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The Asir Region (or Aseer, عسير) is a region of Saudi Arabia located in the southwest of the country that is named after the ʿAsīr tribe.
Acanthocephala (Greek ἄκανθος, akanthos, thorn + κεφαλή, kephale, head) is a phylum of parasitic worms known as acanthocephalans, thorny-headed worms, or spiny-headed worms, characterized by the presence of an eversible proboscis, armed with spines, which it uses to pierce and hold the gut wall of its host.
The Achilles tendon or heel cord, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a tendon of the back of the leg, and the thickest in the human body.
Aesop (Αἴσωπος,; c. 620 – 564 BCE) was a Greek fabulist and storyteller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables.
Aesop's Fables, or the Aesopica, is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave and storyteller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 564 BCE.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
An agrarian society (or agricultural society) is any society whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland.
Alaria is a genus of flatworms, or trematodes, in the family Diplostomidae.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) is a department within the government of Alaska.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Alloparenting (also referred to as alloparental care) is a term used to classify any form of parental care provided by an individual towards a non-descendent young.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
The American bison or simply bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.
The American black bear (Ursus americanus) is a medium-sized bear native to North America.
The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America, though human intervention has expanded its range to many parts of Europe and South America.
The anal glands or anal sacs are small glands found near the anus in many mammals, including dogs and cats.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancylostoma caninum is a species of nematode known as a hookworm, which principally infects the small intestine of dogs.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
The period of Anglo-Saxon Warfare spans the 5th Century AD to the 11th in England.
Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behavior of the receivers.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (ɐnˈton ˈpavɫəvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history.
An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.
An apocrine sweat gland (from Greek apo– "away" and krinein "to separate") is composed of a coiled secretory portion located at the junction of the dermis and subcutaneous fat, from which a straight portion inserts and secretes into the infundibular portion of the hair follicle.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.
The argali, or the mountain sheep (species Ovis ammon) is a wild sheep that roams the highlands of Central Asia (Himalaya, Tibet, Altay).
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse.
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the moon bear and the white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life.
Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
In Greek mythology, Autolycus (Αὐτόλυκος Autolykos, "the wolf itself", or "very wolf") was a son of the Olympian god Hermes and Chione.
Awadh (Hindi: अवध, اوَدھ),, known in British historical texts as Avadh or Oudh, is a region in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh) and a small area of Nepal's Province No. 5.
Babesia (also called Nuttallia) is an Apicomplexan parasite that infects red blood cells, transmitted by ticks.
Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae, which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, and wolverines.
A bag limit is a law imposed on hunters and fishermen restricting the number of animals within a specific species or group of species they may kill and keep.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
A baritone is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types.
Bass describes tones of low (also called "deep") frequency, pitch and range from 16-256 Hz (C0 to middle C4) and bass instruments that produce tones in the low-pitched range C2-C4.
The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England, and was the final battle of the English Civil War.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Bergmann's rule is an ecogeographical rule that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
The Big Bad Wolf is a fictional wolf appearing in several cautionary tales that include some of Aesop's Fables (c. 600 BC) and Grimms' Fairy Tales. Versions of this character have appeared in numerous works, and has become a generic archetype of a menacing predatory antagonist.
The bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a species of sheep native to North America named for its large horns.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bilberries are any of several primarily Eurasian species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae), bearing edible, nearly black berries.
Bill Mason was a Canadian naturalist, author, artist, filmmaker, and conservationist, noted primarily for his popular canoeing books, films, and art as well as his documentaries on wolves.
Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.
A black wolf is a melanistic colour variant of the gray wolf (Canis lupus).
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
The Bloodhound is a large scent hound, originally bred for hunting deer, wild boar and, since the Middle Ages, for tracking people.
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries.
The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is a North American cat that appeared during the Irvingtonian stage of around 1.8 million years ago (AEO).
The boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), also known as woodland caribou, woodland caribou (boreal group) and forest-dwelling caribou, is a North American subspecies of the reindeer (or the caribou in North America) with the vast majority of animals in Canada.
The borzoi (literally "fast"), also called the Russian wolfhound (Ру́сская псовая борзая), is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris).
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Braemar is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, around west of Aberdeen in the Highlands.
Breeding pair is a pair of animals which cooperate over time to produce offspring with some form of a bond between the individuals.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
A brothel or bordello is a place where people engage in sexual activity with prostitutes, who are sometimes referred to as sex workers.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Arctic Archipelago, is a group of islands north of the Canadian mainland.
