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The alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) is an anadromous species of herring found in North America.
Alpena is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Alpena County.
Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
Ashtabula is a city in Ashtabula County, Ohio, United States, and the center of the Ashtabula Micropolitan Statistical Area (as defined by the United States Census Bureau in 2003).
Several species of heavy-bodied cyprinid fishes are collectively known in the United States as Asian carp.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
An aulacogen is a failed arm of a triple junction.
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
Bass is a name shared by many species of fish.
Bay City is a city in Bay County, Michigan, located near the base of the Saginaw Bay on Lake Huron.
Beaver Island is the largest island in Lake Michigan and part of the Beaver Island archipelago in the state of Michigan.
A beech-maple forest or a maple beech forest is a climax mesic closed canopy hardwood forest.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
The Blue Water Bridge is a twin-span international bridge across the St. Clair River that links Port Huron, Michigan, United States, and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada.
Bois Blanc Island is an island in Lake Huron coterminous with Bois Blanc Township, Mackinac County, Michigan.
Bois Blanc Island, commonly called Boblo Island, is an island in the Detroit River on the Canadian side of the border and is part of Amherstburg, Ontario.
The Boundary Waters Treaty is the 1909 treaty between the United States and Canada providing mechanisms for resolving any dispute over any waters bordering the two countries.
The Bruce Peninsula is a peninsula in Ontario, Canada, that lies between Georgian Bay and the main basin of Lake Huron.
Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.
Bythotrephes longimanus (also Bythotrephes cederstroemi), or the spiny water flea, is a planktonic crustacean less than long.
Callander Bay is a bay at the extreme east of Lake Nipissing in Parry Sound District, Ontario, Canada.
The Calumet River is a system of heavily industrialized rivers and canals in the region between the neighborhood of South Chicago in Chicago, Illinois, and the city of Gary, Indiana.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Canada–United States border, officially known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries.
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
The Central Canadian Shield forests are a taiga ecoregion of Canada.
The Central forest-grasslands transition is a prairie ecoregion of the central United States, an ecotone between eastern forests and the North American Great Plains.
Cercopagis pengoi, or the fishhook waterflea, is a species of planktonic cladoceran crustaceans that is native in the brackish fringes of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The Champlain Sea was a temporary inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, created by the retreating glaciers during the close of the last ice age.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
The Chicago River is a system of rivers and canals with a combined length of that runs through the city of Chicago, including its center (the Chicago Loop).
The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, historically known as the Chicago Drainage Canal, is a canal system that connects the Chicago River to the Des Plaines River.
The Cladocera are an order of small crustaceans commonly called water fleas.
The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
The coastline paradox is the counterintuitive observation that the coastline of a landmass does not have a well-defined length.
Cockburn Island is an island and municipality in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the Manitoulin District.
A combined sewer is a sewage collection system of pipes and tunnels designed to also collect surface runoff.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Container ships (sometimes spelled containerships) are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization.
Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.
Coregonus is a diverse genus of fish in the salmon family (Salmonidae).
Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, crawldads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
The David Suzuki Foundation is a science-based environmental organization headquartered in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with offices in Montreal and Toronto.
The deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii) is a freshwater sculpin that inhabits the bottoms of cold, deep freshwater lakes of northern North America.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
Detroit and Cleveland Navigation Company, often abbreviated as D&C, was a shipping company on the Great Lakes.
The Detroit River (Rivière Détroit) flows for from Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie as a strait in the Great Lakes system and forms part of the border between Canada and the United States.
The Door Peninsula is a peninsula in eastern Wisconsin, separating the southern part of the Green Bay from Lake Michigan.
Duluth is a major port city in the U.S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of Saint Louis County.
The Eastern Continental Divide (ECD) or Appalachian Divide or Eastern Divide, in conjunction with other continental divides of North America, demarcates two watersheds of the Atlantic Ocean: the Gulf of Mexico watershed and the Atlantic Seaboard watershed.
The Eastern forest-boreal transition is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion of North America, mostly in eastern Canada.
The Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregion of North America, mostly in eastern Canada.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States that is part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal).
The Erie people (also Erieehronon, Eriechronon, Riquéronon, Erielhonan, Eriez, Nation du Chat) were a Native American people historically living on the south shore of Lake Erie.
Erie is a city in and the county seat of Erie County, Pennsylvania, United States.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
The Federal Register (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.
The Finger Lakes are a group of 11 long, narrow, roughly north–south lakes in an area called the Finger Lakes region in Central New York, in the United States.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
The Fox River is a river in the north central United States, in eastern Wisconsin.
