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Great Wall of China

Index Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion. [1]

194 relations: Alexander the Great, Ancient Chinese states, Ancient Chinese urban planning, Apollo 11, Australian National University, Badaling, Battlement, Bento de Góis, Bloomberg L.P., Book of Song, Border barrier, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Cecil Adams, China, China Daily, China–North Korea border, Chinese character classification, Chinese characters, Chinese city wall, Chinese historiography, Chinese particles, Chinese units of measurement, Christopher I. Beckwith, Cultural Revolution, Dandong, De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas, Defense of the Great Wall, Dhul-Qarnayn, Douglas Brinkley, Dust storm, Dynasties in Chinese history, Ed Lu, Edward H. Schafer, Encyclopædia Britannica, Eugene Cernan, Eurasian Steppe, European Space Agency, Europeans in Medieval China, Expedition 7, First Opium War, Fortification, Gansu, Garrison, Gaspar da Cruz, Gates of Alexander, Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, Giovanni de' Marignolli, Global Positioning System, Globe, Gog and Magog, ..., Graffiti, Grand Canal (China), Great Wall Marathon, Great Wall of China hoax, Great Wall of Qi, Hadrian's Wall, Han dynasty, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Hebei, Henry Yule, Hexi Corridor, History of China, Huangya Pass, Hushan Great Wall, Ibn Battuta, Inner Mongolia, International Space Station, Jake Garn, Jiankou, Jianzhou Jurchens, Jiayu Pass, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jinshanling, João de Barros, Johns Hopkins University Press, Juan González de Mendoza, Juyong Pass, Legislative Yuan, Leroy Chiao, Li (unit), Li Zicheng, Liao dynasty, Liaodong Peninsula, Liaoning, Lime (material), Linguistic reconstruction, List of World Heritage Sites in China, Lists of World Heritage Sites in Asia, Literal and figurative language, Lop Nur, Low Earth orbit, Macmillan Publishers, Manchu people, Marco Polo, Martian canal, Matteo Ricci, Metrication, Mile, Ming dynasty, Mongol invasions and conquests, Mongolia, Mongols, Moon, Mudbrick, Mutianyu, Myriad, NASA, Neil Armstrong, Ningxia, Northern and Southern dynasties, Odoric of Pordenone, Oirats, Old Chinese, Ordos Desert, Photoreceptor cell, Pingxing Pass, Qi (state), Qi Jiguang, Qin (state), Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, Qing dynasty, Qinghai, Quanzhou, Quran, Radical 32, Rammed earth, Records of the Grand Historian, Renminbi, Republic of China (1912–1949), Retina, Richard Halliburton, Rihla, Ripley's Believe It or Not!, Sam Tanenhaus, Second Opium War, Shanhai Pass, Shanhaiguan District, Shanxi, Shun dynasty, Silk Road, Sima Qian, Simatai, Simplified Chinese characters, Sir Henry Norman, 1st Baronet, Skylab, Song dynasty, Southern Ming, Space Shuttle, Spring and Autumn period, Springer Science+Business Media, St. Martin's Press, State Administration of Cultural Heritage, Stephen E. Ambrose, Sui dynasty, Tan Daoji, Tang dynasty, Tatars, The Guardian, The Irish Times, The New York Times, The New Yorker, The Times, Tianxia, Traditional Chinese characters, Travel literature, Tumu Crisis, Vandalism, Visual acuity, Wall, Warring States period, Watchtower, Wei (state), William of Rubruck, William R. Pogue, William Stukeley, Willow Palisade, World Heritage Committee, Wu Sangui, Xinzhou, Xiongnu, Yale Journal of Criticism, Yan (state), Yang Liwei, Yang Pass, Yanmen Pass, Yanqing District, Yellow River, Yinchuan, Yuan dynasty, Yumen Pass, Zhangjiakou, Zhao (state), Zhongshan (state). Expand index (144 more) »

Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Ancient Chinese states

Ancient Chinese States were typified by variously sized city states and territories that existed in China prior to its unification by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BCE.

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Ancient Chinese urban planning

Ancient Chinese encompasses the diverse set of cultural beliefs, social and economic structures, and technological capacities that historically influenced urban design in the early period of Chinese civilization.

