318 relations: A Monetary History of the United States, A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, Ad valorem tax, Adam Tooze, Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Afrikaners, Aftermath of World War I, Aggregate demand, Aggregate expenditure, Agricultural Adjustment Act, Agricultural subsidy, Agriculture, Alan O. Ebenstein, Alphabet agencies, America's Great Depression, American Girl, American Media, Inc., Andrew Mellon, Andrey Korotayev, Anna Schwartz, António de Oliveira Salazar, Auckland, Austerity, Austrian business cycle theory, Austrian School, Autarky, Authoritarianism, Axel Pehrsson-Bramstorp, Balance of payments, Balanced budget, Bank of England, Bank of Greece, Bank of United States, Bank run, Barry Eichengreen, Ben Bernanke, Bolivia, Bond market, Business cycle, Business Insider, Calvin Coolidge, Cambridge University Press, Capital accumulation, Capital good, Capitalism, Carlos E. Chardón, Carnegie Commission of Investigation on the Poor White Question in South Africa, Caucasus, Causes of the Great Depression, Causes of the Great Recession, ..., Central bank, Chair of the Federal Reserve, Chalmers Johnson, Chicago school of economics, Chile, Chilling effect, Christina Romer, Cincinnati, Cities in the Great Depression, Civil disorder, Communist state, Conservative coalition, Consumer spending, CORFO, Corporatism, Credit crunch, Creditanstalt, Crisis theory, Currency appreciation and depreciation, Daniel Yergin, Dawes Plan, Dear America, Deficit spending, Deflation, Demand, Deposit account, Depression (economics), Depression of 1920–21, Developed country, Developing country, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Distribution of wealth, Ditadura Nacional, Donald Markwell, Dow Jones Industrial Average, Dunedin, Durable good, Dust Bowl, Eastern Bloc, Economic collapse, Economic indicator, Economic interventionism, Economy of Moldova, Economy of the United States, Electrification, Emergency Banking Act, Emergency Relief and Construction Act, Entertainment during the Great Depression, Estado Novo (Portugal), Executive Order 6102, Fair Deal, February 26 Incident, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal Home Loan Bank Act, Federal Reserve Act, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Federal Reserve System, Federal Writers' Project, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Forced displacement, Foundation for Economic Education, Franklin D. Roosevelt, French Section of the Workers' International, Friedrich Hayek, Göran Therborn, George Washington University, German federal election, July 1932, Glasgow, Glass–Steagall legislation, Gold certificate, Gold reserve, Gold standard, Government bond, Government debt, Government spending, Great Contraction, Great Depression in the United States, Great Recession, Gross domestic product, Hans Sennholz, Heavy industry, Henry A. Wallace, Herbert Hoover, Heterodox economics, History (U.S. TV network), History News Network, Hoover Moratorium, Hooverville, HuffPost, Hunger marches, Hyperinflation, Import substitution industrialization, Indianapolis, Investment, Involuntary unemployment, Ioannis Metaxas, Irving Fisher, Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale, Ivar Kreuger, J. Bradford DeLong, James Monroe, Japanese yen, John Cunningham Wood, John D. Rockefeller, John Kenneth Galbraith, John Maynard Keynes, John Steinbeck, Joseph Schumpeter, JSTOR, Karl Marx, Keynesian economics, Kit Kittredge, Kit Kittredge: An American Girl, Latin America, Lawrence Reed, Lawrence Summers, Léon Blum, League of Nations, Light industry, Lionel Robbins, List of Depression-era outlaws, List of economic crises, Long Depression, Ludwig von Mises, Luis Muñoz Marín, M. King Hubbert, Margaret Thatcher, Margin (finance), Marriner Stoddard Eccles, Marshall Plan, Marxism, Mary E. Daly, Mass production, Measures of national income and output, Middle class, Milton Friedman, Minimum wage, Mises Institute, Mobilization, Monetarism, Monetary policy, Money supply, Mount Holyoke College, MSN, Murray Rothbard, Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, National Climatic Data Center, National Credit Corporation, National Government (United Kingdom), National Hunger March, 1932, National Labor Relations Board, National Party (South Africa), National Recovery Administration, National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, Nationalist government, Neoliberalism, Netherlands, New Deal, New neoclassical synthesis, New Zealand, Nobel Prize, Of Mice and Men, Olivier Blanchard, Open market, Panic of 1819, Panic of 1837, Panic of 1857, Panic of 1893, Panic of 1907, Panic of 