The Fox–Wisconsin Waterway is a waterway formed by the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Inkerman and Cerisoles were two French minesweepers named after major battles fought during the Crimean War and Italian war, and which vanished on their maiden voyage in a storm on Lake Superior in 24 November 1918.
The French River (Rivière des Français or in Ojibway Wemitigoj-Sibi) is a river in Central Ontario, Canada.
The freshwater whitefish are fishes of the subfamily Coregoninae, which contains whitefishes (both freshwater and anadromous) and ciscoes, and is one of three subfamilies in the salmon family Salmonidae.
A Fruit Belt is an area where a microclimate provides good conditions for fruit growing.
The Garden Peninsula is a peninsula of in length that extends southwestward into Lake Michigan from the mainland of Michigan's Upper Peninsula.
Gary is a city in Lake County, Indiana, United States, from downtown Chicago, Illinois.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Georgian Bay (French: Baie Georgienne) is a large bay of Lake Huron, located entirely within Ontario, Canada.
Glacial Lake Iroquois was a prehistoric proglacial lake that existed at the end of the last ice age approximately 13,000 years ago.
Gordon Meredith Lightfoot Jr. (born November 17, 1938) is a Canadian singer-songwriter who achieved international success in folk, folk-rock, and country music.
Grand Marais is an unincorporated community in Burt Township, Alger County in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan, and the largest city in West Michigan.
Grand Traverse Bay is a bay of Lake Michigan formed by the Leelanau Peninsula in the northwestern Lower Peninsula of Michigan.
Great Lakes Areas of Concern are designated geographic areas within the Great Lakes Basin that show severe environmental degradation.
The Great Lakes Basin consists of the Great Lakes and the surrounding lands of the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin in the United States, and the province of Ontario in Canada, whose direct surface runoff and watersheds form a large drainage basin that feeds into the lakes.
The Great Lakes Circle Tour is a designated scenic road system connecting all of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.
The Great Lakes Commission is a United States interstate agency established in 1955 through the Great Lakes Compact, in order to "promote the orderly, integrated and comprehensive development, use and conservation of the water resources of the Great Lakes Basin," which includes the Saint Lawrence River.
The Great Lakes–St.
The Great Lakes Fishery Commission is a bi-national commission made up of representatives of the United States and Canada.
The Great Lakes Megalopolis consists of the group of metropolitan areas in North America largely in the Great Lakes region and along the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
The Great Lakes Protection Fund is a publicly capitalized, private corporation created in 1989 by the Governors of the states surrounding the Great Lakes.
The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canada-American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario.
The Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum is located at the Whitefish Point Light Station north of Paradise in Chippewa County in the U.S. state of Michigan.
The Great Lakes Storm of 1913, historically referred to as the "Big Blow," the "Freshwater Fury," or the "White Hurricane," was a blizzard with hurricane-force winds that devastated the Great Lakes Basin in the Midwestern United States and the province of Ontario in Canada from November 7 through November 10, 1913.
The Great Lakes tectonic zone is bounded by South Dakota at its tip and heads northeast to south of Duluth, Minnesota, then heads east through northern Wisconsin, Marquette, Michigan, and then trends more northeasterly to skim the northern-most shores of lakes Michigan and Huron before ending in the Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, area.
Great Lakes WATER Institute (also known as the WATER Institute, Wisconsin Aquatic Technology and Environmental Research Institute, GLWI) is a freshwater research center of the University of Wisconsin System administered by the Graduate School of University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
The Great Lakes Waterway is a system of natural channels and canals which enable navigation between the North American Great Lakes.
The Great Recycling and Northern Development (GRAND) Canal of North America or GCNA is a water management proposal designed by Newfoundland engineer Thomas Kierans to alleviate North American freshwater shortage problems.
Green Bay is an arm of Lake Michigan, located along the south coast of Michigan's Upper Peninsula and the east coast of Wisconsin.
Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, at the head of Green Bay, a sub-basin of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Fox River.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
The Indiana Dunes comprise ten different habitats.
Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario.
Harsens Island is a wet marshy location at the mouth of the St. Clair River on Lake St. Clair, in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline.
The Hopewell tradition (also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period.
The HSC Virgen de Coromoto is an fast catamaran ferry operated by Consolidada de Ferrys C.A. in Venezuela.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
Hurricane Hazel was the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season.
An ice volcano is a conical mound of ice formed over a terrestrial lake via the eruption of water and slush through an ice shelf.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal connected the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico.
