418 relations: A. J. Aitken, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Acts of Union 1707, Acts of Union 1800, Aidan of Lindisfarne, Albion, Algae, Almagest, Ancient Rome, Andrew the Apostle, Andromeda polifolia, Angles, Anglesey, Anglicanism, Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, Anglo-Saxons, Anguis fragilis, Antelope, Apple, Archipelago, Aristotle, Atlantic Bronze Age, Atlantic Ocean, Augustine of Canterbury, Auk, Éire, Background extinction rate, Baptists, Bat, Bede, Beech, Bellis perennis, Biodiversity, Birch, Birmingham, Black British, Bradford, Bramble, Breton language, Bristol, Britain, Britannia, British Arabs, British Asian, British English, British Isles, British Olympic Association, British Summer Time, Brittany, ..., Brittonic languages, Brown bear, Brown rat, Buddhism, Caithness, Caledonia, Caledonians, Calluna, Calvinism, Calvinistic Methodists, Cardiff, Castanea sativa, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in England and Wales, Catholic Church in Scotland, Cecily of York, Celtic Britons, Celtic Christianity, Celtic language decline in England, Celtic languages, Celtic Sea, Channel Islands, Channel Tunnel, Cheddar Gorge, Cheddar Man, Cherry, Cherry plum, Christian state, Christianity, Christianity in the 1st century, Christianity in the 2nd century, Church of Scotland, City of Salford, Columba, Common Brittonic, Common frog, Common kingfisher, Common pheasant, Common shrew, Common toad, Compaction (geology), Congregational church, Conidium, Continental Europe, Cornish language, Cornwall, Countries of the United Kingdom, Country code top-level domain, Crataegus, Crow, Crown dependencies, Cruthin, Cumbria, Cuthbert, Danelaw, Deer, Denmark, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Doggerland, Dolphin, Douglas fir, Duck, Early Middle Ages, Eartham Pit, Boxgrove, Eastern gray squirrel, Edgar the Peaceful, Edict of Expulsion, Edinburgh, Edward IV of England, Edward the Confessor, Elm, England, England and Wales, English Channel, English language, English people, English Presbyterianism, English Reformation, Eurasian beaver, Eurasian Plate, Europe, European badger, European hare, European hedgehog, European mole, European rabbit, European wildcat, Falcon, Fallow deer, Finch, Fir, Flag of England, Flag of Scotland, Fortingall Yew, France, Fraxinus, French language, Fungus, Gaelic Ireland, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Geography (Ptolemy), Geological structure of Great Britain, Germanic peoples, Glacial lake outburst flood, Glacier, Glasgow, Goidelic languages, Golden eagle, Goose, Government of the United Kingdom, Grampian, Gray wolf, Great Britain at the Olympics, Greater Glasgow, Greater London Built-up Area, Greater Manchester Built-up Area, Greek language, Greeks in Egypt, Greenwich Mean Time, Grey heron, Grey partridge, Grouse, Gull, Hadrian's Wall, Hallstatt culture, Happisburgh footprints, Hebrides, Hedera, Hibernia, Hinduism, Historia Regum Britanniae, History of the Jews in Scotland, Homo, Homo sapiens, Honshu, House sparrow, Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Iapetus Ocean, Indian subcontinent, Industrialisation, Insular Celtic languages, International Organization for Standardization, International vehicle registration code, Internet Archive, Iona, Ireland, Iris (plant), Irish Free State, Irish Sea, Iron Age, Islam, Island, Isle of Man, Isle of Wight, Isles of Scilly, Islet, ISO 3166-1 alpha-3, ISO 3166-2:GB, James III of Scotland, James IV of Scotland, James VI and I, Japan, Java, John Knox, John o' Groats, John T. 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A. J. Aitken
Adam Jack Aitken (19 June 1921 – 11 February 1998) was a Scottish lexicographer and leading scholar of the Scots language.
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Acer platanoides (Norway maple) is a species of maple native to eastern and central Europe and western Asia, from France east to Russia, north to southern Scandinavia and southeast to northern Iran.
