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Great Recession

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The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s. [1]

214 relations: Affordability of housing in the United Kingdom, Ailsa McKay, Alan Greenspan, All the Devils Are Here, American Enterprise Institute, American International Group, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Argentina, Arthur Levitt, Australia, Austrian School, Balance sheet recession, Baltic states, Bank of England, Bank of Israel, Bank run, BBC News, Bear Stearns, Bethany McLean, Bloomberg Businessweek, Brexit, Brooksley Born, Bulgaria, Business cycle, Canada, Catalan independence movement, Chair of the Federal Reserve, Chicago Tribune, China, Chinese economic stimulus program, Coefficient of determination, Collateralized debt obligation, Commercial bank, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Consumer confidence index, Credit default swap, Croatia, Daniel Gross, Dean Baker, Debt deflation, Deleveraging, Demeter Press, Depression (economics), Deregulation, Derivative (finance), Deutsche Welle, Disposable and discretionary income, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Donald Trump, Dot-com bubble, ..., Early 2000s recession, Ecological economics, Economic bubble, Economic recovery, Economics, Eric Janszen, Eurasia Group, Europe, European troika, European Union, Eurostat, Fannie Mae, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal funds rate, Federal Reserve Bank, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Feminist economics, Finance capitalism, Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial instrument, Finland, Fiscal policy, Flipping, Fortis (finance), France, Fred Harrison (author), Freddie Mac, G20, Gary Gorton, Global recession, Goldman Sachs, Great Depression, Great Recession in the United States, Great Regression, Greece, Gross domestic product, Gross world product, Group of Eight, Harvard University Press, Horsham, House of Debt, Household debt, Household income in the United States, Hypo Real Estate, Income inequality in the United States, India, Inflation, Inflection point, International Economics Bulletin, International Energy Agency, International Monetary Fund, International trade, Investment banking, Iran, Irish property bubble, Jakob B. Madsen, Joe Nocera, Journal of Economic Literature, Journal of Monetary Economics, Kurt Richebächer, Lehman Brothers, Lender of last resort, Marc Faber, Margunn Bjørnholt, Martin Wolf, Med Jones, Meltdown (book), Merrill Lynch, Michael Hudson (economist), Michael Lewis, Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China, Monetary policy, Morgan Stanley, Mortgage loan, Mortgage-backed security, Naked short selling, National Bureau of Economic Research, National debt of the United States, Negative equity, Netherlands, New Zealand property bubble, Newsweek, Norges Bank, Norway, Nouriel Roubini, Occupy movement, Occupy Wall Street, OECD, Olivier Blanchard, Operational definition, Paul Krugman, Peabody Award, Peer Steinbrück, Peter J. Wallison, Peter Schiff, Poland, Polish property bubble, Polish złoty, President of the United States, President's Daily Brief, Protectionism, Purchasing power parity, Quarter on quarter, Ravi Batra, Recession, Regnery Publishing, Reserve Bank of Australia, Reserve Bank of India, Robert J. Shiller, Robert Reich, Robert Rubin, Romania, Savings and loan crisis, Security (finance), Shadow banking system, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, South Korea, Spanish property bubble, State Administration of Taxation, Steve Keen, Stock market crash, Subprime lending, Subprime mortgage crisis, Sweden, The American Economic Review, The Downfall of Capitalism and Communism, The Economist, The Giant Pool of Money, The Guardian, The Housing Boom and Bust, The Mercury News, The New York Times, The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, The World Factbook, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Ukraine, Unemployment, United Arab Emirates, United States Census Bureau, United States Congress, United States housing bubble, University of Oxford, Uri Dadush, Uzbekistan, Word sense, Wynne Godley, 2000s commodities boom, 2000s energy crisis, 2008 European Union stimulus plan, 2008 G20 Washington summit, 2008 United Kingdom bank rescue package, 2008–09 Keynesian resurgence, 2008–2011 Icelandic financial crisis, 2009 G20 London summit, 2009 Riga riot, 2012 Catalan independence demonstration, 99ers. Expand index (164 more) »

Affordability of housing in the United Kingdom

Affordability of housing in the UK reflects the ability to rent or buy property.

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Ailsa McKay

Ailsa McKay (7 June 1963 – 5 March 2014) was a Scottish economist, government policy adviser, a leading feminist economist and Professor of Economics at Glasgow Caledonian University.

