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Great Northern War plague outbreak

Index Great Northern War plague outbreak

During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712. [1]

257 relations: Ahmedabad, Allerum, Altentreptow, Altona, Hamburg, Amt (country subdivision), Anatolia, Anklam, Arboga, Augustus II the Strong, Øresund, Baltic Sea, Banie, Battle of Gadebusch, Battle of Helsingborg, Battle of Kliszów, Battle of Poltava, Belmont University, Berlin, Białogard, Białuty, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Black Death, Blekinge, Boris Sheremetev, Brandenburg, Bremen, Bremen-Verden, Bubonic plague, Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia, Central Asia, Charité, Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Charles XII of Sweden, Chernyakhovsk, Christianshavn, Constantinople, Copenhagen, Cordon sanitaire, Danmark Church, Daugava, Daugavgrīva, Dąbie, Szczecin, Dominions of Sweden, Domsten, Duchy of Holstein, Duchy of Prussia, Duchy of Schleswig, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Dysentery, Działdowo, East Prussia, ..., East-Central Europe, Egypt, Ekenäs, Finland, Elbe, Elbląg, Electorate of Bavaria, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Electorate of Saxony, Enköping, Epidemic, Ernst Detlof von Krassow, Estonia, Estonia under Swedish rule, Ethiopia, Europe, Famine, Finland, Flensburg, Frederick I of Prussia, Free imperial city, Free Imperial City of Nuremberg, Gamla stan, Gdańsk, George I of Great Britain, Glückstadt, Goleniów, Gotland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Great Britain, Great Famine of 1695–1697, Great Famine of Estonia (1695–97), Great Frost of 1709, Great Northern War, Great Plague of London, Great Plague of Marseille, Greater Poland, Greifswald, Gryfino, Gulf of Finland, Habsburg Monarchy, Hamburg, Helsingør, Helsinki, Holstein-Glückstadt, Holy Roman Empire, Iran, Itzehoe, Ivano-Frankivsk, Jakobstad, Jarosław, Jönköping, Kajaani, Kaliningrad Oblast, Kalisz, Kamień Pomorski, Karlshamn, Karlskrona, Königsberg, Kiel, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Prussia, Klaipėda, Kokkola, Kolomyia, Kraków, Kropp, Kuressaare, Laboe, Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Lübeck, Lesser Poland, Levant, Linköping, List of Polish monarchs, List of rulers of Lithuania, Lithuania Minor, Lviv, Magnus Stenbock, Malmö, Masuria, Mazovia, Measles, Mediterranean Sea, Miasma theory, Miasteczko Śląskie, Milicz, Moravia, Morocco, Naantali, Narva, Neman, Russia, Neumark, Nida (river), North Sea, Northern Germany, Nubia, Oder, Old Style and New Style dates, Oleśnica, Olesno, Olsztynek, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Ottoman Empire, Oulu, Palisade, Pandemic, Pasewalk, Pärnu, Perpetual Diet of Regensburg, Pest house, Peter the Great, Pińczów, Piekiełko, Mława, Pinneberg, Plague (disease), Plague doctor, Plague doctor costume, Plague of Justinian, Podjuchy, Podolia, Poland, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Poltava, Pori, Porvoo, Potocki, Poznań, Prague, Prenzlau, Prince-elector, Province of Brandenburg, Province of Pomerania (1653–1815), Prussia (region), Przemyśl, Quarantine, Rauma, Finland, Regensburg, Rellingen, Rendsburg, Riga, Riksråd, Rinderpest, Royal Prussia, Ruthenia, Saaremaa, Sala, Sweden, Saltholm, Sambir, Sandomierz Confederation, Södermanland, Scandinavia, Scania, Scanian War, Second plague pandemic, Siege of Tönning, Silesia, Smallpox, Småland, Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Sound Dues, Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Spotted fever, Stade, Stanisław Leszczyński, Stargard, Stockholm, Stralsund, Stryi, Swedish Livonia, Swedish Pomerania, Syców, Szczecin, Tallinn, Thaler, Third plague pandemic, Toruń, Treaty of Altranstädt (1706), Treaty of Narva, Treaty of Warsaw (1705), Tsardom of Russia, Turku, Typhus, Uckermark, University of Rostock, Uppland, Uppsala, Uusikaupunki, Värmdö Municipality, Västanå, Vilnius, Visby, Vistula, Volhynia, War of the Spanish Succession, Warsaw, Warsaw Confederation (1704), Warszewo, Szczecin, Wolgast, Wolin, Wolin (town), World War II, Ystad, Zduny, Zealand, Znamensk, Kaliningrad Oblast, 1770–1772 Russian plague. Expand index (207 more) »

Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Allerum

Allerum is a locality situated in Helsingborg Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 716 inhabitants in 2010.

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Altentreptow

Altentreptow is a town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

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Altona, Hamburg

Altona is the westernmost urban borough (Bezirk) of the German city state of Hamburg, on the right bank of the Elbe river.

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Amt (country subdivision)

Amt is a type of administrative division governing a group of municipalities, today only in Germany, but formerly also common in other countries of Northern Europe.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Anklam

Anklam, formerly known as Tanglim and Wendenburg, is a town in the Western Pomerania region of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Arboga

Arboga is a locality and the seat of Arboga Municipality in Västmanland County, Sweden with 10,330 inhabitants in 2010.

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Augustus II the Strong

Augustus II the Strong (August II.; August II Mocny; Augustas II; 12 May 16701 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Øresund

Øresund or Öresund (Øresund,; Öresund), commonly known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand (Denmark) from Scania (Sweden).

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Banie

Banie (German: Bahn) is a village in Gryfino County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.

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Battle of Gadebusch

The Battle of Gadebusch or Wakenstädt (20 December 1712) was Sweden's final great victory in the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Helsingborg

The Battle of Helsingborg (February 28, 1710) was Denmark's failed and final attempt to regain the Scanian lands, lost to Sweden in 1658.

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Battle of Kliszów

The Battle of Kliszów (Klissow) (Klezow) took place on July 8 (Julian calendar) / July 9 (Swedish calendar) / July 19, 1702 (Gregorian calendar) near Kliszów, Poland-Lithuania, during the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Poltava

The Battle of Poltava (Slaget vid Poltava; Полта́вская би́тва; Полта́вська би́тва) on 27 June 1709 (8 July, N.S.) was the decisive victory of Peter I of Russia, also known as "the Great," over the Swedish forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War.

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Belmont University

Belmont University is a private, coeducational, liberal arts university located in Nashville, Tennessee, United States.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Białogard

Białogard (Belgard; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Biôłogard) is a town in Middle Pomerania, northwestern Poland with 24,399 inhabitants (2004).

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Białuty, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship

Białuty (Bialutten) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Iłowo-Osada, within Działdowo County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Blekinge

Blekinge is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the south of the country.

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Boris Sheremetev

Boris Petrovich Sheremetev (Бори́с Петро́вич Шереме́тев; –) was a Russian diplomat and general field marshal during the Great Northern War.

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Brandenburg

Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.

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Bremen

The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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Bremen-Verden

Bremen-Verden, formally the Duchies of Bremen and Verden (Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden), were two territories and immediate fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, which emerged and gained imperial immediacy in 1180. By their original constitution they were prince-bishoprics of the Archdiocese of Bremen and Bishopric of Verden. In 1648, both prince-bishoprics were secularised, meaning that they were transformed into hereditary monarchies by constitution, and from then on both the Duchy of Bremen and the Duchy of Verden were always ruled in personal union, initially by the royal houses of Sweden, the House of Vasa and the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, and later by the House of Hanover. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Bremen-Verden's status as fiefs of imperial immediacy became void; as they had been in personal union with the neighbouring Kingdom of Hanover, they were incorporated into that state.