1910–11, Paul Douglas, Paul Krugman, PBS, Pedro Aguirre Cerda, Per Albin Hansson, Personal income, Peru, Pessimism, Peter Temin, Planned economy, Popular Front (Chile), Popular Front (France), Post-Soviet states, Pound sterling, Price–specie flow mechanism, Primary sector of the economy, Prime Minister of Portugal, Prime Minister of Sweden, Princeton University Press, Productivity, Protectionism, Public works, Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration, Pulitzer Prize, Purchasing power, Rattanakosin Kingdom (1782–1932), Realigning election, Recession of 1937–38, Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Reflation, Revenue Act of 1932, Ronald Reagan, Root cause, Say's law, Second New Deal, Securities Act of 1933, Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Shanty town, Siamese revolution of 1932, Silver standard, Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act, Social democracy, Social progress, Social Security (United States), Socialism, South African Party, Southern England, Soviet Central Asia, Soviet famine of 1932–33, Spanish Civil War, Speculative attack, Standard of living, Stephen Constantine (historian), Stock market, Stock market crash, Sunday roast, Supreme Court of the United States, Swedish Social Democratic Party, Takahashi Korekiyo, The Blind Assassin, The Daily Telegraph, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, The Grapes of Wrath, The Harvest of Sorrow, The Journal of Economic History, The Midlands, The New York Review of Books, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Time (magazine), Timeline of the Great Depression, To Kill a Mockingbird, Toyota, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, United Kingdom, United States Department of the Treasury, University of Virginia, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Valerie Tripp, Virtuous circle and vicious circle, Waddill Catchings, Wall Street Crash of 1929, Walter Duranty, Walter Rane, Weimar Republic, Welfare state, Wellington, William Trufant Foster, Working class, Works Progress Administration, World War I, World War II, WorldNetDaily, Young Plan, 1939 Chillán earthquake, 1998 Russian financial crisis, 6 February 1934 crisis. 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A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960 is a book written in 1963 by Nobel Prize–winning economist Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz.
A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp.
An ad valorem tax (Latin for "according to value") is a tax whose amount is based on the value of a transaction or of property.
Adam Tooze (born 1967) is a British historian who is a professor at Columbia University.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia (Europe and Asia), Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved.
In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD) or domestic final demand (DFD) is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time.
In economics, aggregate expenditure (AE) is a measure of national income.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was a United States federal law of the New Deal era designed to boost agricultural prices by reducing surpluses.
An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to agribusinesses, agricultural organizations and farms to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alan Oliver (Lanny) Ebenstein (born May 28, 1959) is an American political scientist, educator and author, known from his biographical works on Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman.
The alphabet agencies (also New Deal agencies) were the U.S. federal government agencies created as part of the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
America's Great Depression is a 1963 treatise on the 1930s Great Depression and its root causes, written by Austrian School economist and author Murray Rothbard.
American Girl is an American line of dolls released in 1986 by Pleasant Company.
American Media, Inc., is a publisher of magazines, supermarket tabloids, and books based in New York City.
Andrew William Mellon (March 24, 1855 – August 26, 1937), sometimes A.W., was an American banker, businessman, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector, and politician.
Andrey Vitalievich Korotayev (Андре́й Вита́льевич Корота́ев; born 17 February 1961) is a Russian anthropologist, economic historian, comparative political scientist, demographer and sociologist, with major contributions to world-systems theory, cross-cultural studies, Near Eastern history, Big History, and mathematical modelling of social and economic macrodynamics.
