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Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)

Index Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)

The Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922 was fought between Greece and the Turkish National Movement during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I between May 1919 and October 1922. [1]

237 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Aegean Islands, Aegean Sea, Afyonkarahisar, Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, Aide-de-camp, Aidin Vilayet, Airplane, Alaşehir, Alexander of Greece, Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Allies of World War I, Anastasios Papoulas, Anatolia, Ankara, Antalya, Araklı, Armenian Genocide, Armenians, Armistice of Mudros, Army of Asia Minor, Arnold J. Toynbee, Artillery, Athens, Attica, Aydın, Ömer Halis Bıyıktay, İnebolu, İsmet İnönü, İzmir, İzmit, Şefik Aker, Balıkesir, Battle of Dumlupınar, Battle of Kütahya–Eskişehir, Battle of Sakarya, Batumi, Büyük Menderes River, Bilecik, Black Sea, Blockade, Bolsheviks, Bombardment of Samsun, Bosporus, Bronze Age, Bulgarian Armed Forces, Bulgarians, Bursa, Byzantine Empire, Cannon, ..., Car, Cavalry, Central Powers, Charles Harington Harington, Christian, Chrysostomos of Smyrna, Circassians, Commander-in-chief, Constantine I of Greece, Constantinople, Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations, Crete, Cyprus, Dardanelles, David Fromkin, David Lloyd George, David Walder, Defile (geography), Dimitrios Gounaris, Division (military), East Thrace, Eleftherios Venizelos, Epirus, Ernest Hemingway, Eskişehir, Ethnic cleansing, Fahrettin Altay, Fevzi Çakmak, Field marshal, Fighter aircraft, First Battle of İnönü, France, Franco-Turkish War, Gemlik, General Staff of the Republic of Turkey, Geneva, George Lenczowski, George Pataki, Georgios Hatzianestis, Georgios Polymenakos, GIF, Government of the Grand National Assembly, Great fire of Smyrna, Great Offensive, Greece, Greek Americans, Greek diaspora, Greek genocide, Greek landing at Smyrna, Greek language, Greek Orthodox Church, Greeks, Hagia Sophia, Haymana, Ankara, Heavy machine gun, Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, History of the ambulance, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Imbros, Infantry, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Interwar period, Ioannis Metaxas, Ionia, Irredentism, Islamic religious leaders, Italy, James Harbord, Karşıyaka, Kâzım İnanç, Kâzım Orbay, Kütahya, Kemalettin Sami Gökçen, Kingdom of Greece, Konstantinos Miliotis-Komninos, Konstantinos Nider, Kuva-yi Milliye, Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Light machine gun, List of conferences in London, List of massacres during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), List of Prime Ministers of Greece, Macedonia (Greece), Macedonia (region), Machine gun, Major, Malcolm Yapp, Manisa, Maritsa, Marjorie Housepian Dobkin, Münip Uzsoy, Megali Idea, Middle Eastern theatre of World War I, Military, Military logistics, Military organization, Military technology, Military volunteer, Mirliva, Mudanya, Muhittin Akyüz, Mumbai, Mushir, Muslim, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Naci Eldeniz, Nestorianism, New York (state), Nihat Anılmış, Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos, Nikolaos Trikoupis, Norman Naimark, Nureddin Pasha, Occupation of Smyrna, Orthodoxy, Ottoman Bank, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turks, Partition of the Ottoman Empire, PDF, Phaeton (carriage), Pontus (region), Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, Prime Minister of Greece, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Rüştü Sakarya, Refet Bele, Regiment, Regular army, Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, Rifle, Rize, Roman Empire, Rudolph Rummel, Russian Civil War, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Sakarya River, Salih Bozok, Salihli, Scorched earth, Sea of Marmara, Second Battle of İnönü, Secretary of state, Secretary of State for the Colonies, Seljuq dynasty, Sepsis, Sinop, Turkey, Smyrna, Sword, Sydney Nettleton Fisher, Taner Akçam, Türkiye İş Bankası, Tenedos, Terme, The Big Four (World War I), The New York Times, The Scotsman, Thessaly, Thrace, Timeline of the Turkish War of Independence, Toronto Star, Trabzon, Treaty of Ankara, Treaty of Lausanne, Treaty of Moscow (1921), Treaty of Sèvres, Trench warfare, Triple Entente, Tumbrel, Turgutlu, Turkey, Turkish capture of Smyrna, Turkish Land Forces, Turkish National Movement, Turkish War of Independence, Twice A Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey, Uşak, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, University of Michigan Press, Venizelism, Warship, Western Thrace, Winston Churchill, World War I, Yalova Peninsula massacres, Yusuf Izzet Pasha. Expand index (187 more) »

Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Aegean Islands

The Aegean Islands (Νησιά Αιγαίου, transliterated: Nisiá Aigaíou; Ege Adaları) are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Afyonkarahisar

Afyonkarahisar (afyon "poppy, opium", kara "black", hisar "fortress") is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province.