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Bubonic plague

Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.

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Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia

With the Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710 the Swedish dominions Estonia and Livonia were integrated into the Russian EmpireLuts (2006), p. 159 following their conquest during the Great Northern War.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Charité

The Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin is Europe's largest University clinic, affiliated with both Humboldt University and Freie Universität Berlin.

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Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

Duke Charles Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (30 April 1700 – 18 June 1739) was a Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp and an important member of European royalty.

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Charles XII of Sweden

Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.

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Chernyakhovsk

Chernyakhovsk (Черняхо́вск); prior to 1946 known by its German name (Įsrutis; Wystruć) is a town and the administrative center of Chernyakhovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Instruch and Angrapa Rivers, forming the Pregolya.

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Christianshavn

Christianshavn is a neighbourhood in Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Copenhagen

Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Cordon sanitaire

Cordon sanitaire is a French phrase that, literally translated, means "sanitary cordon".

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Danmark Church

Danmark Church (Danmarks kyrka) is a church located in the minor locality of Danmark in Uppsala Municipality, Sweden, some 8 kilometers southeast of Uppsala.

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Daugava

The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.

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Daugavgrīva

Daugavgrīva (Dünamünde; Dynemunt; Усть-Двинск or Ust`-Dvinsk) is a neighbourhood in North West Riga, Latvia on the left bank of the Daugava river.

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Dąbie, Szczecin

Dąbie (or Stettin-Altdamm) is a municipal neighbourhood of the city of Szczecin in Poland, situated on the Płonia river, on the south coast of Dąbie Lake, on the right bank of Oder river, east of the Szczecin Old Town and Middle Town.

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Dominions of Sweden

The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar ("Swedish possessions") were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden.

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Domsten

Domsten is a locality situated in Helsingborg Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 617 inhabitants in 2010.

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Duchy of Holstein

The Duchy of Holstein (Herzogtum Holstein, Hertugdømmet Holsten) was the northernmost state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the present German state of Schleswig-Holstein.

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Duchy of Prussia

The Duchy of Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (Herzogliches Preußen, Prusy Książęce) was a duchy in the region of Prussia established as a result of secularization of the State of the Teutonic Order during the Protestant Reformation in 1525.

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Duchy of Schleswig

The Duchy of Schleswig (Hertugdømmet Slesvig; Herzogtum Schleswig; Low German: Sleswig; North Frisian: Slaswik) was a duchy in Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland) covering the area between about 60 km north and 70 km south of the current border between Germany and Denmark.

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Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

Holstein-Gottorp or Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp is the historiographical name, as well as contemporary shorthand name, for the parts of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, also known as Ducal Holstein, that were ruled by the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp.

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Dysentery

Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.

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Działdowo

Działdowo (Soldau) is a town in north-central Poland with 24,830 inhabitants (2006), the capital of Działdowo County.

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East Prussia

East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.

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East-Central Europe

East-Central Europe is the region between German, West Slavic and Hungarian speaking Europe and the Eastern Slavic lands of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Ekenäs, Finland

Ekenäs (Tammisaari) is a town and former municipality in Finland that included the former municipalities Snappertuna and Tenala together with the town of Ekenäs.

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Elbe

The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.

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Elbląg

Elbląg (Elbing; Old Prussian: Elbings) is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 124,257 inhabitants (December 31, 2011).

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Electorate of Bavaria

The Electorate of Bavaria (Kurfürstentum Bayern) was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria.

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Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg

The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.

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Electorate of Saxony

The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.

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Enköping

Enköping is a locality and the seat of Enköping Municipality, Uppsala County, Sweden with 21,121 inhabitants in 2010.

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Epidemic

An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.

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Ernst Detlof von Krassow

Ernst Detlof von Krassow, Swedish noble and military commander, born around 1660, dead 23 January 1714, freiherr (1707).