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Alan Greenspan

Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.

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All the Devils Are Here

All the Devils Are Here: The Hidden History of the Financial Crisis is a nonfiction book by authors Bethany McLean and Joseph Nocera about the 2008 financial crisis. It details how the financial crisis bubbled up from a volatile, and bipartisan, mixture of government meddling and laissez-faire.

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American Enterprise Institute

The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. which researches government, politics, economics and social welfare.

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American International Group

American International Group, Inc., also known as AIG, is an American multinational finance and insurance corporation with operations in more than 80 countries and jurisdictions.

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American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), nicknamed the Recovery Act, was a stimulus package enacted by the 111th U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama in February 2009.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Arthur Levitt

Arthur Levitt Jr. (born February 3, 1931) was the twenty-fifth and longest-serving Chairman of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) from 1993 to 2001.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Austrian School

The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.

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Balance sheet recession

A balance sheet recession is a type of economic recession that occurs when high levels of private sector debt cause individuals or companies to collectively focus on saving by paying down debt rather than spending or investing, causing economic growth to slow or decline.

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Baltic states

The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

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Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Bank of Israel

The Bank of Israel (בנק ישראל, بنك إسرائيل) is the central bank of Israel.

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Bank run

A bank run (also known as a run on the bank) occurs when a large number of people withdraw their money from a bank, because they believe the bank may cease to function in the near future.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Bear Stearns

The Bear Stearns Companies, Inc. was a New York-based global investment bank, securities trading and brokerage firm that failed in 2008 as part of the global financial crisis and recession, and was subsequently sold to JPMorgan Chase.

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Bethany McLean

Bethany McLean (born December 12, 1970) is an American journalist who is a contributing editor to Vanity Fair magazine, and known for her work on the Enron scandal and the 2008 financial crisis.

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Bloomberg Businessweek

Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.

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Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).

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Brooksley Born

Brooksley E. Born (born August 27, 1940) is an American attorney and former public official who, from August 26, 1996, to June 1, 1999, was chairperson of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), the federal agency which oversees the futures and commodity options markets.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Business cycle

The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Catalan independence movement

The Catalan independence movement (independentisme català; Spanish: independentismo catalán) is a political movement historically derived from Catalan nationalism, which seeks independence of Catalonia from Spain.

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Chair of the Federal Reserve

The Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is the head of the Federal Reserve, which is the central banking system of the United States.

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Chicago Tribune

The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese economic stimulus program

The 2008–09 Chinese economic stimulus plan is a RMB¥ 4 trillion (US$586 billion) stimulus package announced by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on 9 November 2008 as an attempt to minimize the impact of the global financial crisis on the world's second largest economy.

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Coefficient of determination

In statistics, the coefficient of determination, denoted R2 or r2 and pronounced "R squared", is the proportion of the variance in the dependent variable that is predictable from the independent variable(s).

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Collateralized debt obligation

A collateralized debt obligation (CDO) is a type of structured asset-backed security (ABS).

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Commercial bank

A commercial bank is an institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, providing business loans, and offering basic investment products.

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Commodity Futures Trading Commission

The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent agency of the US government created in 1974, that regulates futures and option markets.

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Consumer confidence index

In the United States of America, the U.S. consumer confidence index (CCI) is an indicator designed to measure consumer confidence, which is defined as the degree of optimism on the state of the U.S. economy that consumers are expressing through their activities of savings and spending.

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Credit default swap

A credit default swap (CDS) is a financial swap agreement that the seller of the CDS will compensate the buyer in the event of a debt default (by the debtor) or other credit event.

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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Daniel Gross

Daniel Gross (born August 4, 1967) is an American journalist and author.

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Dean Baker

Dean Baker (born July 13, 1958) is an American macroeconomist and co-founder, with Mark Weisbrot, of the Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR) in Washington, D.C. He is credited as being one of the first economists to have discovered the 2007–2008 United States housing bubble.

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Debt deflation

Debt deflation is a theory that recessions and depressions are due to the overall level of debt rising in real value because of deflation, causing people to default on their consumer loans and mortgages.

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At the micro-economic level, deleveraging refers to the reduction of the leverage ratio, or the percentage of debt in the balance sheet of a single economic entity, such as a household or a firm.

