchitecture), Linear algebra, Linear genetic programming, List of AMD graphics processing units, List of Intel graphics processing units, List of Nvidia graphics processing units, List of Sega arcade system boards, Machine code, Machine learning, Mali (GPU), Mantle (API), Manycore processor, Matrix (mathematics), Matrox, Maxwell (microarchitecture), Memory bus, Memory latency, Microsoft Windows, Midway Games, Mitsubishi, Mobile phone, Modified discrete cosine transform, Molecular modeling on GPUs, MOS Technology 6502, Motherboard, Motion compensation, Moving Picture Experts Group, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 Part 2, Namco, Namco Galaxian, Namco System 21, Namco System 22, NEC µPD7220, Nihon Bussan, Nintendo 64, Number Nine Visual Technology, Nvidia, Nvidia PureVideo, Nvidia Quadro, Nvidia Tesla, Oculus Rift, OpenCL, OpenGL, OpenMP, Option (finance), Oversampling, Parallel computing, Pascal (microarchitecture), PCI Express, Personal computer, Physics processing unit, Pin compatibility, PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 4 technical specifications, Porsche 911, PowerVR, Progressive scan, Qualcomm, Quantization (image processing), Radeon HD 6000 Series, Radeon Instinct, Radeon Pro, Random-access memory, Raster graphics, Rasterisation, Ray tracing (graphics), Ray-tracing hardware, Reality Coprocessor, Render output unit, Rendering (computer graphics), Rendition (company), RGB color model, Robotron: 2084, Rotation, S3 Graphics, S3 ViRGE, Scalable Link Interface, Scan line, Scrolling, Sea Wolf (video game), Sega, Sega Saturn, Shader, Sharp Corporation, SIMD, Sinistar, Space Invaders, Sprite (computer graphics), Stanford University, Statistics, Stream processing, Subroutine, System on a chip, Taito, Tegra, Telecine, Television Interface Adaptor, Texas Instruments, Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture, Texture mapping, Texture mapping unit, Thunderbolt (interface), Tile-based video game, TMS34010, Transform, clipping, and lighting, Transistor, Translation (geometry), TurboCache, Unified shader model, Unified Video Decoder, VC-1, VDPAU, Vector calculus, Vector processor, Vertex (geometry), VIA Technologies, Video Acceleration API, Video card, Video decoder, Video display controller, Video game console, Video post-processing, Virtual reality, Virtual reality headset, Vision processing unit, Volta (microarchitecture), Vulkan (API), Windows 3.1x, Windows 95, Windows accelerator, Windows Media Video, Windows NT, WinG, Wolfram Mathematica, Workstation, X-Video Bitstream Acceleration, X-Video Motion Compensation, X68000, X86 virtualization, Xbox, Xbox One, Xvid, YUV, 3D computer graphics, 3D rendering, 3dfx Interactive. Expand index (221 more) »

Accelerated Graphics Port

The Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) was designed as a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer system, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics.

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Advanced Micro Devices

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.

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AI accelerator

An AI accelerator is a class of microprocessor or computer system designed to accelerate artificial neural networks, machine vision and other machine learning algorithms for robotics, internet of things and other data-intensive or sensor-driven tasks.

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Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Aliasing

In signal processing and related disciplines, aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled.

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AMD Accelerated Processing Unit

The AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU), formerly known as Fusion, is the marketing term for a series of 64-bit microprocessors from Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), designed to act as a central processing unit (CPU) and graphics accelerator unit (GPU) on a single die.

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AMD APP SDK

AMD APP SDK is an software development kit by AMD for "Accelerated Parallel Processing" (APP).

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AMD CrossFireX

AMD CrossFire (also known as CrossFireX) is a brand name for the multi-GPU technology by Advanced Micro Devices, originally developed by ATI Technologies.

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AMD FirePro

AMD FirePro was AMD's brand of graphics cards intended for use in workstations and servers running professional Computer-aided design (CAD), Computer-generated imagery (CGI), Digital content creation (DCC), and High-performance computing/GPGPU applications.

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AMD FireStream

AMD FireStream was AMD's brand name for their Radeon-based product line targeting stream processing and/or GPGPU in supercomputers.

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AMD Radeon 400 series

The Radeon 400 series is a series of graphics cards made by AMD.

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Amiga

The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.