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Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne

The Agreement of St.-Jean-de-Maurienne was an agreement between France, Italy and Great Britain, signed at Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne on April 26, 1917, and endorsed August 18 – September 26, 1917.

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Aide-de-camp

An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.

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Aidin Vilayet

The Vilayet of Aidin or Aydin (translit), also known as Vilayet of Smyrna or Izmir after its administrative centre, was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the south-west of Asia Minor, including the ancient regions of Lydia, Ionia, Caria and western Lycia.

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Airplane

An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.

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Alaşehir

Alaşehir, in Antiquity and the Middle Ages known as Philadelphia (Φιλαδέλφεια, i.e., "the city of him who loves his brother") is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.

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Alexander of Greece

Alexander (Αλέξανδρος, Aléxandros; 1 August 189325 October 1920) was King of Greece from 11 June 1917 until his death three years later, at the age of 27, from the effects of a monkey bite.

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Ali Fuat Cebesoy

Ali Fuat Cebesoy (September 1882,Ayfer Özçelik, Ali Fuad Cepesoy, Akçağ Yayınları, 1993,, p. 1. Constantinople (Istanbul) – January 10, 1968, Istanbul) was a Turkish army officer and politician.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Anastasios Papoulas

Anastasios Papoulas (Αναστάσιος Παπούλας; 1/13 January 1857 – 24 April 1935) was a Greek general, most notable as the Greek commander-in-chief during most of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–22.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ankara

Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.

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Antalya

Antalya is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.

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Araklı

Araklı (from Greek "Ηράκλεια" - Erakleia) is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

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Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.

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Armenians

Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Armistice of Mudros

The Armistice of Mudros (Mondros Mütarekesi), concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS ''Agamemnon'' in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.

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Army of Asia Minor

The Army of Asia Minor (Στρατιά Μικράς Ασίας) was the field army-level command controlling the Greek forces in Asia Minor (Anatolia) during the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922.

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Arnold J. Toynbee

Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books.

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Artillery

Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Attica

Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.

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Aydın

Aydın (EYE-din;; formerly named Güzelhisar), ancient Greek Tralles, is a city in and the seat of Aydın Province in Turkey's Aegean Region.

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Ömer Halis Bıyıktay

Ömer Halis Bıyıktay (1883; Erzincan - December 25, 1939; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and a general of the Turkish Army.

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İnebolu

İnebolu is a town and district of the Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

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İsmet İnönü

Mustafa İsmet İnönü (24 September 1884 – 25 December 1973) was a Turkish general and statesman, who served as the second President of Turkey from 10 November 1938 to 27 May 1950, when his Republican People's Party was defeated in Turkey's second free elections.

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İzmir

İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.

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İzmit

İzmit, known as Nicomedia in antiquity, is a city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Kocaeli Province as well as the Metropolitan Municipality.

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Şefik Aker

Şefik Aker (1877; Kesriye (Kastoria) – 6 February 1964; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and the Turkish Army.

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Balıkesir

Balıkesir is the capital city of Balıkesir Province.

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Battle of Dumlupınar

The Battle of Dumlupınar (Μάχη του Τουμλού Μπουνάρ; Dumlupınar (Meydan) Muharebesi or Başkumandanlık Meydan Muharebesi, literally "Field Battle of the Commander-in-Chief") was the last battle in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) (part of the Turkish War of Independence).

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Battle of Kütahya–Eskişehir

The Battle of Kütahya–Eskişehir (Μάχες Κιουτάχειας-Εσκί Σεχίρ (Δορυλαίου), Kütahya-Eskişehir Muharebeleri), was fought between July 10 and July 24 (or June 27 and July 10 in the old calendar, then in use in Greece), 1921 when the Greek Army of Asia Minor defeated the Turkish troops commanded by İsmet Pasha in defence of the line of Kara Hisâr-ı Sahib (present day Afyonkarahisar)-Kütahya-Eskişehir.

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Battle of Sakarya

The Battle of Sakarya (Sakarya Meydan Muharebesi), also known as the Battle of the Sangarios (Μάχη του Σαγγάριου), was an important engagement in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), the western front of the Turkish War of Independence.

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Batumi

Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.

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Büyük Menderes River

The Büyük Menderes River (historically the Maeander or Meander, from Ancient Greek: Μαίανδρος, Maíandros; Büyük Menderes Irmağı), is a river in southwestern Turkey.

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Bilecik

Bilecik is the provincial capital of Turkey's Bilecik Province.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Blockade

A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.

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Bolsheviks

The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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Bombardment of Samsun

The Bombardment of Samsun was a naval operation carried out by the Greek Navy and the United States Navy against the Turkish town of Samsun in 1922.

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Bosporus

The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bulgarian Armed Forces

The Bulgarian Army (Българска армия) represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria.

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Bulgarians

Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.

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Bursa

Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cannon

A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.