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Estonia under Swedish rule

Estonia under Swedish rule signifies the time between 1558 and 1710, when parts of present-day Estonia (and after 1645 all of the present-day country) were under Swedish rule.

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Famine

A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Flensburg

Flensburg (Danish, Low Saxon: Flensborg; North Frisian: Flansborj; South Jutlandic: Flensborre) is an independent town (kreisfreie Stadt) in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.

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Frederick I of Prussia

Frederick I (Friedrich I.) (11 July 1657 – 25 February 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia).

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Free imperial city

In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.

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Free Imperial City of Nuremberg

The Imperial City of Nuremberg (Reichsstadt Nürnberg) was a free imperial city — independent city-state — within the Holy Roman Empire.

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Gamla stan

Gamla stan (The Old Town), until 1980 officially Staden mellan broarna (The Town between the Bridges), is the old town of Stockholm, Sweden.

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Gdańsk

Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.

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George I of Great Britain

George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.

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Glückstadt

Glückstadt (Lykstad) is a town in the Steinburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

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Goleniów

Goleniów (Gòłonóg; Gollnow) is a town in Pomerania, northwestern Poland with 22,399 inhabitants (2004).

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Gotland

Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.

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Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Great Famine of 1695–1697

The Great Famine of 1695–97, or simply the Great Famine, was a catastrophic famine that affected present Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden: at the time, all of these areas belonged to the Swedish Empire with the exception of Norway, which was a Danish province.

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Great Famine of Estonia (1695–97)

The Great Famine of Estonia (also The great starvation) killed about a fifth of Estonian and Livonian population (70,000–75,000 people) in two years.

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Great Frost of 1709

The Great Frost, as it was known in England, or Le Grand Hiver ("The Great Winter"), as it was known in France, was an extraordinarily cold winter in Europe in late 1708 and early 1709,.

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Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Great Plague of London

The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England.

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Great Plague of Marseille

The Great Plague of Marseille was the last of the significant European outbreaks of bubonic plague.

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Greater Poland

Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.

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Greifswald

Greifswald, officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald (German: Universitäts- und Hansestadt Greifswald), is a city in northeastern Germany.

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Gryfino

Gryfino (Greifenhagen; Kashubian: Gripiewò) is a town in Pomerania, northwestern Poland with 22,500 inhabitants (2004).

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Gulf of Finland

The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.

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Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

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Hamburg

Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Helsingør

Helsingør, classically known in English as Elsinore, is a city in eastern Denmark.

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Helsinki

Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.

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Holstein-Glückstadt

Holstein-Glückstadt or Schleswig-Holstein-Glückstadt is the historiographical name, as well as contemporary shorthand name, for the parts of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein that were ruled by the Kings of Denmark in their function as dukes of Schleswig and Holstein, thus also known as Royal Schleswig-Holstein.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Itzehoe

Itzehoe (Itzhoe) is a town in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.

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Ivano-Frankivsk

Ivano-Frankivsk (Ivano-Frankivsk; formerly Stanyslaviv, Stanislau, or Stanisławów; see below) is a historic city located in Western Ukraine.

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Jakobstad

Jakobstad (Pietarsaari) is a town and municipality in Ostrobothnia, Finland.

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Jarosław

Jarosław (Ярослав, יאַרעסלאָוו Yareslov, Jaroslau) is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 38,970 inhabitants, as of 30 June 2014.

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Jönköping

Jönköping is a city in southern Sweden with 93,797 inhabitants (2015).

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Kajaani

Kajaani (Kajana) is a town and municipality in Finland.

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Kaliningrad Oblast

Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Kalisz

Kalisz (Old Greek: Καλισία, Latin: Calisia, Yiddish: קאַליש, Kalisch) is a city in central Poland with 101,625 inhabitants (December 2017), the capital city of the Kalisz Region.