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Apollo 11

Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.

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Australian National University

The Australian National University (ANU) is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia.

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Badaling

Badaling is the site of the most visited section of the Great Wall of China, approximately northwest of urban Beijing city in Yanqing District, which is within the Beijing municipality.

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Battlement

A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet (i.e., a defensive low wall between chest-height and head-height), in which gaps or indentations, which are often rectangular, occur at intervals to allow for the launch of arrows or other projectiles from within the defences.

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Bento de Góis

Bento de Góis (1562 in Vila Franca do Campo, Azores, Portugal – 11 April 1607 in Suzhou, Gansu, China), was a Portuguese Jesuit Brother, Missionary and explorer.

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Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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Book of Song

The Book of Song (Sòng Shū) is a historical text of the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties of China.

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Border barrier

A border barrier is a separation barrier that runs along an international border.

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Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.

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Cecil Adams

Cecil Adams is the pseudonymous author of The Straight Dope, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader from 1973 to 2018.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China Daily

China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.

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China–North Korea border

The China–North Korea border is the international border separating China and North Korea.

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Chinese character classification

All Chinese characters are logograms, but several different types can be identified, based on the manner in which they are formed or derived.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese city wall

Chinese city walls refer to defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times.

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Chinese historiography

Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.

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Chinese particles

Both Classical Chinese and modern Chinese contain a number of grammatical particles.

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Chinese units of measurement

Chinese units of measurement, known in Chinese as the shìzhì ("market system"), are the traditional units of measurement of the Han Chinese.

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Christopher I. Beckwith

Christopher I. Beckwith (born 1945) is a professor in the Department of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana.

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Cultural Revolution

The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.

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Dandong

Dandong, formerly known as Andong, is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.

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De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas

De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas suscepta ab Societate Jesu... (Latin for "On the Christian Mission among the Chinese by the Society of Jesus...") is a book based on an Italian manuscript written by the most important founding figure of the Jesuit China mission, Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), expanded and translated into Latin by his colleague Nicolas Trigault (1577–1628).

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Defense of the Great Wall

The Defense of the Great Wall (January 1 – May 31, 1933) was a campaign between the armies of Republic of China and Empire of Japan, which took place before the Second Sino-Japanese War officially commenced in 1937.

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Dhul-Qarnayn

Dhul-Qarnayn, (ذو القرنين), or Zulqarnayn, "he of the two horns" (or figuratively “he of the two ages”), appears in Surah 18 verses 83-101 of the Quran as a figure empowered by Allah to erect a wall between mankind and Gog and Magog, the representation of chaos.

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Douglas Brinkley

Douglas Brinkley (born December 14, 1960) is an American author and a professor of history at Rice University.

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Dust storm

A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.

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Dynasties in Chinese history

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.

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Ed Lu

Edward Tsang "Ed" Lu (born July 1, 1963) is an American physicist and former NASA astronaut.

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Edward H. Schafer

Edward Hetsel Schafer (23 August 1913 – 9 February 1991) was an American Sinologist, historian, and writer noted for his expertise on the Tang Dynasty, and was a professor of Chinese at University of California, Berkeley for 35 years.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Eugene Cernan

Eugene Andrew Cernan (March 14, 1934 – January 16, 2017) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, electrical engineer, aeronautical engineer, and fighter pilot.

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Eurasian Steppe

The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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Europeans in Medieval China

Given textual and archaeological evidence, it is thought that thousands of Europeans lived in Imperial China during the period of Mongol rule.

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Expedition 7

Expedition 7 was the seventh expedition to the International Space Station.

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First Opium War

The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.

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Fortification

A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.

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Gansu

Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.

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Garrison

Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.

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Gaspar da Cruz

Gaspar da Cruz (1520 – 5 February 1570; sometimes also known under an Hispanized version of his name, Gaspar de la Cruz) was a Portuguese Dominican friar born in Évora, who traveled to Asia and wrote one of the first detailed European accounts about China.

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Gates of Alexander

The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog) from invading the land to the south.

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Giovanni da Pian del Carpine

Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, variously rendered in English as John of Pian de Carpine, John of Plano Carpini or Joannes de Plano (ca 1185 – 1 August 1252), was a medieval Italian diplomat, archbishop and explorer and one of the first Europeans to enter the court of the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.