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Demeter Press

Demeter Press is a not-for-profit feminist academic publisher headquartered in Ontario, Canada.

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Depression (economics)

In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.

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Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.

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Derivative (finance)

In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.

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Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.

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Disposable and discretionary income

Disposable income is total personal income minus personal current taxes.

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Dominique Strauss-Kahn

Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn (born 25 April 1949) is a French politician, former managing director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and a controversial figure in the French Socialist Party due to his involvement in several financial and sexual scandals.

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Donald Trump

Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.

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Dot-com bubble

The dot-com bubble (also known as the dot-com boom, the dot-com crash, the Y2K crash, the Y2K bubble, the tech bubble, the Internet bubble, the dot-com collapse, and the information technology bubble) was a historic economic bubble and period of excessive speculation that occurred roughly from 1997 to 2001, a period of extreme growth in the usage and adaptation of the Internet.

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Early 2000s recession

The early 2000s recession was a decline in economic activity which mainly occurred in developed countries.

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Ecological economics

Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.

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Economic bubble

An economic bubble or asset bubble (sometimes also referred to as a speculative bubble, a market bubble, a price bubble, a financial bubble, a speculative mania, or a balloon) is trade in an asset at a price or price range that strongly exceeds the asset's intrinsic value.

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Economic recovery

An economic recovery is the phase of the business cycle following a recession, during which an economy regains and exceeds peak employment and output levels achieved prior to downturn.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Eric Janszen

Eric Janzen is an economic commentator and former venture capitalist.

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Eurasia Group

Eurasia Group is a political risk consultancy founded in 1998 by Ian Bremmer, with offices in New York City, Washington, D.C., London, Tokyo, São Paulo, San Francisco, and Singapore.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European troika

The European troika is the designation of the triumvirate representing the European Union in its foreign relations, in particular concerning its common foreign and security policy (CFSP).

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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Fannie Mae

The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), commonly known as Fannie Mae, is a United States government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) and, since 1968, a publicly traded company.

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Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. commercial banks and savings institutions.

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Federal funds rate

In the United States, the federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions (banks and credit unions) lend reserve balances to other depository institutions overnight, on an uncollateralized basis.

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Federal Reserve Bank

A Federal Reserve Bank is a regional bank of the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States.

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Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

The Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas covers the Eleventh Federal Reserve District, which includes Texas, northern Louisiana and southern New Mexico, a district sometimes referred to as the Oil Patch.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The Federal Reserve Bank of St.

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Federal Reserve Board of Governors

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, commonly known as the Federal Reserve Board, is the main governing body of the Federal Reserve System.

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Feminist economics

Feminist economics is the critical study of economics including its methodology, epistemology, history and empirical research, attempting to overcome alleged androcentric (male and patriarchal) biases.

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Finance capitalism

Finance capitalism or financial capitalism is the subordination of processes of production to the accumulation of money profits in a financial system. Financial capitalism is thus a form of capitalism where the intermediation of saving to investment becomes a dominant function in the economy, with wider implications for the political process and social evolution. Since the late 20th century it has become the predominant force in the global economy, whether in neoliberal or other form.

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Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission

The Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission (FCIC) was a ten-member commission appointed by the leaders of the United States Congress with the goal of investigating the causes of the financial crisis of 2007–2010.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Financial instrument

Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Fiscal policy

In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy.

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Flipping is a term used primarily in the United States to describe purchasing a revenue-generating asset and quickly reselling (or "flipping") it for profit.

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Fortis (finance)

Fortis N.V./S.A. was a Belgian financial company active in insurance, banking and investment management.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Fred Harrison (author)

Fred Harrison (born 1944) is a British author, economic commentator and corporate policy advisor, notable for his stances on land reform and belief that an over reliance on land, property and mortgage weakens economic structures and makes companies vulnerable to economic collapse.

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Freddie Mac

The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), known as Freddie Mac, is a public government-sponsored enterprise (GSE), headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia.

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The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

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Gary Gorton

Gary Bernard Gorton (born c. 1951) is an American economist who currently serves as the Frederick Frank Class of 1954 Professor of Finance at Yale School of Management.

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Global recession

A global recession is recession that affects many countries around the world—that is, a period of global economic slowdown or declining economic output.