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Kamień Pomorski

Kamień Pomorski (Cammin or Kammin; Kamién) is a town in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship of north-western Poland, on the Baltic coast.

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Karlshamn

Karlshamn is a locality and the seat of Karlshamn Municipality in Blekinge County, Sweden.

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Karlskrona

Karlskrona is a locality and the seat of Karlskrona Municipality, Blekinge County, Sweden with 35,212 inhabitants in 2010.

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Königsberg

Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.

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Kiel

Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).

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Kingdom of Bohemia

The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.

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Kingdom of Hungary

The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Klaipėda

Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.

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Kokkola

Kokkola (Karleby) is a town and municipality of Finland.

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Kolomyia

Kolomyia or Kolomyya, formerly known as Kolomea (Kolomyja, Kołomyja, Коломыя, Kolomea, Colomeea, קאלאמיי), is a city located on the Prut River in the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province), in western Ukraine.

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Kraków

Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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Kropp

Kropp (Krop) is a municipality in the district of Schleswig-Flensburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

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Kuressaare

Kuressaare, also known as Arensburg, is a town and a municipality on Saaremaa island in Estonia.

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Laboe

Laboe is a municipality in the district of Plön, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

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Lands of the Bohemian Crown

The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.

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Lübeck

Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.

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Lesser Poland

Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Linköping

Linköping (p) is a city in southern Sweden, with 153,000 inhabitants as of 2016.

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List of Polish monarchs

Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).

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List of rulers of Lithuania

The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory.

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Lithuania Minor

Lithuania Minor (Mažoji Lietuva; Kleinlitauen; Litwa Mniejsza; Máлая Литвá) or Prussian Lithuania (Prūsų Lietuva; Preußisch-Litauen, Litwa Pruska) is a historical ethnographic region of Prussia, later East Prussia in Germany, where Prussian Lithuanians or Lietuvininkai lived.

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Lviv

Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.

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Magnus Stenbock

Count Magnus Gustafsson Stenbock (22 May 1665 – 23 February 1717) was a Swedish military officer at the time of the Great Northern War.

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Malmö

Malmö (Malmø) is the capital and largest city of the Swedish county of Scania.

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Masuria

Masuria (Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) is a region in northern Poland famous for its 2,000 lakes.

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Mazovia

Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.

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Measles

Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Miasma theory

The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.

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Miasteczko Śląskie

Miasteczko Śląskie (Georgenberg) is a small town in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.

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Milicz

Milicz (Militsch) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.

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Moravia

Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Naantali

Naantali (Nådendal) is a town in south-western Finland, known as one of the most important tourist centres of the country.

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Narva

Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.

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Neman, Russia

Neman (Неман), prior to 1946 known by its German name Ragnit (Ragainė; Ragneta), is a town and the administrative center of Nemansky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located in the historic East Prussia, on the steep southern bank of the Neman River, where it forms the Russian border with the Klaipėda Region in Lithuania, and northeast of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Neumark

The Neumark, also known as the New March (Nowa Marchia) or as East Brandenburg, was a region of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and its successors located east of the Oder River in territory which became part of Poland in 1945.

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Nida (river)

The Nida is a river in central Poland, a left tributary of the Vistula river, into which it flows near Nowy Korczyn). The Nida has a length of 154 kilometres and a basin area of 3,844 km2. This includes the protected area called Nida Landscape Park. The Nida itself is made of two smaller rivers, the White Nida and the Black Nida, which merge in the village of Brzegi (near Checiny). It is a typical lowland river, with little difference in the water level. The valley of the Nida is wide, and covered with meadows. In its narrowest spot, the river is only 6 m wide, while in its widest spot, it is 79 m wide. The depth ranges from 0,4 to 2,6 m. The Nida is one of the warmest rivers of Poland; in the summer, its temperature reaches up to 27 degrees C.