Canid hybrids are the result of interbreeding between different species of the canine (dog) family (genus Canis).
The biological family Canidae (from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals.
Canine coronavirus is a virus of the family Coronaviridae that causes a highly contagious intestinal disease worldwide in dogs.
Canine distemper (sometimes termed hardpad disease) is a viral disease that affects a wide variety of animal families, including domestic and wild species of dogs, coyotes, foxes, pandas, wolves, ferrets, skunks, raccoons, and large cats, as well as pinnipeds, some primates, and a variety of other species.
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2, colloquially parvo) is a contagious virus mainly affecting dogs, and thought to originate in cats.
In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dog teeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth.
Canis is a genus of the Canidae containing multiple extant species, such as wolves, coyotes, jackals, dingoes, and dogs.
Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.
Capra is a genus of mammals, the goats, composed of up to nine species, including the wild goat, the markhor, and several species known as ibex.
Captive breeding is the process of maintaining plants or animals in controlled environments, such as wildlife reserves, zoos, botanic gardens, and other conservation facilities.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carnassials are paired upper and lower teeth (either molars or premolars and molars) modified in such a way as to allow enlarged and often self-sharpening edges to pass by each other in a shearing manner.
Carotid artery may refer to.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Carrion (from Latin caro, meaning "meat") is the decaying flesh of a dead animal.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) is one of the smallest members of the earless seal family and unique in that it is found exclusively in the brackish Caspian Sea.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.
The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a species of goat-antelope native to mountains in Europe, including the European Alps, the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, the Tatra Mountains, the Balkans, parts of Turkey, the Caucasus, and the Apennines.
In heraldry, a charge is any emblem or device occupying the field of an escutcheon (shield).
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles Perrault (12 January 1628 – 16 May 1703) was a French author and member of the Académie Française.
Clan Donnachaidh (Scottish Gaelic: Clann Donnchaidh), also known as Clan Robertson and Clann Donnchaidh, is a Scottish clan.
Clan Skene is a Scottish clan.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The Commander Islands or Komandorski Islands or Komandorskie Islands (Командо́рские острова́, Komandorskiye ostrova) are a group of treeless, sparsely populated islands in the Bering Sea located about east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East.
In ecology, the competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gause's law, is a proposition named for Georgy Gause that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist at constant population values.
The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation is the federally recognized tribe that controls the Colville Indian Reservation, which is located in northeastern Washington, United States.
Congestive hepatopathy, also known as nutmeg liver and chronic passive congestion of the liver, is liver dysfunction due to venous congestion, usually due to congestive heart failure.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
The corsac fox (Vulpes corsac), also known simply as a corsac, is a medium-sized fox found in steppes, semi-deserts and deserts in Central Asia, ranging into Mongolia and northeastern China.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
Coursing is the pursuit of game or other animals by dogs—chiefly greyhounds and other sighthounds—catching their prey by speed, running by sight, but not by scent.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Custer Wolf was a North American gray wolf who was held responsible for extensive damage to ranchers' livestock in the area surrounding Custer, South Dakota, between 1911 and 1920, with the damage estimated at $25,000.
The thin horn sheep (Ovis dalli) is a species of sheep native to northwestern North America, ranging from white to slate brown in colour and having curved, yellowish-brown horns.
David Whyte Macdonald CBE FRSE is a Scottish zoologist and conservationist.
Debrigarh Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary in Bargarh district, Odisha, India.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Denali National Park and Preserve is an American national park and preserve located in Interior Alaska, centered on Denali, the highest mountain in North America.
Dermacentor, also known as the American Levi tick, is a genus of ticks in the family Ixodidae, the hard ticks.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.
The dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a canid native to Central, South and Southeast Asia.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
The Dinaric Alps, also commonly Dinarides, are a mountain range in Southern and Southeastern Europe, separating the continental Balkan Peninsula from the Adriatic Sea.
The dingo (Canis familiaris or Canis familiaris dingo or Canis lupus dingo or Canis dingo) is a type of feral dog native to Australia.
Dioctophyme renale, commonly referred to as the "giant kidney worm" is a parasitic roundworm whose mature form is found in the kidneys of mammals.
The dire wolf (Canis dirus, "fearsome dog") is an extinct species of the genus Canis.