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Acer pseudoplatanus, known as the sycamore in the United Kingdom and the sycamore maple in the United States, is a flowering plant species in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae.
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Acts of Union 1707
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
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Acts of Union 1800
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
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Aidan of Lindisfarne
Aidan of Lindisfarne Irish: Naomh Aodhán (died 31 August 651) was an Irish monk and missionary credited with restoring Christianity to Northumbria.
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Albion (Ἀλβιών) is the oldest known name of the island of Great Britain.
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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
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The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
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In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
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Andrew the Apostle
Andrew the Apostle (Ἀνδρέας; ⲁⲛⲇⲣⲉⲁⲥ, Andreas; from the early 1st century BC – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew and referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called (Πρωτόκλητος, Prōtoklētos), was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter.
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Andromeda polifolia, common name bog-rosemary, is a species of flowering plant native to northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere.
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The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
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Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island situated on the north coast of Wales with an area of.
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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
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Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.
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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
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Anguis fragilis, the slowworm, is a legless lizard native to Eurasia.
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An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
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An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
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Atlantic Bronze Age
The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the Bronze Age period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia, France, Britain and Ireland.
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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
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Augustine of Canterbury
Augustine of Canterbury (born first third of the 6th century – died probably 26 May 604) was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597.
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An auk or alcid is a bird of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes.
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Éire is Irish for "Ireland", the name of an island and a sovereign state.
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Background extinction rate
Background extinction rate, also known as the normal extinction rate, refers to the standard rate of extinction in earth's geological and biological history before humans became a primary contributor to extinctions.
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Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
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Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
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Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
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Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
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Bellis perennis is a common European species of daisy, of the Asteraceae family, often considered the archetypal species of that name.
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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
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A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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Black British are British citizens of Black origins or heritage, including those of African-Caribbean (sometimes called "Afro-Caribbean") background, and may include people with mixed ancestry.
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Bradford is in the Metropolitan Borough of the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines west of Leeds, and northwest of Wakefield.
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In British English, a "bramble" is any rough (usually wild) tangled prickly shrub—specifically the blackberry bush (Rubus fruticosus)—or any hybrid of similar appearance, with thorny stems.
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Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
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Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
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Britain usually refers to.
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Britannia has been used in several different senses.
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British Arabs (عرب بريطانيا) are citizens or residents of the United Kingdom that are of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage or identity from Arab countries.
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British Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian British people or Asian Britons) are persons of South Asian descent who reside in the United Kingdom.
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British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
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The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
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British Olympic Association
The British Olympic Association (BOA) is the National Olympic Committee for the United Kingdom.
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British Summer Time
During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC+0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.
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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
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The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.
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The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
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The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), also known as the common rat, street rat, sewer rat, Hanover rat, Norway rat, Norwegian rat, Parisian rat or wharf rat, is one of the best known and most common rats.
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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
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Caithness (Gallaibh, Caitnes; Katanes) is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland.
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Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Romans to the land in today's Scotland, north of their province of Britannia, beyond the frontier of their empire.
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The Caledonians (Caledones or Caledonii; Καληδώνες, Kalēdōnes) or the Caledonian Confederacy were a Brittonic-speaking (Celtic) tribal confederacy in what is now Scotland during the Iron Age and Roman eras.
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Calluna vulgaris (known as common heather, ling, or simply heather) is the sole species in the genus Calluna in the flowering plant family Ericaceae.
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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
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Calvinistic Methodists were born out of the Methodist Revival in 18th-century Wales and survive as a body of Christians now forming the Presbyterian Church of Wales.
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Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of, and largest city in, Wales, and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom.
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Castanea sativa, or sweet chestnut, is a species of flowering plant in the family Fagaceae, native to Southern Europe and Asia Minor, and widely cultivated throughout the temperate world.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
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Catholic Church in England and Wales
The Catholic Church in England and Wales is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope.
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Catholic Church in Scotland
The Catholic Church in Scotland (An Eaglais Chaitligeach; Catholic Kirk), overseen by the Scottish Bishops' Conference, is part of the worldwide Catholic Church headed by the Pope.