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North Sea

The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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Northern Germany

Northern Germany (Norddeutschland) is the region in the north of Germany whose exact area is not precisely or consistently defined.

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Nubia

Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.

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Oder

The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.

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Old Style and New Style dates

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.

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Oleśnica

Oleśnica (Oels) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.

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Olesno

Olesno (O.S.) is a town in Opole Voivodship, Poland about north-east of the city of Opole.

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Olsztynek

Olsztynek (Hohenstein in Ostpreußen) is a town in Olsztyn County, in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland.

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Ostrów Wielkopolski

Ostrów Wielkopolski (often abbreviated Ostrów Wlkp., formerly called only Ostrów, Ostrowo, Latin: Ostrovia) is a city in central Poland with 72,360 inhabitants (2008), situated in the Greater Poland Voivodeship; the seat of Ostrów Wielkopolski County.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Oulu

Oulu (Uleåborg) is a city and municipality of inhabitants in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland.

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Palisade

A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is typically a fence or wall made from wooden stakes or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure.

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Pandemic

A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.

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Pasewalk

Pasewalk is a town in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany.

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Pärnu

Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.

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Perpetual Diet of Regensburg

The Perpetual Diet of Regensburg or the Eternal Diet of Regensburg (Immerwährender Reichstag) was a permanent Imperial Diet (Reichstag) of the Holy Roman Empire from 1663 to 1806 seated in Regensburg in present-day Germany.

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Pest house

A pest house, plague house, pesthouse or fever shed was a type of building used for persons afflicted with communicable diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera, smallpox or typhus.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Pińczów

Pińczów is a town in Poland, in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, about 40 km south of Kielce.

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Piekiełko, Mława

Piekiełko is part of the town in Mława in Masovian Voivodeship, east-central Poland.

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Pinneberg

Pinneberg (Northern Low Saxon: Pinnbarg) is a town in Schleswig-Holstein, capital of the district Pinneberg in Germany.

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Plague (disease)

Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

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Plague doctor

A plague doctor was a medical physician who treated victims of the bubonic plague.

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Plague doctor costume

The clothing worn by plague doctors was intended to protect them from airborne diseases.

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Plague of Justinian

The Plague of Justinian (541–542) was a pandemic that afflicted the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, especially its capital Constantinople, the Sassanid Empire, and port cities around the entire Mediterranean Sea.

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Podjuchy

Podjuchy is a municipal neighborhood of the city of Szczecin, Poland situated on the right bank of the East Oder river, south-east of the Szczecin Old Town, and south-west of Szczecin-Dąbie.

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Podolia

Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Poltava

Poltava (Полтава; Полтава) is a city located on the Vorskla River in central Ukraine.

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Pori

Pori (Björneborg; Arctopolis) is a city and municipality on the west coast of Finland.

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Porvoo

Porvoo (Borgå) is a city and a municipality situated on the southern coast of Finland approximately east of Helsinki.

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Potocki

Hetman Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki Field Hetman Andrzej Potocki Hetman Feliks Kazimierz Potocki Alfred Potocki Jan Potocki Potocki (plural Potoccy) was one of the prominent Polish noble families in the Kingdom of Poland and magnates of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Poznań

Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.

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Prague

Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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Prenzlau

Prenzlau (formerly also Prenzlow) is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, the administrative seat of Uckermark District.

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Prince-elector

The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Province of Brandenburg

The Province of Brandenburg (Provinz Brandenburg) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1945, from 1871 within the German Reich.

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Province of Pomerania (1653–1815)

The Province of Pomerania was a province of Brandenburg-Prussia, the later Kingdom of Prussia.

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Prussia (region)

Prussia (Old Prussian: Prūsa, Preußen, Prūsija, Prusy, tr) is a historical region in Europe, stretching from Gdańsk Bay to the end of Curonian Spit on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, and extending inland as far as Masuria.