Dirofilaria immitis, the heartworm or dog heartworm, is a parasitic roundworm that is spread from host to host through the bites of mosquitoes.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
The dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis) is a species of flea that lives as an ectoparasite on a wide variety of mammals, particularly the domestic dog and cat.
Dominance in ethology is an "individual's preferential access to resources over another." Dominance in the context of biology and anthropology is the state of having high social status relative to one or more other individuals, who react submissively to dominant individuals.
The Douro (Douro; Duero; translation) is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The eastern wolf (Canis lupus lycaon or Canis lycaon), also known as the Eastern Canadian wolf, Eastern Timber wolf, Eastern Canadian red wolf, Algonquin wolf or deer wolf,Thiel, R. P.
Eccrine glands (from ekkrinein "secrete"; sometimes called merocrine glands) are the major sweat glands of the human body, found in virtually all skin, with the highest density in palms and soles, then on the head, but much less on the trunk and the extremities.
Echinococcus granulosus, also called the hydatid worm, hyper tape-worm or dog tapeworm, is a cyclophyllid cestode that dwells in the small intestine of canids as an adult, but which has important intermediate hosts such as livestock and humans, where it causes cystic echinococcosis, also known as hydatid disease.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
In evolutionary ecology, an ecotype,Greek: οίκος.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
The elbow is the visible joint between the upper and lower parts of the arm.
Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.
The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.
Emaciation is defined as extreme weight loss and unnatural thinness due to a loss of subcutaneous fat (the fatty, or adipose tissue beneath the skin) and muscle throughout the body.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.
The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.
The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is a canid native to the Ethiopian Highlands.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
The Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), also known as the common wolfMech, L. David (1981), The Wolf: The Ecology and Behaviour of an Endangered Species, University of Minnesota Press, p. 354, or Middle Russian forest wolf,Heptner, V. G. & Naumov, N. P. (1998), Science Publishers, Inc.
The European bison (Bison bonasus), also known as wisent or the European wood bison, is a Eurasian species of bison.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
An exotic pet is a rare or unusual animal pet, or an animal kept within human households which is generally thought of as a wild species not typically kept as a pet.
The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.
Farley McGill Mowat, (May 12, 1921 – May 6, 2014) was a Canadian writer and environmentalist.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
The Felinae are a subfamily of the family Felidae that includes the genera and species presented below.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
Fladry is a line of rope mounted along the top of a fence, from which are suspended strips of fabric or colored flags that will flap in a breeze, intended to deter wolves from crossing the fence-line.
A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colors.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease (Aphthae epizooticae) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
Fox Terriers are two different breeds of the terrier dog type: the Smooth Fox Terrier and the Wire Fox Terrier.
Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land (r) is a Russian archipelago, inhabited only by military personnel, located in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and Kara Sea, constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast.
A free-ranging dog is a dog that is not confined to a yard or house.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example, a heterotroph with a varied diet).
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
The German Shepherd (Deutscher Schäferhund) is a breed of medium to large-sized working dog that originated in Germany.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giacomo Girolamo Casanova (or; 2 April 1725 – 4 June 1798) was an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice.
Giardia is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis.
Glacier National Park is a national park located in the U.S. state of Montana, on the Canada–United States border with the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The Goethe-Institut (GI, "Goethe Institute") is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with 159 institutes, promoting the study of the German language abroad and encouraging international cultural exchange and relations.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a wolf-like canid that is native to Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and regions of Southeast Asia.
Goose bumps are the bumps on a person's skin at the base of body hairs which may involuntarily develop when a person is cold or experiences strong emotions such as fear, euphoria or sexual arousal.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
Gray langurs or Hanuman langurs, the most widespread langurs of the Indian Subcontinent, are a group of Old World monkeys constituting the entirety of the genus Semnopithecus (from Ancient Greek σεμνός semnós, “revered, august, holy”, and πίθηκος píthēkos, “ape, monkey”).
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.
Great Lakes boreal wolf is an informal term used to describe hybrids between North America's northwestern wolves, eastern wolves and coyotes in the forests surrounding the Great Lakes.
The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canada-American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Grey Wolves (Bozkurtlar), officially known as Ülkü Ocakları ("Idealist Clubs/Hearths"), is a Turkish ultranationalist organization.
The ground squirrels are members of the squirrel family of rodents (Sciuridae) which generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees.
Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.
Hackles are the erectile plumage or hair in the neck area of some birds and mammals.
The hair follicle is a dynamic organ found in mammalian skin.
The hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a species of baboon from the Old World monkey family.
Hamsters are rodents (order Rodentia) belonging to the subfamily Cricetinae, which contains about 25 species classified in six or seven genera.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
The Harrier is a medium-sized dog breed of the hound class, used for hunting hares by trailing them.
Hart County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.
Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven petty kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in 5th century until their unification into the Kingdom of England in the early 10th century.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
When Yellowstone National Park was created in 1872, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations were already in decline in Montana, Wyoming and Idaho.
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
The Hokkaido wolf (Canis lupus hattai), also known as the and in Russia as the Sakhalin wolf,Heptner, V. G. & Naumov, N., P. (1998), Science Publishers, Inc., USA, pp.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
Homosexual behavior in animals is sexual behavior among non-human species that is interpreted as homosexual or bisexual.
Honshu is the largest and most populous island of Japan, located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits.
Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite in the roundworm group.
The American (North and South America) horned owls and the Old World eagle-owls make up the genus Bubo, at least as traditionally described.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Hoyerswerda (Wojerecy) is a major district town in the district of Bautzen in the German state of Saxony.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human flea (Pulex irritans) – once also called the house flea – is a cosmopolitan flea species that has, in spite of the common name, a wide host spectrum.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
A hunting dog refers to a canine that hunts with or for humans.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.
Iltalehti (literally "Evening newspaper") is a tabloid newspaper published in Helsinki, Finland.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
Infectious canine hepatitis is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1).
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
robber fly eating a hoverfly An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects.
Insular dwarfism, a form of phyletic dwarfism, is the process and condition of large animals evolving or having a reduced body size when their population's range is limited to a small environment, primarily islands.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Irish Wolfhound (Cú Faoil) is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), specifically a very large sighthound from Ireland.
Irkutsk Oblast (Ирку́тская о́бласть, Irkutskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in southeastern Siberia in the basins of the Angara, Lena, and Nizhnyaya Tunguska Rivers.
Isospora is a genus of internal parasites classified under Coccidia.
The Italian wolf (Canis lupus italicus), also known as the Apennine wolf, is a subspecies of grey wolf native to the Italian Peninsula.
Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (or; a; – 8 November 1953) was the first Russian writer awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Ixodes is a genus of hard-bodied ticks (family Ixodidae).
A jackal–dog hybrid is a canid hybrid resulting from a mating between a dog and a golden jackal.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
The (Canis lupus hodophilax) is an extinct subspecies of the gray wolf that was once endemic to the islands of Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshū in the Japanese archipelago. It is also known as the Honshū wolf. Its binomial name derives from the Greek Hodos (path) and phylax (guardian), in reference to Japanese folklore, which portrayed wolves as the protectors of travellers. It was one of two subspecies that were once found in the Japanese archipelago, the other being the Hokkaidō wolf.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
The Jämthund, also called the Swedish Elkhound/Moosehound, is a breed of dog of the Spitz type that are found in Northern Europe.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Karaginsky Island or Karaginskiy Island (Карагинский остров) is an island in the Karaginsky Gulf of the Bering Sea.
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kirov Oblast (Ки́ровская о́бласть, Kirovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Kočevje (Gottschee;Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 36. Göttscheab or Gətscheab in the local Gottscheerish dialect; Cocevie) is a city in the Municipality of Kočevje in southern Slovenia.
The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.
Lucyan David "Dave" Mech (born January 18, 1937) is an American wolf expert, a senior research scientist for the U.S. Department of the Interior (since 1970), currently with the Department of Interior's U.S. Geological Survey (since 1973), and an adjunct professor at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A least concern (LC) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as evaluated but not qualified for any other category.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
Leonid Pavlovich Sabaneyev (Леонид Павлович Сабанеев; 18441898) was a Russian zoologist who made extensive contributions to the study of hunting in Russia.
Leptospirosis is an infection caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria called Leptospira.
Lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), sometimes written lily-of-the-valley, is a sweetly scented, highly poisonous woodland flowering plant that is native throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere in Asia and Europe.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
This is a list of Serbian paramilitary units and formations throughout history.
Listeriosis is a bacterial infection most commonly caused by Listeria monocytogenes, although L. ivanovii and L. grayi have been reported in certain cases.
A litter is the live birth of multiple offspring at one time in animals from the same mother and usually from one set of parents, particularly from three to eight offspringThe word is most often used for the offspring of mammals, but can be used for any animal that gives birth to multiple young.