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Cecily of York
Cecily of York, Viscountess Welles (20 March 1469 – 24 August 1507) was an English princess and the third, but eventual second surviving, daughter of Edward IV, King of England and his queen consort Elizabeth Woodville, daughter of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers and Jacquetta of Luxembourg.
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The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
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Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
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Celtic language decline in England
Celtic language-death in England refers primarily to the process by which speakers of Brittonic languages in what is now England switched to speaking English.
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The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
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The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.
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The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
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The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.
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Cheddar Gorge is a limestone gorge in the Mendip Hills, near the village of Cheddar, Somerset, England.
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Cheddar Man is a human male fossil found in Gough's Cave in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset, England.
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A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
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Prunus cerasifera is a species of plum known by the common names cherry plum and myrobalan plum.
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A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.
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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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Christianity in the 1st century
Christianity in the 1st century deals with the formative years of the Early Christian community.
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Christianity in the 2nd century
Christianity in the 2nd century was largely the time of the Apostolic Fathers who were the students of the apostles of Jesus, though there is some overlap as John the Apostle may have survived into the 2nd century and Clement of Rome is said to have died at the end of the 1st century.
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Church of Scotland
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
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City of Salford
The City of Salford is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, named after its largest settlement, Salford, but extending west to include the towns of Eccles, Worsley, Swinton, Walkden and Irlam.
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Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.
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Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
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The common frog (Rana temporaria), also known as the European common frog, European common brown frog, European grass frog, or simply a frog, is a semi-aquatic amphibian of the family Ranidae, found throughout much of Europe as far north as Scandinavia and as far east as the Urals, except for most of Iberia, southern Italy, and the southern Balkans.
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The common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) also known as the Eurasian kingfisher, and river kingfisher, is a small kingfisher with seven subspecies recognized within its wide distribution across Eurasia and North Africa.
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The common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) is a bird in the pheasant family (Phasianidae).
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The common shrew (Sorex araneus) or Eurasian shrew is the most common shrew, and one of the most common mammals, throughout Northern Europe, including Great Britain, but excluding Ireland.
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The common toad, European toad, or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the toad (Bufo bufo, from Latin bufo "toad"), is an amphibian found throughout most of Europe (with the exception of Ireland, Iceland, and some Mediterranean islands), in the western part of North Asia, and in a small portion of Northwest Africa.
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In sedimentology compaction refers to the process by which a sediment progressively loses its porosity due to the effects of loading.
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Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
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A conidium (plural conidia), sometimes termed an asexual chlamydospore or chlamydoconidium (plural chlamydoconidia), is an asexual, non-motile spore of a fungus.
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Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
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Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
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Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
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Countries of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
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Country code top-level domain
A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code.
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Crataegus (from the Greek kratos "strength" and akis "sharp", referring to the thorns of some species) commonly called hawthorn, thornapple,Voss, E. G. 1985.
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A Crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly is a synonym for all of Corvus.
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Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
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The Cruthin (Old Irish,; Middle Irish: Cruithnig or Cruithni; Modern Irish: Cruithne) were a people of early medieval Ireland.
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Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.
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Cuthbert (c. 634 – 20 March 687) is a saint of the early Northumbrian church in the Celtic tradition.
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The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
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Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
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Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
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Doggerland is the name of a land mass now beneath the southern North Sea that connected Great Britain to continental Europe.
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Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
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Pseudotsuga menziesii, commonly known as Douglas fir, Douglas-fir and Oregon pine, is an evergreen conifer species native to western North America.
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Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the waterfowl family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese.
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Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
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Eartham Pit, Boxgrove
Amey's Eartham Pit is the original name for the internationally important Lower Palaeolithic archaeological site of Boxgrove in the English county of West Sussex.
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Eastern gray squirrel
Sciurus carolinensis, common name eastern gray squirrel or grey squirrel depending on region, is a tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus.
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Edgar the Peaceful
Edgar (Ēadgār; 8 July 975), known as the Peaceful or the Peaceable, was King of England from 959 until his death.