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ANTIC

Alphanumeric Television Interface Controller (ANTIC) is an LSI ASIC dedicated to generating 2D computer graphics to be shown on a television screen or computer display.

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Application programming interface

In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.

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Arcade game

An arcade game or coin-op is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades.

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Arcade system board

An arcade system board is a dedicated computer system created for the purpose of running video arcade games.

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Arm Holdings

Arm Holdings (Arm) is a multinational semiconductor and software design company, owned by SoftBank Group and its Vision Fund.

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Atari 2600

The Atari 2600 (or Atari Video Computer System before November 1982) is a home video game console from Atari, Inc. Released on September 11, 1977, it is credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor-based hardware and games contained on ROM cartridges, a format first used with the Fairchild Channel F in 1976.

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Atari 8-bit family

The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers introduced by Atari, Inc. in 1979 and manufactured until 1992.

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ATi Radeon R300 Series

The R300 GPU, introduced in August 2002 and developed by ATI Technologies, is its third generation of GPU used in Radeon graphics cards.

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ATI Technologies

ATI Technologies Inc. (commonly called ATI) was a semiconductor technology corporation based in Markham, Ontario, Canada, that specialized in the development of graphics processing units and chipsets.

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Audi

Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles.

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Autonomous car

An autonomous car (also known as a driverless car, self-driving car, and robotic car) is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input.

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Blitter

A blitter is a circuit, sometimes as a coprocessor or a logic block on a microprocessor, dedicated to the rapid movement and modification of data within a computer's memory.

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Brute-force attack

In cryptography, a brute-force attack consists of an attacker trying many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly.

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Bubbles (video game)

Bubbles is an arcade video game developed by Williams Electronics and released in 1982.

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Bump mapping

Bump mapping is a technique in computer graphics for simulating bumps and wrinkles on the surface of an object.

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C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

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Cache (computing)

In computing, a cache, is a hardware or software component that stores data so future requests for that data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache might be the result of an earlier computation, or the duplicate of data stored elsewhere.

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Capcom

is a Japanese video game developer and publisher known for creating numerous multi-million selling game franchises, including Street Fighter, Mega Man, Resident Evil, Devil May Cry, Ace Attorney, Monster Hunter, and Dead Rising, as well as games based on the Disney animated properties.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Centuri

Centuri, based in Hialeah, Florida, was one of the top six suppliers of coin operated video game machinery in the United States in the 1980s.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Codec

A codec is a device or computer program for encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal.

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Color space

A color space is a specific organization of colors.

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Comparison of OpenGL and Direct3D

Direct3D and OpenGL are competing application programming interfaces (APIs) which can be used in applications to render 2D and 3D computer graphics.

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Compute kernel

In computing, a compute kernel is a routine compiled for high throughput accelerators (such as GPUs, DSPs or FPGAs), separate from (but used by) a main program.

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Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.

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Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

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Computer monitor

A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.

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Context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding

Context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) is a form of entropy encoding used in the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standards.

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Context-adaptive variable-length coding

Context-adaptive variable-length coding (CAVLC) is a form of entropy coding used in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video encoding.

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Control flow

In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.

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Conventional PCI

Conventional PCI, often shortened to PCI, is a local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer.

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Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

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Coprocessor

A coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor (the CPU).

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CP System

The, Capcom Play System or CPS is an arcade system board developed by Capcom that ran game software stored on removable ROM cartridges.

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CUDA

CUDA is a parallel computing platform and application programming interface (API) model created by Nvidia.

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Data parallelism

Data parallelism is parallelization across multiple processors in parallel computing environments.

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Deblocking filter

A deblocking filter is a video filter applied to decoded compressed video to improve visual quality and prediction performance by smoothing the sharp edges which can form between macroblocks when block coding techniques are used.

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Deeplearning4j

Eclipse Deeplearning4j is a deep learning programming library written for Java and the Java virtual machine (JVM) and a computing framework with wide support for deep learning algorithms.

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Deinterlacing

Deinterlacing is the process of converting interlaced video, such as common analog television signals or 1080i format HDTV signals, into a non-interlaced form.

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Dell

Dell (stylized as DELL) is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.

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Die (integrated circuit)

A die (pronunciation: /daɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated.

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Digital image processing

In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.