"Little Red Riding Hood" is a European fairy tale about a young girl and a Big Bad Wolf.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
A livestock guardian dog (LGD) is a type of pastoral dog bred for the purpose of protecting livestock from predators.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Ludwig "Lu" Norbert Carbyn is an internationally recognized expert on wolf biology,Holubitsky, J. (1999) "Dancing with wolves: The man who dared to go amid the pack".
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
The Lupanar of Pompeii is the most famous brothel in the ruined Roman city of Pompeii.
Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.
Lycurgus or Lykourgos may refer to: People.
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.
Magpies are birds of the Corvidae (crow) family.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference is a standard reference work in mammology giving descriptions and bibliographic data for the known species of mammals.
Mange is a type of skin disease caused by parasitic mites.
Marmots are large squirrels in the genus Marmota, with 15 species.
The Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, a measure of the concentration of haemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cells.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
Melanism is a development of the dark-colored pigment melanin in the skin or its appendages and is the opposite of albinism.
A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae with sweet edible, fleshy fruit.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Mercantour National Park (Parc national du Mercantour) is one of the ten national parks of France.
Metorchis conjunctus, common name Canadian liver fluke, is a species of trematode parasite in the family Opisthorchiidae.
The Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi), also known as the lobo, is a subspecies of gray wolf once native to southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico, western Texas and northern Mexico.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Middle Pleistocene is an informal, unofficial subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
The molars or molar teeth are large, flat teeth at the back of the mouth.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa), or dzeren (Дзерэн), is a medium-sized antelope native to the semiarid Central Asian steppes of Mongolia, as well as some parts of Siberia and China.
Moniliformis moniliformis is a parasite of the Acanthocephala phylum in the family Moniliformidae.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
The mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis group) is a subspecies group of the wild sheep (Ovis orientalis).
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer indigenous to western North America; it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae.
The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle (known as bovine TB).
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
Neospora caninum is a coccidian parasite that was identified as a species in 1988.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Never Cry Wolf is an account of the author’s experience observing wolves in subarctic Canada by Farley Mowat, first published in 1963 by McClelland and Stewart.
Never Cry Wolf is a 1983 American drama film directed by Carroll Ballard.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
Nicolla skrjabini is a species of trematodes in the family Opecoelidae.
Nikolay Alexeyevich Nekrasov (a, –) was a Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher, whose deeply compassionate poems about peasant Russia made him the hero of liberal and radical circles of Russian intelligentsia, as represented by Vissarion Belinsky, Nikolay Chernyshevsky and Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes known as Siberia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions of Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East – an area east of the Ural Mountains.
The North-Western Provinces was an administrative region in British India.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Northumberland Strait (French: détroit de Northumberland) is a strait in the southern part of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in eastern Canada.
The northwestern wolf (Canis lupus occidentalis), also known as the Mackenzie Valley wolf, Alaskan timber wolf, Canadian timber wolf, or northern timber wolf, is a subspecies of gray wolf in western North America.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).
In music, an octave (octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old English literature or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses literature written in Old English, in Anglo-Saxon England from the 7th century to the decades after the Norman Conquest of 1066.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The Oneida Nation of Wisconsin is a federally recognized tribe of Oneida people, with a reservation located in parts of two counties on the west side of the Green Bay metropolitan area.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
OR-7, also known as Journey, is a male gray wolf that was electronically tracked as he migrated from the Wallowa Mountains in northeastern corner of the U.S. state of Oregon to the southern Cascade Range.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Pack is a social group of conspecific canids.
In biology, a pair bond is the strong affinity that develops in some species between a pair consisting of a male and female, or in some cases as a same-sex pairing, potentially leading to producing offspring and/or a lifelong bond.
The Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul), also called the manul, is a small wild cat with a broad but fragmented distribution in the grasslands and montane steppes of Central Asia.
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
Papillomatosis of skin is skin surface elevation caused by hyperplasia and enlargement of contiguous dermal papillae.
Paragonimus westermani is the major species of lung fluke that infects humans, causing paragonimiasis.
A parasitic disease, also known as parasitosis, is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma.
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
The perineum is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Phenotypic plasticity refers to some of the changes in an organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.
Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.