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Giovanni de' Marignolli

Giovanni de' Marignolli (Johannes Marignola;.), variously anglicized as John of Marignolli or John of Florence, was a notable 14th-century Catholic European traveller to medieval China.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Globe

A globe is a spherical model of Earth, of some other celestial body, or of the celestial sphere.

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Gog and Magog

Gog and Magog (גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג Gog u-Magog) in the Hebrew Bible may be individuals, peoples, or lands; a prophesied enemy nation of God's people according to the Book of Ezekiel, and according to Genesis, one of the nations descended from Japheth, son of Noah.

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Graffiti

Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted, typically illicitly, on a wall or other surface, often within public view.

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Grand Canal (China)

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.

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Great Wall Marathon

The Great Wall Marathon is an annual marathon race, traditionally held on the third Saturday of May along and on the Huangyaguan or Huangya Pass (Chinese: 黄崖关; Chinese: 黃崖關; Pinyin: Huángyáguān; Literally: "Yellow Cliff Pass"), Tianjin section of the Great Wall of China East of Beijing.

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Great Wall of China hoax

The Great Wall of China hoax was a faked newspaper story concocted on June 25, 1899 by four reporters in Denver, Colorado about bids by American businesses on a contract to demolish the Great Wall of China and construct a road in its place.

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Great Wall of Qi

The Great Wall of Qi is the oldest existing Great Wall in China.

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Hadrian's Wall

Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies

The Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies (HJAS) is an English-language scholarly journal published by the Harvard-Yenching Institute.

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Hebei

Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.

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Henry Yule

Sir Henry Yule KCSI (1 May 1820 – 30 December 1889) was a Scottish Orientalist.

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Hexi Corridor

Hexi Corridor (Xiao'erjing: حْسِ ظِوْلاْ, IPA: /xɤ˧˥ɕi˥ tsoʊ˨˩˦lɑŋ˧˥/) or Gansu Corridor refers to the historical route in Gansu province of China.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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Huangya Pass

Huangyaguan or Huangya Pass is a small section of the Great Wall of China located in the north of Ji County, Tianjin municipality, approximately north of urban Tianjin city.

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Hushan Great Wall

The Hushan or Tiger Mountain Great Wall, known to Koreans as Bakjak Fortress (Hangul:박작성 Hanja:泊汋城), is the most easterly known part of the Great Wall of China.

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Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.

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Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Jake Garn

Edwin Jacob "Jake" Garn (born October 12, 1932) is an American politician, a member of the Republican Party, who served as a U.S. Senator representing Utah from 1974 to 1993. Garn became the first sitting member of the United States Congress to fly in space when he flew aboard the Space Shuttle ''Discovery'' as a Payload Specialist during NASA mission STS-51-D (April 12–19, 1985).

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Jiankou

Jiankou is a section of the Great Wall of China.

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Jianzhou Jurchens

The Jianzhou Jurchens (Chinese: 建州女真) were one of the three major groups of Jurchens as identified by the Ming dynasty.

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Jiayu Pass

Jiayu Pass or is the first frontier fortress at the west end of the Ming dynasty Great Wall of China, near the city of Jiayuguan in Gansu province.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.

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Jinshanling

Jinshanling, is a section of the Great Wall of China located in the mountainous area in Luanping County, Hebei Province, 125 km northeast of Beijing.

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João de Barros

João de Barros (1496 – 20 October 1570), called the Portuguese Livy, is one of the first great Portuguese historians, most famous for his Décadas da Ásia ("Decades of Asia"), a history of the Portuguese in India, Asia, and southeast Africa.

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Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.

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Juan González de Mendoza

Juan González de Mendoza, O.S.A. (1545 – 14 February 1618) was the author of one of the earliest Western histories of China.

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Juyong Pass

Juyong Pass is a mountain pass located in the Changping District of Beijing Municipality, over from central Beijing.

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Legislative Yuan

The Legislative Yuan is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of China now based in Taiwan.

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Leroy Chiao

Leroy Chiao (born August 28, 1960) is an American engineer, former NASA astronaut, entrepreneur, motivational speaker, and engineering consultant.

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Li (unit)

The li (lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance.