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Przemyśl

Przemyśl (Premissel, Peremyshl, Перемишль less often Перемишель) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 66,756 inhabitants, as of June 2009.

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Quarantine

A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.

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Rauma, Finland

Rauma (Raumo) is a town and municipality of ca.

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Regensburg

Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.

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Rellingen

Rellingen is a municipality in the district of Pinneberg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

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Rendsburg

Rendsburg (Rendsborg) is a town on the River Eider and the Kiel Canal in the central part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

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Riga

Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.

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Riksråd

Riksrådet (in Norwegian and Swedish), Rigsrådet (in Danish) or (English: The Council of the Realm and The Council of the State – sometimes translated as "Privy Council") is the name of the councils of the Scandinavian countries that ruled the countries together with the kings from late Middle Ages to the 17th century.

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Rinderpest

Rinderpest (also cattle plague or steppe murrain) was an infectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and many other species of even-toed ungulates, including buffaloes, large antelope and deer, giraffes, wildebeests, and warthogs.

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Royal Prussia

Royal Prussia (Prusy Królewskie; Königlich-Preußen or Preußen Königlichen Anteils, Królewsczé Prësë) or Polish PrussiaAnton Friedrich Büsching, Patrick Murdoch.

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Ruthenia

Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.

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Saaremaa

Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.

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Sala, Sweden

Sala is a locality and the seat of Sala Municipality in Västmanland County, Sweden, with 12,289 inhabitants in 2010.

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Saltholm

Saltholm (Salt Islet) is a Danish island in the Øresund, the strait that separates Denmark and Sweden.

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Sambir

Sambir (Самбір, Sambor) is a city in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine.

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Sandomierz Confederation

The Sandomierz Confederation was an anti-Swedish confederation, formed on May 20, 1704 in defense of the King of Poland, August II the Strong.

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Södermanland

Södermanland, sometimes referred to under its Latin form Sudermannia or Sudermania, is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden.

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Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scania

Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.

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Scanian War

The Scanian War (Skånske krig, Skånska kriget, Schonischer Krieg) was a part of the Northern Wars involving the union of Denmark–Norway, Brandenburg and Sweden.

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Second plague pandemic

The second plague pandemic is a major series of epidemics of the plague that started with the Black Death, which reached mainland Europe in 1348 and killed up to a half of the population of Eurasia in the next four years.

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Siege of Tönning

During the Great Northern War, the fortress of Tönning (Tønning) in the territory of Holstein-Gottorp, an ally of the Swedish Empire, was besieged twice: Denmark-Norway was forced to lift the first siege in 1700, but a combined force of the anti-Swedish coalition successfully besieged and took Tönning in 1713–1714.

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Silesia

Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.

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Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Småland

Småland is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden.

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Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

Sophia Louisa of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Sofie Luise; 6 May 1685 – 29 July 1735) was Queen consort in Prussia by marriage to King Frederick I of Prussia.

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Sound Dues

The Sound Dues (or Sound Toll; Øresundstolden) were a toll on the use of the Øresund which constituted up to two thirds of Denmark's state income in the 16th and 17th centuries.

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Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast

Sovetsk (Сове́тск), before 1946 known as Tilsit (Tilžė; Tylża) in East Prussia, is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the south bank of the Neman River.

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Spotted fever

A spotted fever is a type of tick-borne disease which presents on the skin.

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Stade

Stade is a city in Lower Saxony in northern Germany.

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Stanisław Leszczyński

Stanisław I Leszczyński (also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, Stanislovas Leščinskis, Stanislas Leszczynski; 20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766) was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Stargard

Stargard (Stargard in Pommern; Stôrgard) is a city in northwestern Poland, with a population of 71,017 (2005).

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Stockholm

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Stralsund

Stralsund, (Swedish: Strålsund) is a Hanseatic town in the Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Stryi

Stryi (Стрий, Stryj) is a city located on the left bank of the Stryi River in Lviv Oblast (region) of western Ukraine (in the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains).