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Digital signal processor

A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.

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Digital video

Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video) in the form of encoded digital data.

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Direct3D

Direct3D is a graphics application programming interface (API) for Microsoft Windows.

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DirectDraw

DirectDraw is a deprecated API that used to be a part of Microsoft's DirectX API.

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DirectX

Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces (APIs) for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms.

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DirectX Video Acceleration

DirectX Video Acceleration (DXVA) is a Microsoft API specification for the Microsoft Windows and Xbox 360 platforms that allows video decoding to be hardware accelerated.

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Discrete cosine transform

A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a finite sequence of data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies.

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Display device

A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people).

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DivX

DivX is a brand of video codec products developed by DivX, LLC.

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Drive PX-series

The Nvidia Drive PX is a series of computers aimed at providing autonomous car and driver assistance functionality powered by deep learning.

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Electronic circuit

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.

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Electronic hardware

Electronic hardware consists of interconnected electronic components which perform analog or logic operations on received and locally stored information to produce as output or store resulting new information or to provide control for output actuator mechanisms.

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Embarrassingly parallel

In parallel computing, an embarrassingly parallel workload or problem (also called perfectly parallel or pleasingly parallel) is one where little or no effort is needed to separate the problem into a number of parallel tasks.

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Embedded system

An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.

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Evolutionary computation

In computer science, evolutionary computation is a family of algorithms for global optimization inspired by biological evolution, and the subfield of artificial intelligence and soft computing studying these algorithms.

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Expansion card

In computing, the expansion card, expansion board, adapter card or accessory card is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an electrical connector, or expansion slot, on a computer motherboard, backplane or riser card to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus.

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ExpressCard

ExpressCard, initially called NEWCARD, is an interface to connect peripheral devices to a computer, usually a laptop computer.

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Fifth generation of video game consoles

The fifth-generation era (also known as the 32-bit era, the 64-bit era and the 3D era) refers to computer and video games, video game consoles and video game handhelds from approximately 1993 to 2001.

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Fitness function

A fitness function is a particular type of objective function that is used to summarise, as a single figure of merit, how close a given design solution is to achieving the set aims.

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Fixed-function

Fixed-function is a term canonically used to contrast 3D graphics APIs and earlier GPUs designed prior to the advent of shader-based 3D graphics APIs and GPU architectures.

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Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

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FM Towns

system is a Japanese PC variant, built by Fujitsu from February 1989 to the summer of 1997.

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Folding@home

Folding@home (FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing project for disease research that simulates protein folding, computational drug design, and other types of molecular dynamics.

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Framebuffer

A framebuffer (frame buffer, or sometimes framestore) is a portion of RAM containing a bitmap that drives a video display.

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Fujitsu

is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

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GDDR SDRAM

Graphics DDR SDRAM (GDDR SDRAM) is a type of synchronous dynamic random-access memory (SDRAM) specifically designed for graphics processing units (GPUs).

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GeForce

GeForce is a brand of graphics processing units (GPUs) designed by Nvidia.

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GeForce 10 series

The GeForce 10 series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia, initially based on the Pascal microarchitecture announced in March 2014.

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GeForce 256

The GeForce 256 is the original release in Nvidia's "GeForce" product-line.

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GeForce 3 series

The GeForce 3 (NV20) is the third generation of NVIDIA's GeForce graphics processing units.

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GeForce 8 series

The GeForce 8 Series is the eighth generation of NVIDIA's GeForce line of graphics processing units.

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General-purpose computing on graphics processing units

General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, rarely GPGP) is the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU), which typically handles computation only for computer graphics, to perform computation in applications traditionally handled by the central processing unit (CPU).

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Genetic programming

In artificial intelligence, genetic programming (GP) is a technique whereby computer programs are encoded as a set of genes that are then modified (evolved) using an evolutionary algorithm (often a genetic algorithm, "GA") – it is an application of (for example) genetic algorithms where the space of solutions consists of computer programs.

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Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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Glide (API)

Glide is a 3D graphics API developed by 3dfx Interactive for their Voodoo Graphics 3D accelerator cards.

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Golden age of arcade video games

The golden age of arcade video games was the era when arcade video games entered pop culture and became a dominant cultural force.

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GPU cluster

A GPU cluster is a computer cluster in which each node is equipped with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU).