Anna Jacobson Schwartz (/ʃwɔːrts/; November 11, 1915 – June 21, 2012) was an American economist who worked at the National Bureau of Economic Research in New York City and a writer for the New York Times.
António de Oliveira Salazar (28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968.
Auckland is a city in New Zealand's North Island.
Austerity is a political-economic term referring to policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both.
The Austrian business cycle theory (ABCT) is an economic theory developed by the Austrian School of economics about how business cycles occur.
The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.
Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Axel Alarik Pehrsson-Bramstorp (born Axel Alarik Pehrsson; 19 August 1883 – 19 February 1954) was a Swedish politician and was Prime Minister of Sweden for a few months during 1936.
The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments and abbreviated B.O.P. or BoP, of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and of the world in a particular period (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year).
A balanced budget (particularly that of a government) is a budget in which revenues are equal to expenditures.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Bank of Greece (Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος, abbreviated ΤτΕ) is the central bank of Greece.
The Bank of United States, founded by Joseph S. Marcus in 1913 at 77 Delancey Street in New York, was a New York City bank that failed in 1931.
A bank run (also known as a run on the bank) occurs when a large number of people withdraw their money from a bank, because they believe the bank may cease to function in the near future.
Barry Julian Eichengreen (born 1952) is an American economist who holds the title of George C. Pardee and Helen N. Pardee Professor of Economics and Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has taught since 1987.
Ben Shalom Bernanke (born December 13, 1953) is an American economist at the Brookings Institution who served two terms as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, from 2006 to 2014.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The bond market (also debt market or credit market) is a financial market where participants can issue new debt, known as the primary market, or buy and sell debt securities, known as the secondary market.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) was an American politician and the 30th President of the United States (1923–1929).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capital accumulation (also termed the accumulation of capital) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit, rent, interest, royalties or capital gains.
A capital good is a durable good (one that does not quickly wear out) that is used in the production of goods or services.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carlos Eugenio Chardón Palacios, D.Sc., D.Litt, (28 September 1897 – 7 March 1965) was the first Puerto Rican mycologist, a high-ranking official in government on agriculture during the 1920s, the first Puerto Rican appointed as Chancellor of the University of Puerto Rico (1931–1935), and the head of the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration in the mid-to late 1930s during the Great Depression.
"The Poor White Problem in South Africa: Report of the Carnegie Commission" (1932) was a study of poverty among white South Africans that made recommendations about segregation that some have argued would later serve as a blueprint for Apartheid.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The causes of the Great Depression in the early 20th century have been extensively discussed by economists and remain a matter of active debate.
Many factors directly and indirectly caused the Great Recession (which started in 2007 with the US subprime mortgage crisis), with experts and economists placing different weights on particular causes.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is the head of the Federal Reserve, which is the central banking system of the United States.
Chalmers Ashby Johnson (August 6, 1931 – November 20, 2010) was an American author and professor emeritus of the University of California, San Diego.
The Chicago school of economics is a neoclassical school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago, some of whom have constructed and popularized its principles.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
In a legal context, a chilling effect is the inhibition or discouragement of the legitimate exercise of natural and legal rights by the threat of legal sanction.
Christina Duckworth Romer (née Duckworth; born December 25, 1958) is the Class of 1957 Garff B. Wilson Professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley and a former Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers in the Obama administration.
Throughout the industrial world, cities were hit hard during the Great Depression, beginning in 1929 and lasting through most of the 1930s.
Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance or civil unrest, is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, or strike) in which the participants become hostile toward authority, and authorities incur difficulties in maintaining public safety and order, over the disorderly crowd.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
The conservative coalition was an unofficial Congressional coalition bringing together a conservative majority of the Republican Party and the conservative, mostly Southern, wing of the Democratic Party.
Consumer spending, consumption, or consumption expenditure is the acquisition of goods and services by individuals or families.
Production Development Corporation (CORFO) (full name in Spanish: Corporación de Fomento de la Producción de Chile) is a Chilean governmental organization that was founded in 1939, by President Pedro Aguirre Cerda, to promote economic growth in Chile.
Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.