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Li Zicheng

Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, "Dashing King", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.

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Liao dynasty

The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.

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Liaodong Peninsula

The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.

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Liaoning

Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.

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Lime (material)

Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.

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Linguistic reconstruction

Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.

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List of World Heritage Sites in China

This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in China.

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Lists of World Heritage Sites in Asia

The following are lists of World Heritage Sites in Asia.

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Literal and figurative language

Literal and figurative language is a distinction within some fields of language analysis, in particular stylistics, rhetoric, and semantics.

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Lop Nur

Lop Nur or Lop Nor (from a Mongolian name meaning "Lop Lake") is a former salt lake in China, now largely dried-up, located between the Taklamakan and Kumtag deserts in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.

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Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.

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Macmillan Publishers

Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.

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Manchu people

The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Martian canal

For a time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was erroneously believed that there were canals on Mars.

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Matteo Ricci

Matteo Ricci, S.J. (Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.

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Metrication

Metrication or metrification is conversion to the metric system of units of measurement.

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Mile

The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Mongol invasions and conquests

Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Mongolia

Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Mudbrick

A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.

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Mutianyu

Mutianyu is a section of the Great Wall of China located in Huairou County 70 km northeast of central Beijing.

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Myriad

A myriad (from Ancient Greek label) is technically the number ten thousand; in that sense, the term is used almost exclusively in translations from Greek, Latin, or Chinese, or when talking about ancient Greek numbers.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Neil Armstrong

Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who was the first person to walk on the Moon.

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Ningxia

Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.

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Northern and Southern dynasties

The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.

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Odoric of Pordenone

Odoric of Pordenone, ofm (1286–1331), also known as Odorico Mattiussi or Mattiuzzi, was an Italian late-medieval Franciscan friar and missionary explorer.

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Oirats

Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.

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Old Chinese

Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.

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Ordos Desert

The Ordos Desert, also known as the Muu-us or Bad Water Desert,Donovan Webster.

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

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Pingxing Pass

Pingxing Pass is a mountain pass in the Shanxi Province of China.

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Qi (state)

Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom.

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Qi Jiguang

Qi Jiguang (November 12, 1528 – January 17, 1588), courtesy name Yuanjing, art names Nantang and Mengzhu, posthumous name Wuyi, was a military general of the Ming dynasty.

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Qin (state)

Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.

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Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.

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Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qinghai

Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.

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Quanzhou

Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level city beside the Taiwan Strait in Fujian Province, China.

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Quran

The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Radical 32

Radical 32 meaning "earth" is 1 of 31 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals total) composed of three strokes.

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Rammed earth

Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé (de terre) in French, and hangtu, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.

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Records of the Grand Historian

The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.

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Renminbi

The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.

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Republic of China (1912–1949)

The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.

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Retina

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Richard Halliburton

Richard Halliburton (January 9, 1900 – presumed dead after March 24, 1939) was an American traveler, adventurer, and author.

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Rihla

Riḥlah (رحلة, "Journey" or "Travels") is a Classical Arabic term of a quest, with connotations of a voyage undertaken for the sake of divine knowledge of Islam.

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Ripley's Believe It or Not!

Ripley's Believe It or Not! is an American franchise, founded by Robert Ripley, which deals in bizarre events and items so strange and unusual that readers might question the claims.

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Sam Tanenhaus

Sam Tanenhaus (born October 31, 1955) is an American historian, biographer, and journalist.

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Second Opium War

The Second Opium War (第二次鴉片戰爭), the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.

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Shanhai Pass

Shanhai Pass is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China.

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Shanhaiguan District

Shanhaiguan District, formerly Shan-hai-kwan or Shan-hai-kuan, is a district of the city of Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, China, named after the pass of the Great Wall within the district, Shanhai Pass.

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Shanxi

Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.

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Shun dynasty

The Shun dynasty, or Great Shun, was a short-lived dynasty created in the Ming-Qing transition from Ming to Qing rule in Chinese history.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Sima Qian

Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).

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Simatai

Simatai, a section of the Great Wall of China located in the north of Miyun County, 120 km northeast of Beijing, holds the access to Gubeikou, a strategic pass in the eastern part of the Great Wall.

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.