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Graphical user interface

The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

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Graphics hardware

Graphics hardware is computer hardware that generates computer graphics and allows them to be shown on a display, usually using a graphics card (video card) in combination with a device driver to create the images on the screen.

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Graphics library

A graphics library is a program library designed to aid in rendering computer graphics to a monitor.

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Gremlin Industries

Gremlin Industries was an arcade game manufacturer active from the 1971 to 1983 based San Diego, California, USA.

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Gun Fight

Gun Fight, known as Western Gun in Japan and Europe, is a 1975 arcade shooter game designed by Tomohiro Nishikado, and released by Taito in Japan and Europe and by Midway in North America.

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H.264/MPEG-4 AVC

H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC) is a block-oriented motion-compensation-based video compression standard.

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Hardware acceleration

In computing, hardware acceleration is the use of computer hardware to perform some functions more efficiently than is possible in software running on a more general-purpose CPU.

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Hardware overlay

In computing, hardware overlay, a type of video overlay, provides a method of rendering an image to a display screen with a dedicated memory buffer inside computer video hardware.

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Hercules Computer Technology

Hercules is a manufacturer of computer peripherals for PC and Mac.

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High Bandwidth Memory

High Bandwidth Memory (HBM) is a high-performance RAM interface for 3D-stacked DRAM from AMD and Hynix.

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High-definition video

High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition.

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Home video game console

A home video game console, or simply home console, is a video game device that is primarily used for home gamers, as opposed to in arcades or some other commercial establishment.

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HTC Vive

The HTC Vive is a virtual reality headset developed by HTC and Valve Corporation.

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Huffman coding

In computer science and information theory, a Huffman code is a particular type of optimal prefix code that is commonly used for lossless data compression.

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Hydrocarbon exploration

Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.

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HyperMemory

HyperMemory was a brand for ATI's method of using the motherboard's main system RAM as part of or all of the video card's framebuffer memory on their line of Radeon video cards and motherboard chipsets.

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IBM 8514

IBM 8514 is an IBM graphics computer display standard supporting a display resolution of 1024x768 pixels with 256 colors at 43.5 Hz (interlaced; 87 fields per second), or 640x480 at 60 Hz (non-interlaced).

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IBM PC compatible

IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.

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Image

An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.

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Imagination Technologies

Imagination Technologies Group plc is a British-based technology company, focusing on semiconductor and related intellectual property licensing.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Intel

Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Intel GMA

The Intel Graphics Media Accelerator, or GMA, is a series of integrated graphics processors introduced in 2004 by Intel, replacing the earlier Intel Extreme Graphics series and being succeeded by the Intel HD and Iris Graphics series.

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Intel HD, UHD and Iris Graphics

Intel HD Graphics is a series of integrated graphics processors (IGPs) introduced by Intel in 2010 that are manufactured on the same package or die as the central processing unit (CPU).

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Interlaced video

Interlaced video is a technique for doubling the perceived frame rate of a video display without consuming extra bandwidth.

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Interpolation

In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.

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Irem

is a Japanese video game console developer and publisher, and formerly a developer and manufacturer of arcade games as well.

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Joust (video game)

Joust is an arcade game developed by Williams Electronics and released in 1982.

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Kepler (microarchitecture)

Kepler is the codename for a GPU microarchitecture developed by Nvidia, first introduced at retail in April 2012, as the successor to the Fermi microarchitecture.

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Konami

, commonly referred to as Konami, is a Japanese entertainment and gaming conglomerate.

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Larrabee (microarchitecture)

Larrabee is the codename for a cancelled GPGPU chip that Intel was developing separately from its current line of integrated graphics accelerators.

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Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.

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Linear genetic programming

Linear genetic programming (LGP) is a particular subset of genetic programming wherein computer programs in a population are represented as a sequence of instructions from imperative programming language or machine language.

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List of AMD graphics processing units

This page contains general information about GPUs and video cards by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), including those by ATI Technologies before 2006, based on official specifications in table form.

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List of Intel graphics processing units

This page contains information about Intel's GPUs and motherboard graphics chipsets in table form.

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List of Nvidia graphics processing units

This page contains general information about graphics processing units (GPUs) and videocards from Nvidia, based on official specifications.

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List of Sega arcade system boards

The following is a list of arcade system boards released by Sega.