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Goldman Sachs

The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Great Recession in the United States

The Great Recession in the United States was a severe financial crisis combined with a deep recession.

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Great Regression

The Great Regression refers to worsening economic conditions affecting lower earning sections of the population in the United States, Western Europe and other advanced economies starting around 1981.

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No description.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Gross world product

The gross world product (GWP) is the combined gross national product of all the countries in the world.

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Group of Eight

The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Horsham is a market town on the upper reaches of the River Arun on the fringe of the Weald in West Sussex, England.

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House of Debt

House of Debt: How They (and You) caused the Great Recession, and How We Can Prevent It from Happening Again is a 2014 book by economists Atif Mian and Amir Sufi on the linkages between household debt in the United States and the 2008 financial crisis.

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Household debt

Household debt is defined as the combined debt of all people in a household.

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Household income in the United States

Household income is an economic measure that can be applied to one household, or aggregated across a large group such as a county, city, or the whole country.

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Hypo Real Estate

The Hypo Real Estate Holding AG is a holding company based in Munich, Germany which comprises a number of real estate financing banks.

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Income inequality in the United States

Income inequality in the United States has increased significantly since the 1970s after several decades of stability, meaning the share of the nation's income received by higher income households has increased.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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Inflection point

In differential calculus, an inflection point, point of inflection, flex, or inflection (British English: inflexion) is a point on a continuously differentiable plane curve at which the curve crosses its tangent, that is, the curve changes from being concave (concave downward) to convex (concave upward), or vice versa.

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International Economics Bulletin

The International Economics Bulletin is a bi-monthly publication published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

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International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International trade

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.

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Investment banking

An investment bank is typically a private company that provides various finance-related and other services to individuals, corporations, and governments such as raising financial capital by underwriting or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Irish property bubble

The Irish property bubble was the overshooting part of a long-term price increase of real estate in the Republic of Ireland from the late 1990s to 2007, a period known as the Celtic Tiger.

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Jakob B. Madsen

Jakob Brøchner Madsen (born in Randers, Denmark) is an economist, professor and former financial analyst and deputy chief economist (Bank of Jutland).

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Joe Nocera

Joseph "Joe" Nocera (born May 6, 1952 in Providence, Rhode Island) is an American business journalist and author.

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Journal of Economic Literature

The Journal of Economic Literature is a peer-reviewed academic journal, published by the American Economic Association, that surveys the academic literature in economics.

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Journal of Monetary Economics

The Journal of Monetary Economics is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on macroeconomics and monetary economics.

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Kurt Richebächer

Kurt Richebächer (1918 – August 24, 2007) was an international banker and economist.

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Lehman Brothers

Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. (former NYSE ticker symbol LEH) was a global financial services firm.

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Lender of last resort

A lender of last resort (LOLR) is the institution in a financial system that acts as the provider of liquidity to a financial institution which finds itself unable to obtain sufficient liquidity in the interbank lending market and other facilities or sources have been exhausted.

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Marc Faber

Marc Faber (born February 28, 1946) is a Swiss investor based in Thailand.

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Margunn Bjørnholt

Margunn Bjørnholt (born 9 October 1958 in Bø, Telemark) is a Norwegian sociologist and economist.

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Martin Wolf

Martin Harry Wolf, CBE (born 1946) is a British journalist who focuses on economics.

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Med Jones

Med Jones is an American economist.

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Meltdown (book)

Meltdown is a book on the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 by historian Thomas Woods, with a foreword by Rep.

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Merrill Lynch

Merrill Lynch Wealth Management is a wealth management division of Bank of America.

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Michael Hudson (economist)

Michael Hudson, born March 14, 1939, is an American economist, professor of economics at the University of Missouri in Kansas City and a researcher at the Levy Economics Institute at Bard College, former Wall Street analyst, political consultant, commentator and journalist.

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Michael Lewis

Michael Monroe Lewis (born October 15, 1960) is an American non-fiction author and financial journalist.

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Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China

The Ministry of Finance of the Government of the People's Republic of China is the national executive agency of the Central People's Government which administers macroeconomic policies and the national annual budget.

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Monetary policy

Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.

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Morgan Stanley

Morgan Stanley is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered at 1585 Broadway in the Morgan Stanley Building, Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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Mortgage loan

A mortgage loan, or simply mortgage, is used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or alternatively by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose, while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged.