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Edict of Expulsion
The Edict of Expulsion was a royal decree issued by King Edward I of England on 18 July 1290, expelling all Jews from the Kingdom of England.
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Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
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Edward IV of England
Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death.
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Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor (Ēadƿeard Andettere, Eduardus Confessor; 1003 – 5 January 1066), also known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England.
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Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.
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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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England and Wales
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
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The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
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Presbyterianism in England is practiced by followers of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism who practise the Presbyterian form of church government in England.
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The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
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The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia.
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The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
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The European badger (Meles meles) also known as the Eurasian badger or simply badger, is a species of badger in the family Mustelidae and is native to almost all of Europe and some parts of West Asia.
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The European hare (Lepus europaeus), also known as the brown hare, is a species of hare native to Europe and parts of Asia.
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The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), also known as the West European hedgehog or common hedgehog, is a hedgehog species found in Europe, from Iberia and Italy northwards into Scandinavia.
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The European mole (Talpa europaea) is a mammal of the order Eulipotyphla.
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The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) or coney is a species of rabbit native to southwestern Europe (including Spain, Portugal and Western France) and to northwest Africa (including Morocco and Algeria).
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The European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is the nominate subspecies of the wildcat that inhabits forests of Western, Southern, Central and Eastern Europe up to the Caucasus Mountains.
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Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species.
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The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.
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The true finches are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Fringillidae.
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Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae.
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Flag of England
The flag of England is derived from St George's Cross (heraldic blazon: Argent, a cross gules).
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Flag of Scotland
The Flag of Scotland (bratach na h-Alba; Banner o Scotland) is also known as St Andrew's Cross or the Saltire.
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The Fortingall Yew is an ancient European yew (Taxus baccata) in the churchyard of the village of Fortingall in Perthshire, Scotland.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
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Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
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Gaelic Ireland (Éire Ghaidhealach) was the Gaelic political and social order, and associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.
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Geoffrey of Monmouth
Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.
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The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
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Geological structure of Great Britain
The geological structure of Great Britain is complex, resulting as it does from a long and varied geological history spanning more than two billion years.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
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Glacial lake outburst flood
A glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a type of outburst flood that occurs when the dam containing a glacial lake fails.
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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
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Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
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The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.
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The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
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Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae.
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Government of the United Kingdom
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
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Grampian (Roinn a' Mhonaidh in Gaelic) was a local government region of Scotland from 1975 to 1996.
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The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
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Great Britain at the Olympics
Great Britain or Team GB is the team that sends athletes from the United Kingdom (UK), all but three of its overseas territories, and the three Crown dependencies, to the Olympic Games.
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Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area (or conurbation).
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Greater London Built-up Area
The Greater London Built-up Area, or Greater London Urban Area, is a conurbation in south-east England that constitutes the continuous urban area of London and includes surrounding adjacent urban towns as defined by the Office for National Statistics.
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Greater Manchester Built-up Area
The Greater Manchester Built-up Area is an area of land defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), consisting of the large conurbation that encompasses the urban element of the city of Manchester and the continuous metropolitan area that spreads outwards from it, forming much of Greater Manchester in North West England.
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Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
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Greeks in Egypt
There has been a large community of Greeks in Egypt, also known as Egyptiotes (Αιγυπτιώτες), from the Hellenistic period until the aftermath of the Egyptian revolution of 1952, when most were forced to leave.
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Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
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The grey heron (Ardea cinerea) is a long-legged predatory wading bird of the heron family, Ardeidae, native throughout temperate Europe and Asia and also parts of Africa.
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The grey partridge (Perdix perdix), also known as the English partridge, Hungarian partridge, or hun, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds.
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Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes, in the family Phasianidae.
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Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.
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Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.
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The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
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The Happisburgh footprints were a set of fossilized hominid footprints that date to the early Pleistocene.
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The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
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Hedera, commonly called ivy (plural ivies), is a genus of 12–15 species of evergreen climbing or ground-creeping woody plants in the family Araliaceae, native to western, central and southern Europe, Macaronesia, northwestern Africa and across central-southern Asia east to Japan and Taiwan.