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Machine code

Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

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Mali (GPU)

The Mali series of graphics processing units (GPUs) are semiconductor intellectual property cores produced by ARM Holdings for licensing in various ASIC designs by ARM partners.

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Mantle (API)

Mantle is a low-overhead rendering API targeted at 3D video games.

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Manycore processor

Manycore processors are specialist multi-core processors designed for a high degree of parallel processing, containing a large number of simpler, independent processor cores (e.g. 10s, 100s, or 1,000s).

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Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

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Matrox

Matrox is a producer of video card components and equipment for personal computers.

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Maxwell (microarchitecture)

Maxwell is the codename for a GPU microarchitecture developed by Nvidia as the successor to the Kepler microarchitecture.

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Memory bus

The memory bus is the computer bus which connects the main memory to the memory controller in computer systems.

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Memory latency

In computing, memory latency is the time (the latency) between initiating a request for a byte or word in memory until it is retrieved by a processor.

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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Midway Games

Midway Games Inc. (formerly Midway Manufacturing and commonly known as Midway) was an American video game developer and publisher.

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Mitsubishi

The is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries.

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Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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Modified discrete cosine transform

The modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) is a lapped transform based on the type-IV discrete cosine transform (DCT-IV), with the additional property of being lapped: it is designed to be performed on consecutive blocks of a larger dataset, where subsequent blocks are overlapped so that the last half of one block coincides with the first half of the next block.

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Molecular modeling on GPUs

Molecular modeling on GPU is the technique of using a graphics processing unit (GPU) for molecular simulations.

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MOS Technology 6502

The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".

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Motherboard

A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems.

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Motion compensation

Motion compensation is an algorithmic technique used to predict a frame in a video, given the previous and/or future frames by accounting for motion of the camera and/or objects in the video.

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Moving Picture Experts Group

The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of authorities that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission.

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MPEG-1

MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio.

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MPEG-2

MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as defined by the ITU) is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information".

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MPEG-4 Part 2

MPEG-4 Part 2, MPEG-4 Visual (formally ISO/IEC 14496-2) is a video compression format developed by MPEG.

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Namco

is a Japanese corporation that operates game centers and theme parks, but is best known for its previous identity as a video game developer and publisher.

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Namco Galaxian

The Namco Galaxian was an 8-bit arcade game system board, which was first used by Namco for Galaxian in 1979; it was the first board from the company to use the Zilog Z80 microprocessor (as opposed to the older Intel 8080).

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Namco System 21

The Namco System 21 "Polygonizer" is an arcade system board unveiled by Namco in 1988 with the game Winning Run.

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Namco System 22

The Namco System 22 is the successor to the Namco System 21 arcade system board.

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NEC µPD7220

The High-Performance Graphics Display Controller 7220 (commonly µPD7220 or NEC 7220) is a video interface controller capable of drawing lines, circles, arcs, and character graphics to a bit-mapped display.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nihon Bussan

Nihon Bussan Co., Ltd. (日本物産株式会社 Nihon Bussan Kabushikigaisha) was a Japanese video game manufacturer.

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Nintendo 64

The, stylized as NINTENDO64 and abbreviated to N64, is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market.

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Number Nine Visual Technology

Number Nine Visual Technology Corporation was a manufacturer of video graphics chips and cards from 1982 to 1999.

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Nvidia

Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.

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Nvidia PureVideo

PureVideo is Nvidia's hardware SIP core that performs video decoding.

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Nvidia Quadro

Quadro is Nvidia's brand for graphics cards intended for use in workstations running professional computer-aided design (CAD), computer-generated imagery (CGI), and digital content creation (DCC) applications.

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Nvidia Tesla

Nvidia Tesla is Nvidia's brand name for their products targeting stream processing or general-purpose GPU.

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Oculus Rift

The Oculus Rift is a virtual reality headset developed and manufactured by Oculus VR, a division of Facebook Inc., released on March 28, 2016.

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OpenCL

OpenCL (Open Computing Language) is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of central processing units (CPUs), graphics processing units (GPUs), digital signal processors (DSPs), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and other processors or hardware accelerators.

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OpenGL

Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) is a cross-language, cross-platform application programming interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics.