A credit crunch (also known as a credit squeeze or credit crisis) is a sudden reduction in the general availability of loans (or credit) or a sudden tightening of the conditions required to obtain a loan from banks.
Creditanstalt (sometimes Credit-Anstalt, abbreviated as CA) was an Austrian bank based in Vienna.
Crisis theory, concerning the causes and consequences of the tendency for the rate of profit to fall in a capitalist system, is now generally associated with Marxian economics.
Currency depreciation is the loss of value of a country's currency with respect to one or more foreign reference currencies, typically in a floating exchange rate system in which no official currency value is maintained.
Daniel Howard Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author, speaker, energy expert, and economic historian.
The Dawes Plan (as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was an initial plan in 1924 to resolve the World War I reparations that Germany had to pay, which had strained diplomacy following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles.
Dear America is a series of historical fiction novels for older girls published by Scholastic in 1996.
Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.
In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.
In economics, demand is the quantities of a commodity or a service that people are willing and able to buy at various prices, over a given period of time.
A deposit account is a savings account, current account or any other type of bank account that allows money to be deposited and withdrawn by the account holder.
In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.
The Depression of 1920–21 was a sharp deflationary recession in the United States and other countries, 14 months after the end of World War I. It lasted from January 1920 to July 1921.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
--> The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society.
The Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) was the name of the Portuguese regime that started in 1928 after re-election of General Óscar Carmona to the post of President.
For the Montgomery, Alabama, talk radio personality, see Don Markwell Donald John "Don" Markwell (born 19 April 1959) is an Australian social scientist, who has been described as a "renowned Australian educational reformer".
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), or simply the Dow, is a stock market index that shows how 30 large, publicly owned companies based in the United States have traded during a standard trading session in the stock market.
Dunedin (Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region.
In economics, a durable good or a hard good is a good that does not quickly wear out, or more specifically, one that yields utility over time rather than being completely consumed in one use.
The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Economic collapse is any of a broad range of bad economic conditions, ranging from a severe, prolonged depression with high bankruptcy rates and high unemployment (such as the Great Depression of the 1930s), to a breakdown in normal commerce caused by hyperinflation (such as in Weimar Germany in the 1920s), or even an economically caused sharp rise in the death rate and perhaps even a decline in population (such as in countries of the former USSR in the 1990s).
An economic indicator is a statistic about an economic activity.
Economic interventionism (sometimes state interventionism) is an economic policy perspective favoring government intervention in the market process to correct the market failures and promote the general welfare of the people.
Moldova is a former Soviet republic in Eastern Europe.
The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy.
Electrification is the process of powering by electricity and, in many contexts, the introduction of such power by changing over from an earlier power source.
The Emergency Banking Act (the official title of which was the Emergency Banking Relief Act), Public Law 1, 48 Stat.
The Emergency Relief and Construction Act (ch. 520,, enacted July 21, 1932), was the United States's first major-relief legislation, enabled under Herbert Hoover and later adopted and expanded by Franklin D. Roosevelt as part of his New Deal.
During the 1930' s the United States was facing its longest and deepest economic downturn, the Great Depression.
The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.
Executive Order 6102 is a United States presidential executive order signed on April 5, 1933, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt "forbidding the Hoarding of gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates within the continental United States".
The Fair Deal was an ambitious set of proposals put forward by U.S. President Harry S. Truman to Congress in his January 1949 State of the Union address.
The was an attempted coup d'état in the Empire of Japan on 26 February 1936.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. commercial banks and savings institutions.
The Federal Home Loan Bank Act,, is a United States federal law passed under President Herbert Hoover in order to lower the cost of home ownership.
The Federal Reserve Act (ch. 6,, enacted December 23, 1913) is an Act of Congress that created and established the Federal Reserve System (the central banking system of the United States), and which created the authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes (commonly known as the US Dollar) as legal tender.
The Federal Reserve Bank of New York is one of the 12 Federal Reserve Banks of the United States.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
The Federal Writers' Project (FWP) was a United States federal government project created to provide jobs for out-of-work writers during the Great Depression.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Forced displacement or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion.