A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
In humans, posture can provide a significant amount of important information through nonverbal communication.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Preputial glands are exocrine glands that are located in the folds of skin front of the genitals of some mammals (including mice, ferrets, and even-toed ungulates) and produce pheromones.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, from the Greek words nukt-, "night" + ereutēs, "wanderer" + prokuōn, "before-dog" + -oidēs, "similar to"), also known as the mangut (its Evenki name) is a canid indigenous to East Asia.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
The Rancholabrean North American Land Mammal Age on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from less than 240,000 years to 11,000 years BP, a period of.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
A raven is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus.
The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
The red wolf (Canis lupus rufus or Canis rufus) also known as the Florida black wolf or Mississippi Valley wolf,Glover, A. (1942),, American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, pp.
In biology, a refugium (plural: refugia) is a location which supports an isolated or relict population of a once more widespread species.
Reginald Earle Welby, 1st Baron Welby GCB, PC (3 August 1832 – 30 October 1915) was a British peer, former Permanent Secretary to the Treasury and former President of the Royal Statistical Society.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
Reindeer herding is when reindeer are herded by people in a limited area.
The Republic of Karelia (rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə kɐˈrʲelʲɪ(j)ə; Karjalan tazavalda; Karjalan tasavalta; Karjalan Tazovaldkund) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in the northwest of Russia.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Reynard (Reinaert; Renard; Reineke or Reinicke; Renartus) is the main character in a literary cycle of allegorical Dutch, English, French and German fables.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The rib cage is an arrangement of bones in the thorax of most vertebrates.
Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), also known as blue disease, is the most lethal and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Rus', the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union.
The Sabines (Sabini; Σαβῖνοι Sabĩnoi; Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic tribe which lived in the central Apennines of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.
The saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) is a critically endangered antelope that originally inhabited a vast area of the Eurasian steppe zone from the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains and Caucasus into Dzungaria and Mongolia.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Sarcocystis is a genus of parasites, the majority of species infecting mammals, and some infecting reptiles and birds.
Sarcoptes scabiei or the itch mite is a parasitic mite (an arthropod) that burrows into skin and causes scabies.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scent glands are exocrine glands found in most mammals.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Heraldry in Scotland, while broadly similar to that practised in England and elsewhere in western Europe, has its own distinctive features.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Severnaya Zemlya (Се́верная Земля́ (Northern Land)) is a archipelago in the Russian high Arctic.
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.
The Shantar Islands (translit) are a group of fifteen islands located off the northwestern shore of the Sea of Okhotsk east of Uda Gulf and north of Academy Bay.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
The Sierra Nevada (snowy saw range) is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin.
Sighthounds, also called gazehounds, primarily hunt by sight and speed, rather than by scent and endurance as scent hounds do.
The Sikhote-Alin (Сихотэ́-Али́нь) is a mountain range in Primorsky and Khabarovsk Krais, Russia, extending about to the northeast of the Russian Pacific seaport of Vladivostok.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered for consumption as food.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups (Gregariousness) and form cooperative societies.
Solanum nigrum (European black nightshade) is a species in the genus Solanum, native to Eurasia and introduced in the Americas, Australasia, and South Africa.
The Solovetsky Islands (Солове́цкие острова́), or Solovki (Соловки́), are an archipelago located in the Onega Bay of the White Sea, Russia.
Sorbus is a genus of about 100–200 species of trees and shrubs in the rose family, Rosaceae.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The tradition and art of heraldry first appeared in Spain at about the beginning of the eleventh century AD and its origin was similar to other European countries: the need for knights and nobles to distinguish themselves from one another on the battlefield, in jousts and in tournaments.
Spetsnaz (p), abbreviation for Войска специа́льного назначе́ния, tr. Voyska spetsialnogo naznacheniya, (Special Purpose Forces or Special Purpose Military Units), is an umbrella term for special forces in Russian and is used in numerous post-Soviet states.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of hyena native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
Stuart Rendel, 1st Baron Rendel (2 July 1834 – 4 June 1913) was a British industrialist, philanthropist and Liberal politician.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
Canis lupus has 38 subspecies listed in the taxonomic authority Mammal Species of the World, 2005 edition.
Sucking lice (Anoplura, formerly known as Siphunculata) have around 500 species and represent the smaller of the two traditional suborders of lice.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
In heraldry, supporters, sometimes referred to as attendants, are figures or objects usually placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up.
Surplus killing, also known as excessive killing and henhouse syndrome, is a common behavior exhibited by predators, in which they kill more prey than they can immediately eat and then they either cache or they abandon the remainder.