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OpenMP

OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) is an application programming interface (API) that supports multi-platform shared memory multiprocessing programming in C, C++, and Fortran, on most platforms, instruction set architectures and operating systems, including Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, Linux, macOS, and Windows.

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Option (finance)

In finance, an option is a contract which gives the buyer (the owner or holder of the option) the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on a specified date, depending on the form of the option.

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Oversampling

In signal processing, oversampling is the process of sampling a signal with a sampling frequency significantly higher than the Nyquist rate.

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Parallel computing

Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.

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Pascal (microarchitecture)

Pascal is the codename for a GPU microarchitecture developed by Nvidia, as the successor to the Maxwell architecture.

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PCI Express

PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe or PCI-e, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard, designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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Physics processing unit

A physics processing unit (PPU) is a dedicated microprocessor designed to handle the calculations of physics, especially in the physics engine of video games.

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Pin compatibility

In electronics, pin-compatible devices are electronic components, generally integrated circuits or expansion cards, sharing a common footprint and with the same functions assigned or usable on the same pins.

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PlayStation

is a gaming brand that consists of four home video game consoles, as well as a media center, an online service, a line of controllers, two handhelds and a phone, as well as multiple magazines.

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PlayStation 2

The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console that was developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.

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PlayStation 4 technical specifications

The PlayStation 4 technical specifications describe the various components of the PlayStation 4 (PS4) video game console.

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Porsche 911

The Porsche 911 (pronounced Nine Eleven or in Neunelfer) is a two-door, 2+2 high performance rear-engined classic German sports car made since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany.

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PowerVR

PowerVR is a division of Imagination Technologies (formerly VideoLogic) that develops hardware and software for 2D and 3D rendering, and for video encoding, decoding, associated image processing and DirectX, OpenGL ES, OpenVG, and OpenCL acceleration.

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Progressive scan

Progressive scanning (alternatively referred to as noninterlaced scanning) is a way of displaying, storing, or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence.

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Qualcomm

Qualcomm is an American multinational semiconductor and telecommunications equipment company that designs and markets wireless telecommunications products and services.

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Quantization (image processing)

Quantization, involved in image processing, is a lossy compression technique achieved by compressing a range of values to a single quantum value.

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Radeon HD 6000 Series

The Northern Islands series is a family of GPUs developed by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) forming part of its Radeon-brand, based on the 40 nm process.

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Radeon Instinct

Radeon Instinct is AMD's brand of deep learning oriented GPUs.

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Radeon Pro

Radeon Pro is AMD's brand of professional oriented GPUs.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Raster graphics

In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.

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Rasterisation

Rasterisation (or rasterization) is the task of taking an image described in a vector graphics format (shapes) and converting it into a raster image (pixels or dots) for output on a video display or printer, or for storage in a bitmap file format.

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Ray tracing (graphics)

In computer graphics, ray tracing is a rendering technique for generating an image by tracing the path of light as pixels in an image plane and simulating the effects of its encounters with virtual objects.

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Ray-tracing hardware

Ray-tracing hardware is special-purpose computer hardware designed for accelerating ray tracing calculations.

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Reality Coprocessor

Reality Coprocessor (RCP) is one of the Nintendo 64's two main chips, alongside the NEC VR4300, a derivative of the MIPS R4200.

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Render output unit

The render output unit, often abbreviated as "ROP", and sometimes called (perhaps more properly) raster operations pipeline, is a hardware component in modern graphics processing units (GPUs) and one of the final steps in the rendering process of modern graphics cards.

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Rendering (computer graphics)

Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.

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Rendition (company)

Rendition was a maker of 3D computer graphics chipsets in the mid to late 1990s.

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RGB color model

The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.

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Robotron: 2084

Robotron: 2084 (also referred to as Robotron) is an arcade video game developed by Eugene Jarvis and Larry DeMar of Vid Kidz and released by Williams Electronics (part of WMS Industries) in 1982.

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Rotation

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

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S3 Graphics

S3 Graphics, Ltd (commonly referred to as S3) is an American computer graphics company.

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S3 ViRGE

The S3 Virtual Reality Graphics Engine (ViRGE) graphics chipset was one of the first 2D/3D accelerators designed for the mass market.

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Scalable Link Interface

Scalable Link Interface (SLI) is a brand name for a multi-GPU technology developed by Nvidia for linking two or more video cards together to produce a single output.