The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) is a libertarian economic think-tank dedicated to the "economic, ethical and legal principles of a free society." FEE publishes books and hosts seminars and lectures.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The French Section of the Workers' International (Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière, SFIO) was a French socialist political party founded in 1905 and replaced in 1969 by the current Socialist Party (PS).
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.
Göran Therborn FAcSS (23 September 1941, Kalmar, Sweden) is a professor of sociology at Cambridge University and is amongst the most highly cited contemporary Marxian-influenced sociologists.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 31 July 1932, following the premature dissolution of the Reichstag.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
The Glass–Steagall legislation describes four provisions of the U.S.A Banking Act of 1933 separating commercial and investment banking.
A gold certificate in general is a certificate of ownership that gold owners hold instead of storing the actual gold.
A gold reserve was the gold held by a national central bank, intended mainly as a guarantee to redeem promises to pay depositors, note holders (e.g. paper money), or trading peers, during the eras of the gold standard, and also as a store of value, or to support the value of the national currency.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
A government bond or sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government, generally with a promise to pay periodic interest payments and to repay the face value on the maturity date.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.
The Great Contraction is Milton Friedman's term for the recession which led to the Great Depression.
The Great Depression began in August 1929, when the United States economy first went into an economic recession.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Hans F. Sennholz (3 February 1922 – 23 June 2007) was a German-born American Austrian School economist and prolific author who studied under Ludwig von Mises.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) served as the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–1945), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–1940), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–1946).
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.
Heterodoxy is a term that may be used in contrast with orthodoxy in schools of economic thought or methodologies, that may be beyond neoclassical economics.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
History News Network (HNN) at George Washington University is a platform for historians writing about current events.
The Hoover Moratorium was a public statement issued by US President Herbert Hoover on June 20, 1931, who hoped to ease the coming international economic crisis and provide time for recovery.
A "Hooverville" was a shanty town built during the Great Depression by the homeless in the United States of America.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hunger marches are a form of social protest that arose in the United Kingdom during the early 20th century.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
Import substitution industrialization (ISI) is a trade and economic policy which advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production.
Indianapolis is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
Involuntary unemployment occurs when a person is willing to work at the prevailing wage yet is unemployed.
Ioannis Metaxas (Ιωάννης Μεταξάς; 12 April 1871 – 29 January 1941) was a Greek military officer and politician, serving as Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941.
Irving Fisher (February 27, 1867 – April 29, 1947) was an American economist, statistician, inventor, and Progressive social campaigner.
The Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (English: "Institute for Industrial Reconstruction"), best known by its acronym IRI, was an Italian public holding company established in 1933 by the Fascist regime to rescue, restructure and finance banks and private companies that went bankrupt during the Great Depression.
Ivar Kreuger (2 March 1880 – 12 March 1932) was a Swedish civil engineer, financier, entrepreneur and industrialist.
James Bradford "Brad" DeLong (born June 24, 1960) is an economic historian who is professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.
James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825.
The is the official currency of Japan.
John Cunningham Wood (born 1952) is an Australian economist, author, and the Chief Executive Officer of the University Division at Navitas, known as series editor of the "Critical Assessment of Leading Economists" series of Taylor & Francis.
John Davison Rockefeller Sr. (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) was an American oil industry business magnate, industrialist, and philanthropist.
John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
John Ernst Steinbeck Jr. --> (February 27, 1902 – December 20, 1968) was an American author.
Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
Kit Kittredge, also known as Margaret Mildred Kittredge, is a fictional character in the American Girl series of books, written by Valerie Tripp.
Kit Kittredge: An American Girl (also advertised as Kit Kittredge: An American Girl Mystery) is a 2008 American comedy-drama film directed by Patricia Rozema and written by Ann Peacock, based on the Kit Kittredge stories by Valerie Tripp.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Lawrence W. Reed (born September 29, 1953), also known as Larry Reed, is president of the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE).