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Hibernia is the Classical Latin name for the island of Ireland.
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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
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Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia regum Britanniae (The History of the Kings of Britain), originally called De gestis Britonum (On the Deeds of the Britons), is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth.
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History of the Jews in Scotland
The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known.
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Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
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Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
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Honshu is the largest and most populous island of Japan, located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits.
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The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found in most parts of the world.
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Hyacinthoides non-scripta (formerly Endymion non-scriptus or Scilla non-scripta) is a bulbous perennial plant, found in Atlantic areas from north-western Spain to the British Isles, and also frequently used as a garden plant.
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The Iapetus Ocean was an ocean that existed in the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic eras of the geologic timescale (between 600 and 400 million years ago).
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The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
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Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
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Insular Celtic languages
Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.
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International Organization for Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
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International vehicle registration code
The country in which a motor vehicle's vehicle registration plate was issued may be indicated by an international licence plate country code, formerly known as an International Registration Letter or International Circulation Mark. The distinguishing sign of the country of registration must be displayed on the rear of the vehicle.
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The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
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Iona (Ì Chaluim Chille) is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland.
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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
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Iris is a genus of 260–300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers.
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Irish Free State
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
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The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
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The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
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An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.
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Isle of Man
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
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Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.
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Isles of Scilly
The Isles of Scilly (Syllan or Enesek Syllan) is an archipelago off the southwestern tip of Cornwall.
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An islet is a very small island.
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ISO 3166-1 alpha-3
ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes are three-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
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ISO 3166-2:GB is the entry for the United Kingdom in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
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James III of Scotland
James III (10 July 1451/May 1452 – 11 June 1488) was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488.
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James IV of Scotland
James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death.
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James VI and I
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
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Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
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John Knox (– 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation.
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John o' Groats
John o' Groats (Taigh Iain Ghròt) is a village NE of the village of Canisbay, Caithness, in the far north of Scotland.
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John T. Koch
John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages.
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John Wesley (2 March 1791) was an English cleric and theologian who, with his brother Charles and fellow cleric George Whitefield, founded Methodism.
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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
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The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.
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Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
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Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
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Kingdom of Ireland
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
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Kingdom of Northumbria
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
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Kingdom of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
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Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
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Land's End (Penn an Wlas or Pedn an Wlas) is a headland and holiday complex in western Cornwall, England.
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A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.
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Last glacial period
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Latin liturgical rites
Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.
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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
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Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
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Legislation.gov.uk, formerly the UK Statute Law Database, is the official web-accessible database of the statute law of the United Kingdom, hosted by The National Archives.
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The Lewisian complex or Lewisian gneiss is a suite of Precambrian metamorphic rocks that outcrop in the northwestern part of Scotland, forming part of the Hebridean Terrane and the North Atlantic Craton.
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A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
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The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, also known simply as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland.
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List of amphibians of Great Britain
This is a list of the amphibians of Great Britain.
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List of birds of Great Britain
This list of birds of Great Britain comprises all bird species which have been recorded in a wild state in Great Britain.
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List of European islands by area
This is a list of islands in Europe ordered by area.
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List of extinct animals of the British Isles
This is a list of extinct animals of the British Isles.
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List of islands by area
This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than and several other islands over, sorted in descending order by area.
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List of islands by population
This is a list of islands in the world ordered by population.
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List of islands of England
This is a list of islands of England (excluding the mainland which is itself a part of the island of Great Britain), as well as a table of the largest English islands by area and by population.
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List of islands of Scotland
This is a list of islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain.
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List of islands of the British Isles
This page is a list of the larger islands that form the British Isles, listing area and population data.
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List of islands of Wales
This is a list of islands of Wales, the mainland of which is part of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Welsh islands by area.
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List of mammals of Great Britain
This is a list of mammals of Great Britain.
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List of reptiles of Great Britain
Ten or eleven species of reptiles occur in Great Britain: three snakes and three lizards, which were established at the time of the last ice age.
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List of Scottish monarchs
The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.
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List of trees of Great Britain and Ireland
Many lists of trees of Great Britain and Ireland have been written.