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Scan line

A scan line (also scanline) is one line, or row, in a raster scanning pattern, such as a line of video on a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of a television set or computer monitor.

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Scrolling

In computer displays, filmmaking, television production, and other kinetic displays, scrolling is sliding text, images or video across a monitor or display, vertically or horizontally.

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Sea Wolf (video game)

Sea Wolf is an arcade game by Midway, originally released in 1976.

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Sega

Sega Games Co., Ltd., originally short for Service Games and officially styled as SEGA, is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, with offices around the world.

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Sega Saturn

The is a 32-bit fifth-generation home video game console developed by Sega and released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 11, 1995 in North America, and July 8, 1995 in Europe.

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Shader

In computer graphics, a shader is a type of computer program that was originally used for shading (the production of appropriate levels of light, darkness, and color within an image) but which now performs a variety of specialized functions in various fields of computer graphics special effects or does video post-processing unrelated to shading, or even functions unrelated to graphics at all.

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Sharp Corporation

is a Japanese multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products, headquartered in Sakai-ku, Sakai.

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SIMD

Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) is a class of parallel computers in Flynn's taxonomy.

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Sinistar

Sinistar is a multi-directional shooter arcade game developed and manufactured by Williams Electronics.

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Space Invaders

is an arcade game created by Tomohiro Nishikado and released in 1978.

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Sprite (computer graphics)

In computer graphics, a sprite is a two-dimensional bitmap that is integrated into a larger scene.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Stream processing

Stream processing is a computer programming paradigm, equivalent to dataflow programming, event stream processing, and reactive programming, that allows some applications to more easily exploit a limited form of parallel processing.

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Subroutine

In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.

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System on a chip

A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.

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Taito

is a Japanese video game developer and publisher of arcade hardware and mobile phones, and an operator of video arcades.

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Tegra

Tegra is a system on a chip (SoC) series developed by Nvidia for mobile devices such as smartphones, personal digital assistants, and mobile Internet devices.

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Telecine

Telecine is the process of transferring motion picture film into video and is performed in a color suite.

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Television Interface Adaptor

The Television Interface Adaptor (TIA) is the custom computer chip that is the heart of the Atari 2600 game console, generating the screen display, sound effects, and reading input controllers.

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Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.

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Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture

Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture (TIGA) is a graphics interface standard created by Texas Instruments that defined the software interface to graphics processors.

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Texture mapping

Texture mapping is a method for defining high frequency detail, surface texture, or color information on a computer-generated graphic or 3D model.

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Texture mapping unit

A texture mapping unit (TMU) is a component in modern graphics processing units (GPUs).

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Thunderbolt (interface)

Thunderbolt is the brand name of a hardware interface standard developed by Intel (in collaboration with Apple) that allows the connection of external peripherals to a computer.

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Tile-based video game

A tile-based video game is a type of video or video game where the playing area consists of small square (or, much less often, rectangular, parallelogram, or hexagonal) graphic images referred to as tiles laid out in a grid.

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TMS34010

The TMS34010, released in 1986, is the first programmable graphics processor integrated circuit.

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Transform, clipping, and lighting

Transform, clipping, and lighting (T&L or sometimes TCL) is a term used in computer graphics.

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Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Translation (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure or a space by the same distance in a given direction.

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TurboCache

NVIDIA's TurboCache technology is a method of allowing video cards more available framebuffer memory by using both onboard video memory and main system memory.

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Unified shader model

In the field of 3D computer graphics, the Unified Shader Model (known in Direct3D 10 as "Shader Model 4.0") refers to a form of shader hardware in a graphical processing unit (GPU) where all of the shader stages in the rendering pipeline (geometry, vertex, pixel, etc.) have the same capabilities.

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Unified Video Decoder

Unified Video Decoder (UVD), previously called Universal Video Decoder, is the name given to AMD's dedicated video decoding ASIC.

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VC-1

SMPTE 421M, informally known as VC-1, is a video coding format.

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VDPAU

Video Decode and Presentation API for Unix (VDPAU) is a royalty-free application programming interface (API) as well as its implementation as free and open-source library (libvdpau) distributed under the MIT License.

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Vector calculus

Vector calculus, or vector analysis, is a branch of mathematics concerned with differentiation and integration of vector fields, primarily in 3-dimensional Euclidean space \mathbb^3.