The Illinois River (Miami-Illinois language: Inoka Siipiiwi) is a principal tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately long, in the U.S. state of Illinois.
The Illinois Waterway system consists of of water from the mouth of the Calumet River to the mouth of the Illinois River at Grafton, Illinois.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
The International Joint Commission (Commission mixte internationale) is a bi-national organization established by the governments of the United States and Canada under the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909.
In the United States of America, an interstate compact is an agreement between two or more states.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of North America.
Isle Royale is an island of the Great Lakes, located in the northwest of Lake Superior, and part of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Jane Brierley is a Canadian translator, translating from French to English.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kelleys Island is both a village in Erie County, Ohio, United States, and the island which it fully occupies in Lake Erie.
Kenosha is a city in and the county seat of Kenosha County, Wisconsin, United States.
The Keweenaw Peninsula (sometimes locally /ˈkiːvənɔː/) is the northernmost part of Michigan's Upper Peninsula.
Kingston is a city in eastern Ontario, Canada.
Kingsville is located in Essex County in southwestern Ontario, Canada, and is Canada's southernmost municipality with town status.
Kiteboarding is an action sport combining aspects of wakeboarding, snowboarding, windsurfing, surfing, paragliding, skateboarding and sailing into one extreme sport.
L.R. Doty was a Great Lakes steamship launched in May 1893 at West Bay City, Michigan.
Lake Algonquin was a proglacial lake that existed in east-central North America at the time of the last ice age.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
Lake Champlain (French: Lac Champlain) (Abenaki: Pitawbagok) (Mohawk: Kaniatarakwà:ronte) is a natural freshwater lake in North America mainly within the borders of the United States (in the states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the Canada–U.S. border, in the Canadian province of Quebec.
This article is about the prehistoric lake, For other geographic features with this name, see Chicago Lake Chicago was a prehistoric proglacial lake that is the ancestor of what is now known as Lake Michigan, one of North America's five Great Lakes.
A lake ecosystem includes biotic (living) plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic (nonliving) physical and chemical interactions.
Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area.
Lake freighters, or lakers, are bulk carrier vessels that ply the Great Lakes of North America.
Lake Huron is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
Lake Manitou is the largest lake on Manitoulin Island in Ontario, Canada.
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located entirely within the United States.
Lake Michigan–Huron (also Huron–Michigan) is the combined waters of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron, which are joined through the wide, 20-fathom (120 ft; 37 m) deep, open-water Straits of Mackinac.
Lake Mindemoya is a lake of Ontario, Canada.
Lake Nipigon (lac Nipigon; Animbiigoo-zaaga'igan) is the largest lake entirely within the boundaries of the Canadian province of Ontario.
Lake Nipissing (lac Nipissing) is a lake in the Canadian province of Ontario.
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
Lake Simcoe is a lake in southern Ontario, Canada, the fourth-largest lake wholly in the province, after Lake Nipigon, Lac Seul, and Lake Nipissing.
The lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), also called rock sturgeon, is a North American temperate freshwater fish, one of about 25 species of sturgeon.
Lake Superior (Lac Supérieur; ᑭᑦᒉᐁ-ᑲᒣᐁ, Gitchi-Gami) is the largest of the Great Lakes of North America.
Lake surfing is surfing on any lake with sufficient surface area for wind to produce suitable waves.
Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is a freshwater char living mainly in lakes in northern North America.
Lake Winnebago is a freshwater lake in the north central United States, located in east central Wisconsin.
Lake-effect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water, warming the lower layer of air which picks up water vapor from the lake, rises up through the colder air above, freezes and is deposited on the leeward (downwind) shores.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Laurentia or the North American Craton is a large continental craton that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent.
The Laurentian Mixed Forest Province, also known as the North Woods, is a forested ecoregion in the United States and Canada.
The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.
A layered intrusion is a large sill-like body of igneous rock which exhibits vertical layering or differences in composition and texture.
Le Griffon (The Griffin) was a 17th-century barque built by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in his quest to find the Northwest Passage to China and Japan.
Leamington is a municipality in Essex County, Ontario, Canada.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a list of cities on the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada, arranged by the body of water on which they are located.
The Great Lakes islands consist of about 35,000 islands (scattered throughout Great Lakes), created by uneven glacial activity in the Great Lakes Basin in Canada (Ontario) and the United States.
This is a list of terrestrial lakes with a surface area of more than approximately, ranked by area.