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Swedish Livonia

Swedish Livonia (Svenska Livland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1629 until 1721.

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Swedish Pomerania

Swedish Pomerania (Svenska Pommern; Schwedisch-Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1630 to 1815, situated on what is now the Baltic coast of Germany and Poland.

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Syców

Syców (Groß Wartenberg, until 1888 Polnisch Wartenberg) is a town in Oleśnica County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.

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Szczecin

Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.

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Tallinn

Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.

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Thaler

The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.

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Third plague pandemic

Third Pandemic is the designation of a major bubonic plague pandemic that began in Yunnan province in China in 1855.

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Toruń

Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River.

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Treaty of Altranstädt (1706)

The Treaty of Altranstädt was concluded between Charles XII of Sweden and Augustus the Strong of Saxony and Poland-Lithuania, on 13 October 1706, during the Great Northern War.

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Treaty of Narva

The Treaty of Narva was concluded on 19 August (O.S.) / 30 August 1704 during the Great Northern War.

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Treaty of Warsaw (1705)

The Treaty of Warsaw was concluded on 18 November (O.S.) / 28 November 1705 during the Great Northern War.

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Tsardom of Russia

The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.

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Turku

Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.

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Typhus

Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.

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Uckermark

The Uckermark, a historical region in northeastern Germany, straddles the Uckermark District of Brandenburg and the Vorpommern-Greifswald District of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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University of Rostock

The University of Rostock (Rostock University, Universität Rostock) is a public university located in Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Uppland

Uppland is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden, just north of Stockholm, the capital.

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Uppsala

Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.

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Uusikaupunki

Uusikaupunki (Nystad), is a town and municipality of Finland.

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Värmdö Municipality

Värmdö Municipality (Värmdö kommun) is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden.

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Västanå

Västanå is a village situated in Bromölla Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 130 inhabitants in 2005.

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Vilnius

Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.

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Visby

Visby is a locality and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County, on the island of Gotland, Sweden with 24,330 inhabitants,.

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Vistula

The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).

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Volhynia

Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.

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War of the Spanish Succession

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.

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Warsaw

Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Warsaw Confederation (1704)

The Warsaw Confederation was a confederation against King of Poland August II the Strong.

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Warszewo, Szczecin

Warszewo is a municipal neighbourhood of the city of Szczecin, Poland situated on the left bank of Oder river, north-west of the Szczecin Old Town and Middle Town.

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Wolgast

Wolgast is a town in the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Wolin

Wolin (Wollin,, Pomeranian Wòlin) is the name both of a Polish island in the Baltic Sea, just off the Polish coast, and a town on that island.

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Wolin (town)

Wolin (Wollin) is a town situated on the southern tip of the Wolin island off the Baltic coast of Poland.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Ystad

Ystad is a town, and the seat of Ystad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden, with 18,350 inhabitants in 2010.

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Zduny

Zduny (Zduny, 1943-45 Treustädt) is a town in Krotoszyn County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,529 inhabitants (2004).

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Zealand

Zealand (Sjælland), at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper (thus excluding Greenland and Disko Island, which are larger).

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Znamensk, Kaliningrad Oblast

Znamensk (Vėluva; Welawa) is a rural locality (a settlement) in Gvardeysky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Pregolya River at its confluence with the Lava River east of Kaliningrad.

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1770–1772 Russian plague

The Russian plague epidemic of 1770–1772, also known as the Plague of 1771, was the last massive outbreak of plague in central Russia, claiming between 52 and 100 thousand lives in Moscow alone (1/6 to 1/3 of its population).

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Redirects here:

1710-1713 plague of Sweden, 1710–1713 plague of Sweden, Great Northern War plague, Plague during the Great Northern War, Plague of Sweden (1710-1713), Plague of Sweden (1710–1713), The plague during the Great Northern War.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Northern_War_plague_outbreak

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