Lawrence Henry Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist, former Vice President of Development Economics and Chief Economist of the World Bank (1991–93),, Data & Research office, The World Bank, retrieved March 31, 2017, World Bank Live, The World Bank, retrieved March 31, 2017 Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, retrieved March 31, 2017 senior U.S. Treasury Department official throughout President Clinton's administration (ultimately Treasury Secretary, 1999–2001), U.S. Treasury Department, Last Updated: 11/20/2010, retrieved March 31, 2017 and former director of the National Economic Council for President Obama (2009–2010).
André Léon Blum (9 April 1872 – 30 March 1950) was a French politician, identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods.
Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins, (22 November 1898 – 15 May 1984) was a British economist, and prominent member of the economics department at the London School of Economics.
This is a list of the Great Depression-era outlaws spanning the years of Prohibition and the Great Depression known as the "Public Enemy" era.
List of economic crises and depressions.
The Long Depression was a worldwide price and economic recession, beginning in 1873 and running either through the spring of 1879, or 1896, depending on the metrics used.
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.
José Luis Alberto Muñoz Marín (February 18, 1898April 30, 1980) was the first elected governor of Puerto Rico, journalist, politician, and statesman, regarded as the "Father of Modern Puerto Rico" and the "Architect of the Commonwealth." In 1948 he was the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico, spearheading an administration that engineered profound economic, political and social reforms; accomplishments that were internationally lauded by many politicians, statesmen, political scientists and economists of the period.
Marion King Hubbert (October 5, 1903 – October 11, 1989) was an American geologist and geophysicist.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
In finance, margin is collateral that the holder of a financial instrument has to deposit with a counterparty (most often their broker or an exchange) to cover some or all of the credit risk the holder poses for the counterparty.
Marriner Stoddard Eccles (September 9, 1890 – December 18, 1977) was a U.S. banker, economist, and member and chairman of the Federal Reserve Board.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mary E. Daly, is an Irish historian and academic.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
A variety of measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate total economic activity in a country or region, including gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), net national income (NNI), and adjusted national income also called as NNI at factor cost (NNI* adjusted for natural resource depletion).
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
The Mises Institute, short name for Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, is a tax-exempt educative organization located in Auburn, Alabama, United States.
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.
Mount Holyoke College is a liberal arts college for women, in South Hadley, Massachusetts, United States.
MSN (stylized as msn) is a web portal and related collection of Internet services and apps for Windows and mobile devices, provided by Microsoft and launched on August 24, 1995, the same release date as Windows 95.
Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.
The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa is New Zealand's national museum, located in Wellington.
The United States National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), previously known as the National Weather Records Center (NWRC), in Asheville, North Carolina was the world's largest active archive of weather data.
The National Credit Corporation was an organization created in 1931 by the Hoover administration to try to stop bank failure.
In the United Kingdom, National Government is an abstract concept of a coalition of some or all major political parties.
The National Hunger March of September–October 1932 was the largestCook, Chris and Bewes, Diccon; What Happened Where: A Guide To Places And Events In Twentieth-Century History p. 115; Routledge, 1997 of a series of hunger marches in Britain in the 1920s and 1930s.
The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is an independent US government agency with responsibilities for enforcing US labor law in relation to collective bargaining and unfair labor practices.
The National Party (Nasionale Party), also known as the Nationalist Party, was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997.
The National Recovery Administration was a prime New Deal agency established by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in 1933.
The National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland,, NSB) was a Dutch fascist and later national socialist political party.
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
The new neoclassical synthesis (NNS) or new synthesis is the fusion of the major, modern macroeconomic schools of thought, new classical and Neo-Keynesianism, into a consensus on the best way to explain short-run fluctuations in the economy.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Of Mice and Men is a novella written by author John Steinbeck.
Olivier Jean Blanchard (born December 27, 1948) is a French economist, professor and Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.
The term open market is used generally to refer to an economic situation close to free trade.
The Panic of 1819 was the first major peacetime financial crisis in the United States followed by a general collapse of the American economy persisting through 1821.
The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s.
The Panic of 1857 was a financial panic in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy.