This is a list of plants that are native to the U.S. state of Michigan.
This is a list of all the wildflowers native to Minnesota by common name, following Minnesota DNR conventions.
This is a list of municipalities on the Great Lakes, arranged alphabetically by the body of water on which they are located.
The following is a list of populated islands of the Great Lakes and connecting rivers.
The Great Lakes, a collection of five freshwater lakes located in North America, have been sailed upon since at least the 17th century, and thousands of ships have been sunk while traversing them.
Ever since people have traveled the Great Lakes storms have taken lives and vessels.
There are dozens of commonly played sports that involve water.
There are two lists of the trees of Minnesota organized in distinct ways.
A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor.
Lorain is a city in Lorain County, Ohio, United States.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Ludington is a city in the state of Michigan.
Mackinac Island is an island and resort area, covering in land area, in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and '''f'''err'''ic'''.
The Manitou Islands are a series of small islands in Lake Nipissing, in Nipissing District, Ontario, Canada.
Manitoulin Island is a Canadian lake island in Lake Huron, in the province of Ontario.
Manitowoc is a city in and the county seat of Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, United States.
Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water.
Marquette is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Marquette County.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The McGill-Queen's University Press (MQUP) is a joint venture between McGill University in Montreal, Quebec and Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A mesoscale convective complex (MCC) is a unique kind of mesoscale convective system which is defined by characteristics observed in infrared satellite imagery.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an organometallic cation with the formula.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
The Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for eight Michigan islands in the North American Great Lakes.
Michigan State University Press is the scholarly publishing arm of Michigan State University, the nation’s pioneer land-grant university (the institution that served as the prototype for schools established under the Morrill Land-Grant Acts of 1862).
The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) or Keweenawan Rift is a long geological rift in the center of the North American continent and south-central part of the North American plate.
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
The Mississagi Strait is a narrow strait or channel in Lake Huron, connecting the North Channel to the main water body.
Mississauga Also pronounced: Dictionary Reference:, The Free Dictionary: is a city in the Canadian province of Ontario.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Mobile Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
A motorboat, speedboat, or powerboat is a boat which is powered by an engine.
The Mowat Centre is an independent Canadian public policy think tank associated with the School of Public Policy & Governance at the University of Toronto.
Muskegon is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan, and is the largest populated city on the eastern shores of Lake Michigan.
The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), also known as muskelunge, muscallonge, milliganong, or maskinonge (and often abbreviated "muskie" or "musky"), is a species of large, relatively uncommon freshwater fish native to North America.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
Mysida is an order of small, shrimp-like crustaceans in the malacostracan superorder Peracarida.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National Sea Grant College Program is a program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) within the U.S. Department of Commerce.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New York State Legislature are the two houses that act as the state legislature of the U.S. state of New York.
The Niagara Escarpment is a long escarpment, or cuesta, in the United States and Canada that runs predominantly east/west from New York, through Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Illinois.
Niagara Falls is the collective name for three waterfalls that straddle the international border between the Canadian province of Ontario and the American state of New York.
The Niagara Peninsula is the portion of Golden Horseshoe, Southern Ontario, Canada, lying between the southwestern shore of Lake Ontario and the northeastern shore of Lake Erie.
The Niagara River is a river that flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.
The Nipigon Embayment is an inactive continental rift zone in Northwestern Ontario, Canada, centered on Lake Nipigon.
The Nipigon River is a river in Thunder Bay District in Northwestern Ontario, Canada.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North Channel is the body of water along the north shore of Lake Huron, in the Canadian province of Ontario.
North Manitou Island is located in Lake Michigan, approximately west-northwest of Leland, Michigan.
The northern pike (Esox lucius), known simply as a pike in Britain, Ireland, most of Canada, and most parts of the United States (once called luce when fully grown; also called jackfish or simply "northern" in the U.S. Upper Midwest and in Manitoba), is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox (the pikes).
Northport is a village in Leelanau Township, Leelanau County in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Norwood is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Charlevoix County in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Nottawasaga Bay is a sub-bay within Georgian Bay in Southern Ontario, Canada located at the southernmost end of the main bay.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.
Ojibwe, also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa, or Otchipwe,R.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
The Ontario Peninsula is a peninsula in Canada that comprises part of Southern Ontario, specifically Southwestern Ontario and most of the Golden Horseshoe.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Oshawa (2016 population 159,458; CMA 379,848) is a city in Ontario, Canada, on the Lake Ontario shoreline.
Oswego is a village in Kendall County, Illinois, United States.