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Vector processor

In computing, a vector processor or array processor is a central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors, compared to scalar processors, whose instructions operate on single data items.

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Vertex (geometry)

In geometry, a vertex (plural: vertices or vertexes) is a point where two or more curves, lines, or edges meet.

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VIA Technologies

VIA Technologies Inc., is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory.

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Video Acceleration API

Video Acceleration API (VA API) is a royalty-free API as well as its implementation as free and open-source library (libVA) distributed under the MIT License.

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Video card

A video card (also called a display card, graphics card, display adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor).

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Video decoder

A video decoder is an electronic circuit, often contained within a single integrated circuit chip, that converts base-band analog video signals to digital components video.

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Video display controller

A video display controller or VDC (also regularly called display engine, display interface) is an integrated circuit which is the main component in a video signal generator, a device responsible for the production of a TV video signal in a computing or game system.

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Video game console

A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

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Video post-processing

The term post-processing (or postproc for short) is used in the video/film business for quality-improvement image processing (specifically digital image processing) methods used in video playback devices, (such as stand-alone DVD-Video players), and video players software and transcoding software.

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Virtual reality

Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.

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Virtual reality headset

A virtual reality headset is a head-mounted device that provides virtual reality for the wearer.

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Vision processing unit

A vision processing unit (VPU) is (as of 2016) an emerging class of microprocessor; it is a specific type of AI accelerator, designed to accelerate machine vision tasks.

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Volta (microarchitecture)

Volta, an Nvidia-developed GPU microarchitecture codename, succeeds Pascal and was announced as a future roadmap ambition in March 2013.

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Vulkan (API)

Vulkan is a low-overhead, cross-platform 3D graphics and compute API.

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Windows 3.1x

Windows 3.1x (codenamed Janus) is a series of 16-bit operating environments produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers.

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Windows 95

Windows 95 (codenamed Chicago) is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft.

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Windows accelerator

A Windows accelerator was a type of Graphics processing unit for personal computers with additional acceleration features like 2d line-drawings, blitter, clipping, font caching, hardware cursor support, color expansion, linear addressing, and pattern, polygon and area fills.

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Windows Media Video

Windows Media Video (WMV) is a series of video codecs and their corresponding video coding formats developed by Microsoft.

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Windows NT

Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993.

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WinG

In computing, WinG (pronounced Win Gee) is an application programming interface that is a port of Windows 95's Device Independent Bitmaps to provide faster graphics performance on Windows 3.x operating environments, and was initially positioned as a way to help game developers more easily port their DOS games to Microsoft Windows, although it was quickly discontinued in favor of DirectX.

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Wolfram Mathematica

Wolfram Mathematica (usually termed Mathematica) is a modern technical computing system spanning most areas of technical computing — including neural networks, machine learning, image processing, geometry, data science, visualizations, and others.

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Workstation

A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.

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X-Video Bitstream Acceleration

X-Video Bitstream Acceleration (XvBA), designed by AMD Graphics for its Radeon GPU and Fusion APU, is an arbitrary extension of the X video extension (Xv) for the X Window System on Linux operating-systems.

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X-Video Motion Compensation

X-Video Motion Compensation (XvMC), is an extension of the X video extension (Xv) for the X Window System.

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X68000

The is a home computer created by Sharp Corporation, first released in 1987, sold only in Japan.

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X86 virtualization

In computing, x86 virtualization refers to hardware virtualization for the x86 architecture.

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Xbox

Xbox is a video gaming brand created and owned by Microsoft.

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Xbox One

Xbox One is a line of eighth generation home video game consoles developed by Microsoft.

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Xvid

Xvid (formerly "XviD") is a video codec library following the MPEG-4 video coding standard, specifically MPEG-4 Part 2 Advanced Simple Profile (ASP).

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YUV

YUV is a color encoding system typically used as part of a color image pipeline.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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3D computer graphics

3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.

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3D rendering

3D rendering is the 3D computer graphics process of automatically converting 3D wire frame models into 2D images on a computer.

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3dfx Interactive

3dfx Interactive was a company headquartered in San Jose, California, founded in 1994, that specialized in the manufacturing of 3D graphics processing units, and later, graphics cards.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphics_processing_unit

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