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Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
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Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
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Liverpool Urban Area
The Liverpool Built-up Area (previously Liverpool Urban Area in 2001 and prior) is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to denote the urban area around Liverpool in England, to the east of the River Mersey.
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Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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Lord high commissioner
Lord High Commissioner is the style of High Commissioners, i.e. direct representatives of the monarch, in three cases in the Kingdom of Scotland and the United Kingdom, two of which are no longer extant.
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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
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Marcian of Heraclea
Marcian of Heraclea (Μαρκιανός Ηρακλειώτης; Marcianus Heracleensis; fl. c. 4th century AD) was a Late Antiquity minor Greek geographer from Heraclea Pontica.
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Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
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The Massaliote Periplus or Massiliote Periplus is a theoretical reconstruction of a sixth century BC periplus, or sailing manual, proposed by Adolf Schulten.
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Mentha (also known as mint, from Greek, Linear B mi-ta) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family).
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Methodist Church of Great Britain
The Methodist Church of Great Britain is the fourth-largest Christian denomination in Britain and the mother church to Methodists worldwide.
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Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
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Mixed (United Kingdom ethnicity category)
Mixed is an ethnicity category that has been used by the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics since the 1991 Census.
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Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
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A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
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MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
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Muntjacs, also known as barking deer and Mastreani deer, are small deer of the genus Muntiacus.
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Narcissus is a genus of predominantly spring perennial plants of the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family.
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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
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Natural History (Pliny)
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
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Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
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Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
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In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
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Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England.
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Norman conquest of England
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
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The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
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North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland)
The North Channel (known in Irish and Scottish Gaelic as Sruth na Maoile, in Scots as the Sheuch and alternatively in English as the Straits of Moyle or Sea of Moyle) is the strait between north-eastern Northern Ireland and south-western Scotland.
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The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
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Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
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Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.
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Nottingham Urban Area
The Nottingham Built-up Area (BUA), Nottingham Urban Area, or Greater Nottingham is an area of land defined by the Office for National Statistics as which is built upon, with nearby areas linked if within 200 metres - see the List of urban areas in the United Kingdom article for a broader definition.
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An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
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An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
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Office for National Statistics
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
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Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
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Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
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On the Universe
De mundo (Περὶ Κόσμου), known in English as On the Universe, is the work of an unknown author which was ascribed to Aristotle.
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The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
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Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
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An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
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Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.
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Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
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Papaver rhoeas (common names include common poppy, corn poppy, corn rose, field poppy, Flanders poppy or red poppy) is an annual herbaceous species of flowering plant in the poppy family, Papaveraceae.
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A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
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The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
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Perthshire (Siorrachd Pheairt), officially the County of Perth, is a historic county and registration county in central Scotland.
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Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
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Pictish is the extinct language, or dialect, spoken by the Picts, the people of eastern and northern Scotland from the late Iron Age to the Early Middle Ages.
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The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
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A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
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Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
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Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
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Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
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A polity is any kind of political entity.
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Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
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Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.
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Presbyterian Church of Wales
The Presbyterian Church of Wales (Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru), also known as Calvinistic Methodist Church (Yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd Galfinaidd), is a denomination of Protestant Christianity in Wales.
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Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
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Primula veris (cowslip, common cowslip, cowslip primrose; syn. Primula officinalis Hill) is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the primrose family Primulaceae.
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Primula vulgaris, the common primrose is a species of flowering plant in the family Primulaceae, native to western and southern Europe (from the Faroe Islands and Norway south to Portugal, and east to Germany, Ukraine, the Crimea, and the Balkans), northwest Africa (Algeria), and southwest Asia (Turkey east to Iran).
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Privy Council of England
The Privy Council of England, also known as His (or Her) Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, was a body of advisers to the sovereign of the Kingdom of England.
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In geology, a proglacial lake is a lake formed either by the damming action of a moraine during the retreat of a melting glacier, a glacial ice dam, or by meltwater trapped against an ice sheet due to isostatic depression of the crust around the ice.
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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
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The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.
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Prydain (Middle Welsh: Prydein) is the modern Welsh name for Britain.