Oswego is a city in Oswego County, New York, United States.
The Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben (also known as the Ottawa Graben) is a seismically active structure that coincides with a wide topographic depression extending from near Montréal through Ottawa.
Owen Sound (Canada 2016 Census population 21,341), the county seat of Grey County, is a city in the northern area of Southwestern Ontario, Canada.
Palace steamers were luxurious steamships that carried passengers and cargo around the North American Great Lakes from 1844 through 1857.
Pelee Island, Ontario, Canada, is an island in the western half of Lake Erie.
The Peninsulas of Michigan are a pair of fresh water peninsulas defined by several components of the Great Lakes and their connecting waterways which together compose the U.S. state of Michigan.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
The Percidae are a family of perciform fish found in fresh and brackish waters of the Northern Hemisphere.
The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, also known simply as the "PG", is the largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.
Plastic pollution is the accumulation of plastic products in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat and humans.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Port Huron is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of St. Clair County.
Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
Presque Isle Bay is a natural bay located off the coast of Erie, Pennsylvania, United States.
Prince Edward County (2016 census population 24,735) is a single-tier municipality and a census division of the Canadian province of Ontario.
The quagga mussel, scientific name Dreissena bugensis, and also known as Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, is a species (or subspecies) of freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusk in the family Dreissenidae.
Racine is a city in and the county seat of Racine County, Wisconsin, United States.
Recreational diving or sport diving is diving for the purpose of leisure and enjoyment, usually when using scuba equipment.
A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French explorer.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault.
A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream.
The River Rouge is a 127-mile (204 kilometer)U.S. Geological Survey.
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is a euryhaline bottom-dwelling goby of the family Gobiidae, native to central Eurasia including the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua), also known as ruffe or pope, is a freshwater fish found in temperate regions of Europe and northern Asia.
The Rush–Bagot Treaty or Rush–Bagot Disarmament was a treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom limiting naval armaments on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, following the War of 1812.
Saginaw Bay is a bay within Lake Huron located on the eastern side of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.
The Saint Lawrence rift system is a seismically active zone paralleling the Saint Lawrence River.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway (la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North America, as far inland as the western end of Lake Superior.
The Saint Louis River (abbreviated St. Louis River) is a river in the U.S. states of Minnesota and Wisconsin that flows into Lake Superior.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Sandusky is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Erie County.
Sarnia is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, and had a 2016 population of 71,594.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
A sea kayak or touring kayak is a kayak developed for the sport of paddling on open waters of lakes, bays, and the ocean.
The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a parasitic lamprey native to the Northern Hemisphere.
The term Seawaymax refers to vessels which are the maximum size that can fit through the canal locks of the St. Lawrence Seaway, linking the inland Great Lakes of North America with the Atlantic Ocean.
The Severn River is a river in central Ontario, Canada.
Sheboygan is a city in and the county seat of Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, United States.
The Sixty Years' War (1754–1814) was a military struggle for control of the Great Lakes region in North America, encompassing a number of wars over several generations.
Smelts are a family of small fish, the Osmeridae, found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Snowbelt is a term describing a number of regions near the Great Lakes in North America where heavy snowfall in the form of lake-effect snow is particularly common.
The Soo Locks (sometimes spelled Sault Locks, but pronounced "sue") are a set of parallel locks which enable ships to travel between Lake Superior and the lower Great Lakes.
South Bass Island is a small island in western Lake Erie, and a part of Ottawa County, Ohio, United States.
South Manitou Island is located in Lake Michigan, approximately west of Leland, Michigan.
The Southern Great Lakes lowland forests is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregion of North America, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund.
Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province of Ontario, Canada, the other primary region being Northern Ontario.
The Star Tribune is the largest newspaper in Minnesota.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather.
The Straits of Mackinac is a series of narrow waterways in the U.S. state of Michigan, between Michigan's Lower and Upper Peninsulas.
Superior is a city in, and the county seat of, Douglas County in the state of Wisconsin.
Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).
The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.
The Tennessee–Tombigbee Waterway (popularly known as the Tenn-Tom) is a man-made waterway that extends from the Tennessee River to the junction of the Black Warrior-Tombigbee River system near Demopolis, Alabama, United States.
The Great Lakes Book Project is a collection of creative nonfiction edited by Walter Blake Knoblock.
The Song of Hiawatha is an 1855 epic poem in trochaic tetrameter by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow that features Native American characters.
The Thumb is a region and a peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan, so named because the Lower Peninsula is shaped like a mitten.