The Panic of 1893 was a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893 and ended in 1897.
The Panic of 1907 – also known as the 1907 Bankers' Panic or Knickerbocker Crisis – was a United States financial crisis that took place over a three-week period starting in mid-October, when the New York Stock Exchange fell almost 50% from its peak the previous year.
The Panic of 1910–1911 was a slight economic depression that followed the enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
Paul Howard Douglas (March 26, 1892 – September 24, 1976) was an American politician and Georgist economist.
Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Pedro Aguirre Cerda (February 6, 1879 – November 25, 1941) was a Chilean political figure.
Per Albin Hansson (28 October 1885 – 6 October 1946) was a Swedish politician, chairman of the Social Democrats from 1925 and two-time Prime Minister in four governments between 1932 and 1946, governing all that period save for a short-lived crisis in the summer of 1936, which he ended by forming a coalition government with his main adversary, Axel Pehrsson-Bramstorp.
In economics, personal income refers to an individual's total earnings from wages, investment enterprises, and other ventures.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Pessimism is a mental attitude.
Peter Temin (born 17 December 1937) is an economist and economic historian, currently Gray Professor Emeritus of Economics, MIT and former head of the Economics Department.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
The Popular Front in Chile was an electoral and political left-wing coalition from 1937 to February 1941, during the Presidential Republic Era (1924–1973).
The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The price–specie flow mechanism is a model developed by Scottish economist David Hume (1711–1776) to illustrate how trade imbalances can be self-correct and adjust under the gold standard.
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
Prime Minister (Portuguese: Primeiro-Ministro) is the current title of the head of government of Portugal.
The Prime Minister (statsminister, literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in Sweden.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.
The Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration (PRRA) was one of the alphabet agencies of the New Deal established by the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States.
Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number and quality or value of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.
The Rattanakosin Kingdom (อาณาจักรรัตนโกสินทร์) is the fourth and present traditional centre of power in the history of Thailand (or Siam).
A realigning election (often called a critical election, political realignment, or critical realignment) is a term from political science and political history describing a dramatic change in the political system.
The recession of 1937–1938 was an economic downturn that occurred during the Great Depression in the United States.
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) was a government corporation in the United States between 1932 and 1957 that provided financial support to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations, and other businesses.
Reflation is the act of stimulating the economy by increasing the money supply or by reducing taxes, seeking to bring the economy (specifically price level) back up to the long-term trend, following a dip in the business cycle.
The Revenue Act of 1932 (June 6, 1932, ch. 209) raised United States tax rates across the board, with the rate on top incomes rising from 25 percent to 63 percent.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
A root cause is an initiating cause of either a condition or a causal chain that leads to an outcome or effect of interest.
In classical economics, Say's law, or the law of markets, states that aggregate production necessarily creates an equal quantity of aggregate demand.
The Second New Deal is the term used by commentators at the time and historians ever since to characterize the second stage, 1935–36, of the New Deal programs of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The United States Congress enacted the Securities Act of 1933, also known as the 1933 Act, the Securities Act, the Truth in Securities Act, the Federal Securities Act, or the '33 Act, Title I of Pub.
The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (also called the Exchange Act, '34 Act, or 1934 Act) (codified at et seq.) is a law governing the secondary trading of securities (stocks, bonds, and debentures) in the United States of America.
A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised housing which is known as shanties or shacks, made of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, and cardboard boxes.
The Siamese revolution of 1932 or the Siamese coup d'état of 1932 (การปฏิวัติสยาม.. or การเปลี่ยนแปลงการปกครองสยาม..) was a crucial turning point in 20th-century Thai history.
The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver.
The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census.
The Tariff Act of 1930 (codified at), commonly known as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff or Hawley–Smoot Tariff, was an act implementing protectionist trade policies sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley and was signed into law on June 17, 1930.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Social progress is the idea that societies can or do improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures.
In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The South African Party was a political party that existed in the Union of South Africa from 1911 to 1934.
Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, refers roughly to the southern counties of England.