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Mortgage-backed security

A mortgage-backed security (MBS) is a type of asset-backed security that is secured by a mortgage or collection of mortgages.

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Naked short selling

Naked short selling, or naked shorting, is the practice of short-selling a tradable asset of any kind without first borrowing the security or ensuring that the security can be borrowed, as is conventionally done in a short sale.

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National Bureau of Economic Research

The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is an American private nonprofit research organization "committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community." The NBER is well known for providing start and end dates for recessions in the United States.

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National debt of the United States

The national debt of the United States is the public debt carried by the federal government of the United States, which is measured as the face value of the currently outstanding Treasury securities that have been issued by the Treasury and other federal government agencies.

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Negative equity

Negative equity occurs when the value of an asset used to secure a loan is less than the outstanding balance on the loan.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New Zealand property bubble

The New Zealand property bubble is an ongoing issue in New Zealand, where house prices have risen considerably faster than incomes.

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Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.

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Norges Bank

Norges Bank / Noregs Bank is the central bank of Norway.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Nouriel Roubini

Nouriel Roubini (born March 29, 1958) is an American economist.

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Occupy movement

The Occupy movement is an international socio-political movement against social and economic inequality and the lack of "real democracy" around the world.

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Occupy Wall Street

Occupy Wall Street (OWS) was a protest movement that began on September 17, 2011, in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial district, receiving global attention and spawning a surge in the movement against economic inequality worldwide.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Olivier Blanchard

Olivier Jean Blanchard (born December 27, 1948) is a French economist, professor and Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.

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Operational definition

An operational definition is the articulation of operationalization (or statement of procedures) used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc.

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Paul Krugman

Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.

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Peabody Award

The George Foster Peabody Awards (or simply Peabody Awards) program, named for American businessman and philanthropist George Peabody, honor the most powerful, enlightening, and invigorating stories in television, radio, and online media.

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Peer Steinbrück

Peer Steinbrück (born 10 January 1947) is a German politician who was the chancellor-candidate of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in the 2013 federal election.

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Peter J. Wallison

Peter J. Wallison (born June 6, 1941) is a lawyer and the Arthur F. Burns Fellow in Financial Policy Studies at the American Enterprise Institute.

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Peter Schiff

Peter David Schiff (born March 23, 1963) is an American stock broker, financial commentator, and radio personality.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish property bubble

Real estate prices rose drastically from 2002 to 2008 in Poland.

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Polish złoty

The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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President's Daily Brief

The President's Daily Brief --> (PDB), sometimes referred to as the President's Daily Briefing or the President's Daily Bulletin, is a top-secret document produced and given each morning to the President of the United States, and is also distributed to a small number of top-level US officials who are approved by the President, and includes highly classified intelligence analysis, information about CIA covert operations and reports from the most sensitive US sources or those shared by allied intelligence agencies.

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Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Quarter on quarter

Quarter on quarter is a term of art in Accounting, Finance and Economics.

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Ravi Batra

Raveendra Nath "Ravi" Batra (born June 27, 1943) is an Indian-American economist, author, and professor at Southern Methodist University.

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In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

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Regnery Publishing

Regnery Publishing is a conservative book publisher based in Washington, D.C. An imprint of Salem Media Group, it is led by president Marji Ross.

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Reserve Bank of Australia

The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), on 14 January 1960, became the Australian central bank and banknote issuing authority, when the Reserve Bank Act 1959 (23 April 1959) removed the central banking functions from the Commonwealth Bank.

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Reserve Bank of India

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.

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Robert J. Shiller

Robert James Shiller (born March 29, 1946) is an American Nobel Laureate, economist, academic, and best-selling author.

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Robert Reich

Robert Bernard Reich (born June 24, 1946) is an American political commentator, professor, and author.

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Robert Rubin

Robert Edward "Bob" Rubin (born August 29, 1938) is an American lawyer, former cabinet member, and retired banking executive.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Savings and loan crisis

The savings and loan crisis of the 1980s and 1990s (commonly dubbed the S&L crisis) was the failure of 1,043 out of the 3,234 savings and loan associations in the United States from 1986 to 1995: the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) closed or otherwise resolved 296 institutions from 1986 to 1989 and the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) closed or otherwise resolved 747 institutions from 1989 to 1995.