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Pseudo-Aristotle is a general cognomen for authors of philosophical or medical treatises who attributed their work to the Greek philosopher Aristotle, or whose work was later attributed to him by others.
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Pseudohistory is a form of pseudoscholarship that attempts to distort or misrepresent the historical record, often using methods resembling those used in legitimate historical research.
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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
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Pyrus communis, known as the European pear or common pear, is a species of pear native to central and eastern Europe and southwest Asia.
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Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
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Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
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Ranunculus is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae.
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The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.
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The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
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The River Clyde (Abhainn Chluaidh,, Watter o Clyde) is a river that flows into the Firth of Clyde in Scotland.
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The River Forth is a major river, long, whose drainage basin covers much of Stirlingshire in Scotland's Central Belt.
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The rock dove, IOC World Bird List, rock pigeon, or common pigeon (also; Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons).
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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
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The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
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Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
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Roman conquest of Britain
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
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Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
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Romano-British culture is the culture that arose in Britain under the Roman Empire following the Roman conquest in AD 43 and the creation of the province of Britannia.
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Saint Alban (Albanus) is venerated as the first-recorded British Christian martyr, and he is considered to be the British protomartyr.
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Saint David (Dewi Sant; Davidus; 500 589) was a Welsh bishop of Mynyw (now St Davids) during the 6th century; he was later regarded as a saint.
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Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
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Saint Margaret of Scotland
Saint Margaret of Scotland (Scots: Saunt Magret, c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), also known as Margaret of Wessex, was an English princess and a Scottish queen.
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Kentigern (Cyndeyrn Garthwys; Kentigernus), known as Mungo, was an apostle of the Scottish Kingdom of Strathclyde in the late 6th century, and the founder and patron saint of the city of Glasgow.
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Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.
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Saint Petroc or Petrock (Petrocus; Pedrog; Perreux; died) was a British prince and Christian saint.
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The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
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Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
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Scottish Episcopal Church
The seven dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church (Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba) make up the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion in Scotland.
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Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
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The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
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Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
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Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
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Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
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Sheffield urban area
The Sheffield Urban Area is a conurbation in the North of England with a population of 685,368 according to the 2011 census.
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Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
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The sika deer (Cervus nippon) also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia, and introduced to various other parts of the world.
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Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
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The smooth newt, also known as the common newt (Lissotriton vulgaris; formerly Triturus vulgaris) is a species of amphibian, the most common newt of the genus Lissotriton.
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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
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South Hampshire is a term used mainly to refer to the metropolitan area formed by the cities of Portsmouth and Southampton and their suburbs and commuter towns, in southern Hampshire, England.
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Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
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Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents.
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St George's Channel
St George's Channel (Sianel San Siôr, Muir Bhreatan) is a sea channel connecting the Irish Sea to the north and the Celtic Sea to the southwest.
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The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.
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Strait of Dover
The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (pas de Calais - Strait of Calais); Nauw van Kales or Straat van Dover), is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel, marking the boundary between the Channel and North Sea, separating Great Britain from continental Europe. The shortest distance across the strait,, is from the South Foreland, northeast of Dover in the English county of Kent, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near to Calais in the French département of Pas-de-Calais. Between these points lies the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers. The entire strait is within the territorial waters of France and the United Kingdom, but a right of transit passage under the UNCLOS exists allowing unrestricted shipping. On a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline of England from France and vice versa with the naked eye, with the most famous and obvious sight being the white cliffs of Dover from the French coastline and shoreline buildings on both coastlines, as well as lights on either coastline at night, as in Matthew Arnold's poem "Dover Beach".
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Sunderland is a city at the centre of the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough, in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 10 miles southeast of Newcastle upon Tyne, 12 miles northeast of Durham, 101 miles southeast of Edinburgh, 104 miles north-northeast of Manchester, 77 miles north of Leeds, and 240 miles north-northwest of London.
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Supreme Governor of the Church of England
The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British monarch that signifies titular leadership over the Church of England.
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Swans are birds of the family Anatidae within the genus Cygnus.
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Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia.