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Sir Henry Norman, 1st Baronet

Sir Henry Norman, 1st Baronet PC (19 September 18584 June 1939) was an English journalist and Liberal politician.

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Skylab

Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Southern Ming

The Southern Ming was a loyalist movement that was active in southern China following the Ming dynasty's collapse in 1644.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Spring and Autumn period

The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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St. Martin's Press

St.

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State Administration of Cultural Heritage

The State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH) is an administrative agency subordinate to the Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China.

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Stephen E. Ambrose

Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American historian and biographer of U.S. Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon.

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Sui dynasty

The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.

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Tan Daoji

Tan Daoji (died April 9, 436) was a high level general of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tatars

The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Irish Times

The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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Tianxia

Tianxia is a Chinese term for an ancient Chinese cultural concept that denoted either the entire geographical world or the metaphysical realm of mortals, and later became associated with political sovereignty.

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Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.

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Travel literature

The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs.

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Tumu Crisis

The Tumu Crisis (Тумугийн тулалдаан); also called the Crisis of Tumu Fortress or Battle of Tumu, was a frontier conflict between the Oirat tribes of Mongols and the Chinese Ming dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 1, 1449, and the defeat of an army of 500,000 men by a much smaller force.

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Vandalism

Vandalism is an "action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property".

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Visual acuity

Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.

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Wall

A wall is a structure that defines an area, carries a load, or provides shelter or security.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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Watchtower

A watchtower is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world.

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Wei (state)

Wei (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period.

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William of Rubruck

William of Rubruck (c. 1220 – c. 1293) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer.

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William R. Pogue

William Reid "Bill" Pogue (January 23, 1930 – March 3, 2014), (Col, USAF), was an American astronaut, U.S. Air Force fighter pilot, and test pilot who was also an accomplished teacher, public speaker and author.

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William Stukeley

William Stukeley (7 November 1687 – 3 March 1765) was an English antiquarian, physician, and Anglican clergyman.

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Willow Palisade

Willow Palisade (ᠪᡳᡵᡝᡤᡝᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᡝ|v.

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World Heritage Committee

The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.

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Wu Sangui

Wu Sangui (courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.

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Xinzhou

Xinzhou is a prefecture-level city occupying the north-central section of Shanxi Province in the People's Republic of China.

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Xiongnu

The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.

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Yale Journal of Criticism

The Yale Journal of Criticism was an academic journal published by the Johns Hopkins University Press which covered all humanities disciplines.

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Yan (state)

Yan (Old Chinese pronunciation: &#42) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.

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Yang Liwei

Yang Liwei (born 21 June 1965) is a major general, military pilot, and China National Space Administration astronaut.

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Yang Pass

Yangguan, or Yangguan Pass, is a mountain pass that was fortified by Emperor Wu of the Western Han Dynasty around 120 BC and used as an outpost in the colonial dominions adjacent to ancient China.

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Yanmen Pass

Yanmen Pass, also known by its Chinese name Yanmenguan and as Xixingguan, is a mountain pass which includes three fortified gatehouses along the Great Wall of China.

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Yanqing District

Yanqing District is a subdivision of the municipality of Beijing located northwest of the city proper of Beijing.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.

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Yinchuan

Yinchuan is the capital of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, and historically it was the former capital of the Western Xia Empire of the Tanguts.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Yumen Pass

Yumen Pass, or Jade Gate or Pass of the Jade Gate, is the name of a pass of the Great Wall located west of Dunhuang in today's Gansu Province of China.

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Zhangjiakou

Zhangjiakou also known by several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest.

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Zhao (state)

Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China.

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Zhongshan (state)

Zhongshan was a small state that existed during the Warring States period, which managed to survive for almost 120 years despite its small size.

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Redirects here:

Beacon Wall, Chang Cheng, China's Great Wall, Chinese Great Wall, GWOC, Great Wal, Great Wall, Great Wall (China), Great Wall Of China, Great wall, Great wall of China, Great wall of china, Greate Wall, Inner Great Wall, Long Wall of China, Outer Great Wall, The Great Wall, The Great Wall of China, The Wall of China, The great wall, The great wall of china, The wall of China, Wall of 10,000 Li, Wall of China, Wanli Changcheng, 万里长城, 長城, 长城.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wall_of_China

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