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Security (finance)

A security is a tradable financial asset.

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Shadow banking system

The shadow banking system is a term for the collection of non-bank financial intermediaries that provide services similar to traditional commercial banks but outside normal banking regulations.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Spanish property bubble

The Spanish property bubble is the collapsed overshooting part of a long-term price increase of Spanish real estate prices.

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State Administration of Taxation

The State Administration of Taxation (SAT, Chinese: 国家税务总局) is a ministerial-level department within the government of the People's Republic of China.

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Steve Keen

Steve Keen (born 28 March 1953) is an Australian economist and author.

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Stock market crash

A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market, resulting in a significant loss of paper wealth.

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Subprime lending

In finance, subprime lending (also referred to as near-prime, subpar, non-prime, and second-chance lending) means making loans to people who may have difficulty maintaining the repayment schedule, sometimes reflecting setbacks, such as unemployment, divorce, medical emergencies, etc.

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Subprime mortgage crisis

The United States subprime mortgage crisis was a nationwide banking emergency, occurring between 2007 and 2010, that contributed to the U.S. recession of December 2007 – June 2009.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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The American Economic Review

The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.

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The Downfall of Capitalism and Communism

The Downfall of Capitalism and Communism is a book by Ravi Batra in the field of historical evolution, first published in 1978.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Giant Pool of Money

"The Giant Pool of Money" is an episode of the radio show This American Life which originally aired on May 9, 2008.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Housing Boom and Bust

The Housing Boom and Bust is a non-fiction book written by Thomas Sowell about the United States housing bubble and following subprime mortgage crisis.

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The Mercury News

The Mercury News (formerly San Jose Mercury News, often locally known as The Merc) is a morning daily newspaper published in San Jose, California, United States.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008

The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008 is a non-fiction book by American economist and winner of the Nobel Prize in economics Paul Krugman.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States housing bubble

The United States housing bubble was a real estate bubble affecting over half of the U.S. states.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Uri Dadush

Uri Dadush is a non-resident scholar at Bruegel, based in Washington, DC and a Senior Fellow at the OCP Policy Center in Rabat, Morocco.

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Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

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Word sense

In linguistics, a word sense is one of the meanings of a word (some words have multiple meanings, some words have only one meaning).

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Wynne Godley

Wynne Godley (2 September 192613 May 2010) was an economist famous for his pessimism toward the British economy and his criticism of the British government.

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2000s commodities boom

The 2000s commodities boom or the commodities super cycle was the rise, and fall, of many physical commodity prices (such as those of food, oil, metals, chemicals, fuels and the like) during the early 21st century (2000–2014), following the Great Commodities Depression of the 1980s and 1990s.

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2000s energy crisis

From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under US$25/barrel.

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2008 European Union stimulus plan

On 26 November 2008, the European Commission proposed a European stimulus plan (also referred to as the European Economic Recovery Plan) amounting to 200 billion euros to cope with the effects of the global financial crisis on the economies of the members countries.

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2008 G20 Washington summit

The 2008 G20 Washington Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy took place on November 14–15, 2008, in Washington, D.C., United States.

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2008 United Kingdom bank rescue package

A bank rescue package totalling some £500 billion (approximately $850 billion) was announced by the British government on 8 October 2008, as a response to the ongoing global financial crisis.

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2008–09 Keynesian resurgence

Following the global financial crisis of 2007–08, there was a worldwide resurgence of interest in Keynesian economics among prominent economists and policy makers.

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2008–2011 Icelandic financial crisis

The Icelandic financial crisis was a major economic and political event in Iceland that involved the default of all three of the country's major privately owned commercial banks in late 2008, following their difficulties in refinancing their short-term debt and a run on deposits in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

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2009 G20 London summit

The 2009 G20 London Summit was the second meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state, which was held in London on 2 April 2009 at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre to discuss financial markets and the world economy.

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2009 Riga riot

2009 Riga riot was a civil unrest in Riga, Latvia on January 13, 2009.

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2012 Catalan independence demonstration

The 2012 Catalan independence demonstration was a protest march which occurred in central Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain, on 11 September 2012 during the National Day of Catalonia.

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99ers is a colloquial term for unemployed people in the United States, mostly citizens, who have exhausted all of their unemployment benefits, including all unemployment extensions.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Recession

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