"The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald" is a song written, composed, and performed by Canadian singer-songwriter Gordon Lightfoot to commemorate the sinking of the bulk carrier SS ''Edmund Fitzgerald'' on Lake Superior on November 10, 1975.
Thunder Bay is a city in, and the seat of, Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada.
Thunder Bay is a bay in the U.S. state of Michigan on Lake Huron.
Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, Ohio, United States.
The ton is a unit of measure.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
The Toronto Islands (formerly known as Island of Hiawatha and also known as Menecing, meaning "On the Island" in the Ojibwa language) are a chain of small islands in Lake Ontario, south of mainland Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Traverse City is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan.
The Treaty of Washington was a treaty signed and ratified by Great Britain and the United States in 1871 during the First premiership of William Gladstone and the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant that settled various disputes between the countries, including the ''Alabama'' Claims for damages to American shipping caused by British-built warships, as well as illegal fishing in Canadian waters and British civilian losses in the American Civil War.
The Trent–Severn Waterway is a -long canal route connecting Lake Ontario at Trenton to Georgian Bay at Port Severn.
A triple junction is the point where the boundaries of three tectonic plates meet.
The Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (abbreviated TARP and more commonly known as the Deep Tunnel Project or the Chicago Deep Tunnel) is a large civil engineering project that aims to reduce flooding in the metropolitan Chicago area, and to reduce the harmful effects of flushing raw sewage into Lake Michigan by diverting storm water and sewage into temporary holding reservoirs.
Ultramafic (also referred to as ultrabasic rocks, although the terms are not wholly equivalent) are igneous and meta-igneous rocks with a very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% MgO, high FeO, low potassium, and are composed of usually greater than 90% mafic minerals (dark colored, high magnesium and iron content).
Underwater diving, as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS or FWS) is an agency of the federal government within the U.S. Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish, wildlife, and natural habitats.
The University of Illinois Press (UIP) is a major American university press and is part of the University of Illinois system.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
The University of Oklahoma Press (OU Press) is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma.
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees of the United States after the American Revolution.
The Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition is a terrestrial ecoregion that is defined by the World Wildlife Fund.
The Upper Peninsula (UP), also known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U.S. state of Michigan.
The Valparaiso Moraine is a terminal moraine that forms an immense U around the Lake Michigan basin in North America.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Volcanic pipes are subterranean geological structures formed by the violent, supersonic eruption of deep-origin volcanoes.
Walleye (Sander vitreus, synonym Stizostedion vitreum) is a freshwater perciform fish native to most of Canada and to the Northern United States.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
Wayne State University Press (or WSU Press) is a university press that is part of Wayne State University.
The Welland Canal is a ship canal in Ontario, Canada, connecting Lake Ontario and Lake Erie.
West Michigan and Western Michigan are terms for an arbitrary region in the U.S. state of Michigan's Lower Peninsula.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
The Western Great Lakes forests is a terrestrial ecoregion as defined by the World Wildlife Fund.
Whitefish Point, on Whitefish Bay on Michigan's Upper Peninsula, is north of the unincorporated community of Paradise, Michigan.
The Whitefish Point Underwater Preserve was established in 1987 to protect and conserve shipwrecks and historical resources on of Lake Superior bottomlands in Whitefish Bay and around Whitefish Point, Michigan.
The Winnebago Pool is a collective name for a group of interconnected lakes in eastern Wisconsin.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex.
Wyandot (sometimes spelled Waⁿdat) is the Iroquoian language traditionally spoken by the people known variously as Wyandot or Wyandotte, descended from the Wendat (Huron).
The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called the Huron Nation and Huron people, in most historic references are believed to have been the most populous confederacy of Iroquoian cultured indigenous peoples of North America.
Yachting refers to the use of recreational boats and ships called yachts for sporting purposes.
The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a small freshwater mussel.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
The 1996 Lake Huron cyclone (commonly known as Hurricane Huron, or the Huroncane) was a strong cyclonic storm system that developed over Lake Huron in September 1996.
The 2011 Goderich, Ontario tornado (rated as an F3 on the Fujita Scale) was caused by an isolated supercell which unexpectedly tore across Huron County, Ontario, on the afternoon of August 21, 2011.
Grands Lacs, Great American Lakes, Great Lake, Great Lakes (North America), Great Lakes of Michigan, Great Lakes of North America, Great lakes, History of the Great Lakes, Laurentian Great Lakes, North American Great Lakes, Pollution of the Great Lakes, The great lakes.