Soviet Central Asia refers to the section of Central Asia formerly controlled by the Soviet Union, as well as the time period of Soviet administration (1918–1991).
The Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a major famine that killed millions of people in the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, including Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, Volga Region and Kazakhstan, the South Urals, and West Siberia.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
In economics, a speculative attack is a precipitous acquisition of some assets (currencies, gold, emission permits, remaining quotas) by previously inactive speculators.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
Stephen Constantine is professor emeritus of modern British history at Lancaster University.
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market, resulting in a significant loss of paper wealth.
The Sunday roast is a traditional British main meal that is typically served on Sunday (hence the name), consisting of roasted meat, roast potato, and accompaniments such as Yorkshire pudding, stuffing, vegetables and gravy.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The Swedish Social Democratic Party (Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti, SAP; literally, "Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden"), contesting elections as the Arbetarepartiet–Socialdemokraterna ('The Workers' Party – The Social Democrats'), usually referred to just as the 'Social Democrats' (Socialdemokraterna); is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden.
Viscount was a Japanese politician who served as a member of the House of Peers, as the 20th Prime Minister of Japan from 13 November 1921 to 12 June 1922, and as the head of the Bank of Japan and Ministry of Finance.
The Blind Assassin is a novel by the Canadian writer Margaret Atwood.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money of 1936 is the last and most important book by the English economist John Maynard Keynes.
The Grapes of Wrath is an American realist novel written by John Steinbeck and published in 1939.
The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-famine is a book by British historian Robert Conquest, published in 1986.
The Journal of Economic History is an academic journal of economic history which has been published since 1941.
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The initial economic collapse which resulted in the Great Depression can be divided into two parts: 1929 to mid-1931, and then mid-1931 to 1933.
To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel by Harper Lee published in 1960.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Valerie Tripp is a children's book author, best known for her work with the American Girl series.
The terms virtuous circle and vicious circle (also referred to as virtuous cycle and vicious cycle) refer to complex chains of events that reinforce themselves through a feedback loop.
Waddill Catchings (September 6, 1879 – December 31, 1967) was an American economist who collaborated with his Harvard classmate William Trufant Foster in a series of economics books that were highly influential in the United States in the 1920s.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.
Walter Duranty (May 25, 1884 – October 3, 1957) was a Liverpool-born, Anglo-American journalist who served as the Moscow Bureau Chief of The New York Times for fourteen years (1922–1936) following the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War (1918–1921).
Walter Rane (born 1949) is an American artist who begin his career as primarily a book and magazine illustrator but now specializes in religious art.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
Wellington (Te Whanganui-a-Tara) is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with residents.
William Trufant Foster (January 18, 1879 – October 8, 1950), was an American educator and economist, whose theories were especially influential in the 1920s.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
The Works Progress Administration (WPA; renamed in 1939 as the Work Projects Administration) was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
WorldNetDaily (WND) is an American news and opinion website and online news aggregator which has been described as "fringe" and far right as well as politically conservative.
The Young Plan was a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I written in August 1929 and formally adopted in 1930.
The 1939 Chillán earthquake occurred in south-central Chile on 24 January and had a surface wave magnitude of 8.3.
The Russian financial crisis (also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu) hit Russia on 17 August 1998.
The 6 February 1934 crisis was an anti-parliamentarist street demonstration in Paris organized by multiple far-right leagues that culminated in a riot on the Place de la Concorde, near the seat of the French National Assembly.
1929 Depression, 1929 economic crisis, 1930s recession, Depression Era, Depression era, Depression of 1929, European banking crisis of 1931, Great Crisis, Great Depression in East Asia, Great Depression in Finland, Great Depression in Spain, Great Depression in the Soviet Union, Great Depression of 1929, Great Slump, Great depression, Greet Depression, Republican Great Depression, The Depression, The First Great Depression, The Great Depresion, The Great Depression, The Great Depression in Spain, The depression, The depression and the new deal, The great depression, The hungry 30s, World Depression, World depression, Worldwide economic crisis in the 1920s.