Sutherland is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area in the Highlands of Scotland.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swine brucellosis is a zoonosis affecting pigs, caused by the bacterium Brucella suis.
In biology, two species or populations are considered sympatric when they exist in the same geographic area and thus frequently encounter one another.
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,''ICN'', "Glossary", entry for "synonym" although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
The Taigan (Тайган) also known as Kyrgyzdyn Taighany (Kyrgyzskaya Borzaya Taigan in Russian) is a sighthound breed from Kyrgyzstan, which is not yet recognized by the FCI, but is recognized by a number of kennel clubs on national level.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).
The Boy Who Cried Wolf is one of Aesop's Fables, numbered 210 in the Perry Index.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
Tiger of Sabrodt (Tiger von Sabrodt) is the name given to a wolf shot in Lusatia in 1904; the last free-living wolf to be shot within the current borders of Germany prior to 1945.
Toad is a common name for certain frogs, especially of the family Bufonidae, that are characterized by dry, leathery skin, short legs, and large bumps covering the parotoid glands.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
A totem (Ojibwe doodem) is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, clan, lineage, or tribe.
Toxocara canis (also known as dog roundworm) is worldwide-distributed helminth parasite of dogs and other canids.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.
Animal trapping, or simply trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal.
Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes.
Trichinella spiralis is an ovoviviparous nematode parasite, occurring in rodents, pigs, horses, bears, and humans, and is responsible for the disease trichinosis.
Trichodectes canis, also known as canine chewing louse, is a chewing louse found on domesticated dogs and wild canids throughout the world.
The is a strait between Honshu and Hokkaido in northern Japan connecting the Sea of Japan with the Pacific Ocean.
Tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
The University of Basel (German: Universität Basel) is located in Basel, Switzerland.
The Upper Peninsula (UP), also known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U.S. state of Michigan.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea (lingonberry, partridgeberry, or cowberry) is a short evergreen shrub in the heath family that bears edible fruit, native to boreal forest and Arctic tundra throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Eurasia to North America.
Vaginal discharge is a mixture of liquid, cells, and bacteria that lubricates and protects the vagina.
Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of Canada.
Ventricular hypertrophy (VH) is thickening of the walls of a ventricle (lower chamber) of the heart.
A Rhodesian Ridgeback (sex unknown) with "stud tail": the violet gland lost hair and appears as a dark dimple The violet gland or supracaudal gland is an important gland located on the upper surface of the tail of certain mammals, including European badgers and canids such as foxes, wolves, and the domestic dog, as well as the domestic cat.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
Viscount Wolseley, of Wolseley in the County of Stafford, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom created in 1885 for the Anglo-Irish military commander Garnet Wolseley, 1st Baron Wolseley.
A vole is a small rodent.
War and Peace (pre-reform Russian: Война и миръ; post-reform translit) is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy.
A warrior is a person specializing in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan-based warrior culture society that recognizes a separate warrior class or caste.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.
In folklore, a werewolf (werwulf, "man-wolf") or occasionally lycanthrope (λυκάνθρωπος lukánthrōpos, "wolf-person") is a human with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf (or, especially in modern film, a therianthropic hybrid wolflike creature), either purposely or after being placed under a curse or affliction (often a bite or scratch from another werewolf).
The Western Alps are the western part of the Alpine range including the southeastern part of France (i.e. Savoie), the whole of Monaco, the northwestern part of Italy and the southwestern part of Switzerland (i.e. Valais).
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is a widespread species of goat, with a distribution ranging from Europe and Asia Minor to Central Asia and the Middle East.
Wilson is an English and Scottish surname, common in the English-speaking world.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
A wolfdog (also called a wolf–dog hybrid or wolf hybrid) is a canid hybrid resulting from the hybridization of a domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) to one of four other Genus Canis taxa, the gray (Canis lupus), eastern timber (Canis lycaon), red (Canis rufus), or ethiopian (Canis simensis).
The surname Wolfe may refer to.
The wolverine (also spelled wolverene), Gulo gulo (Gulo is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae.
Wolves of Vučjak (Vukovi s Vučjaka) was a paramilitary unit active in the Croatian War of Independence and the Bosnian War.
A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wulf (Common Germanic wulfaz "wolf") was one of the most prolific elements in early Germanic names.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.
Ysengrimus is a Latin fabliau and mock epic, an anthropomorphic series of fables written in 1148 or 1149, possibly by the poet Nivardus.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
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