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Team GB is the brand name used since 1999 by the British Olympic Association (BOA) for their Great Britain and Northern Ireland Olympic team.
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The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
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The Independent is a British online newspaper.
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The National Archives (United Kingdom)
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
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Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae.
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Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.
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Thomas Erskine, 1st Earl of Kellie
Thomas Erskine, 1st Earl of Kellie (1566 – 12 June 1639) was a Scottish peer.
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Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
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Thule (Θούλη, Thoúlē; Thule, Tile) was the place located furthest north, which was mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman literature and cartography.
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Thyme is an aromatic perennial evergreen herb with culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses.
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Treaty of Union
The Treaty of Union is the name usually now given to the agreement which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that England (which already included Wales) and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain",: Both Acts of Union and the Treaty state in Article I: That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon 1 May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN.
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Tulips (Tulipa) form a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).
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Tyneside is a conurbation on the banks of the River Tyne in North East England which includes Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, Tynemouth, Wallsend, South Shields, and Jarrow.
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Ulex (commonly known as gorse, furze or whin) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae.
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Union of the Crowns
The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.
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Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
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United Kingdom census, 2011
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.
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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
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United Reformed Church
The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian church in the United Kingdom.
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Universal Postal Union
The Universal Postal Union (UPU, Union postale universelle), established by the Treaty of Bern of 1874, is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that coordinates postal policies among member nations, in addition to the worldwide postal system.
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Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
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Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
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Viola (and) is a genus of flowering plants in the violet family Violaceae.
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Vipera berus, the common European adderMallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G. (2003).
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Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
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A vole is a small rodent.
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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
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Wallace is a Scottish surname derived from the Anglo-Norman French waleis, which is in turn derived from a cognate of the Old English wylisc (pronounced "wullish") meaning "foreigner" or "Welshman" (see also Wallach and Walhaz).
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The water deer (Hydropotes inermis) is a small deer superficially more similar to a musk deer than a true deer.
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The Weald–Artois anticline is a large anticline, a geological structure running between the regions of the Weald in southern England and Artois in northeastern France.
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A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.
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Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
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West Midlands conurbation
The West Midlands conurbation is the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton and the large towns of Sutton Coldfield, Dudley, Walsall, West Bromwich, Solihull, Stourbridge and Halesowen in the English West Midlands.
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West Yorkshire Urban Area
The West Yorkshire Built-up Area, previously known as the West Yorkshire Urban Area is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to refer to a conurbation in West Yorkshire, England, based on the cities of Leeds, Bradford and Wakefield, and the large towns of Huddersfield and Halifax.
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Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
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White British is an ethnicity classification used in the 2011 United Kingdom Census.
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White Cliffs of Dover
The White Cliffs of Dover, part of the North Downs formation, is the name given to the region of English coastline facing the Strait of Dover and France.
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The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
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The wild horse (Equus ferus) is a species of the genus ''Equus'', which includes as subspecies the modern domesticated horse (Equus ferus caballus) as well as the undomesticated tarpan (Equus ferus ferus, now extinct), and the endangered Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii).
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A wildflower (or wild flower) is a flower that grows in the wild, meaning it was not intentionally seeded or planted.
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Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981
The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom implemented to comply with European Council Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds.
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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
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Wolverhampton is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
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Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
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.gb is a reserved Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Great Britain.
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.uk is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
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Breatainn Mhor, Breatainn Mhòr, Britain (island), Britannia Major, British mainland, England and Wales and Scotland, England, Scotland and Wales, England, Scotland, and Wales, England, Wales and Scotland, England, Wales, and Scotland, GREAT BRITAIN, Gran Bretaña, Grate Britain, Great Britain (GB), Great Britain (island), Great Britain's, Great Britian, Great Britian's, Great Brittain, Great britain, Great-Britain, Greater Britain, Gret Bryton, Großbritannien, Gt. Brit, Ile of Britain, Island of Britain, Island of Great Britain, Isle of Britain, Mainland Britain, Mainland UK, Mainland United Kingdom, Metropolitan Britain, Prydain Fawr, Storbritannien, Terminology of Great Britain, UK mainland.