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Car

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Cavalry

Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Charles Harington Harington

General Sir Charles Harington Harington, (31 May 1872 – 22 October 1940) was a British Army officer most noted for his service during the First World War and the Chanak Crisis.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Chrysostomos of Smyrna

Chrysostomos Kalafatis (8 January 1867 – 10 September 1922) (Χρυσόστομος Καλαφάτης), known as Saint Chrysostomos of Smyrna, Chrysostomos of Smyrna and Metropolitan Chrysostom, was the Greek Orthodox metropolitan bishop of Smyrna (Izmir) between 1910 and 1914, and again from 1919 until his death in 1922.

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Circassians

The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.

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Commander-in-chief

A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.

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Constantine I of Greece

Constantine I (Κωνσταντίνος Αʹ, Konstantínos I; – 11 January 1923) was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations

The Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations, also known as the Lausanne Convention, was an agreement between the Greek and Turkish governments signed by their representatives in Lausanne on 30 January 1923, in the aftermath of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922.

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Crete

Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Dardanelles

The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.

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David Fromkin

David Henry Fromkin (August 27, 1932 June 11, 2017) was an American author, lawyer, and historian, best known for his historical account on the Middle East, A Peace to End All Peace (1989), in which he recounts the role European powers played between 1914 and 1922 in creating the modern Middle East.

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.

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David Walder

Alan David Walder (13 November 1928 – 26 October 1978) was a British Conservative Party politician.

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Defile (geography)

In geography, a defile is a narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills.

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Dimitrios Gounaris

Dimitrios Gounaris (Patras, 5 January 1867 – Athens, 15 November 1922) was the Prime Minister of Greece from 25 February to 10 August 1915 and 26 March 1921 to 3 May 1922.

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Division (military)

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.

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East Thrace

East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.

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Eleftherios Venizelos

Eleftherios Kyriakou Venizelos (full name Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos, Ελευθέριος Κυριάκου Βενιζέλος,; 23 August 1864 – 18 March 1936) was an eminent Greek leader of the Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century remembered for his promotion of liberal-democratic policies.

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Epirus

Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.

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Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.

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Eskişehir

Eskişehir (eski "old", şehir "city"), is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. In the Byzantine era its name was Dorylaeum. The urban population of the city is 717,135 with a metropolitan population of 826,135. The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is to the west of Ankara, to the southeast of Istanbul and to the northeast of Kütahya. Known as a university town, both Eskişehir Osmangazi University and Anadolu University (which has one of the largest student enrollments in the world) are based in Eskişehir. The province covers an area of.

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Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.

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Fahrettin Altay

Fahrettin Altay (12 January 1880 – 25 October 1974) was an Ottoman-born Turkish military officer.

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Fevzi Çakmak

Mustafa Fevzi Çakmak (12 January, 1876 – 10 April 1950) was a Turkish field marshal (Mareşal) and politician.

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Field marshal

Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.

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Fighter aircraft

A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.

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First Battle of İnönü

The First Battle of İnönü (Birinci İnönü Muharebesi) took place between 6 and 11 January 1921 near İnönü in Hüdavendigâr Vilayet (present-day Eskişehir Province, Turkey) during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), also known as the western front of the larger Turkish War of Independence. This was the first battle for the Army of the Grand National Assembly that was newly built standing army (Düzenli ordu) in place of irregular troops.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franco-Turkish War

The Franco-Turkish War, known as the Cilicia Campaign (La campagne de Cilicie) in France and as the Southern Front (Güney Cephesi) of the Turkish War of Independence in Turkey, was a series of conflicts fought between France (the French Colonial Forces and the French Armenian Legion) and the Turkish National Forces (led by the Turkish provisional government after April 1920) from December 1918 to October 1921 in the aftermath of World War I. French interest in the region resulted from the Sykes-Picot Agreement and returning Armenian refugees of the Armenian Genocide back to their homes. Along with the other Allied powers, the French abandoned interest in Armenian population in favor of supporting Turkey as a buffer state from Bolshevik expansionism.

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Gemlik

Gemlik is a town and district in the Bursa Province in Turkey on the southern gulf of Armutlu Peninsula on the coast of the Sea of Marmara.

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General Staff of the Republic of Turkey

The General Staff of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Genelkurmay Başkanlığı, abbreviation: T.C. Gnkur. Bşk.lığı) presides over the Armed Forces of the Republic of Turkey, comprising the Land Forces, Navy, Air Force and Special Forces.

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Geneva

Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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George Lenczowski

George Lenczowski (pol. Jerzy Lenczowski; February 2, 1915 - February 19, 2000) was a lawyer, diplomat, scholar, and Professor of Political Science, Emeritus, at the University of California, Berkeley.

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George Pataki

George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is an American lawyer and Republican politician who served as the 53rd Governor of New York (1995–2006).

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Georgios Hatzianestis

Georgios Hatzianestis (Γεώργιος Χατζηανέστης, 3 December 1863 – 28 November 1922) was a Greek artillery and general staff officer who rose to the rank of Lieutenant General.

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Georgios Polymenakos

Georgios Polymenakos (Γεώργιος Πολυμενάκος) was a Greek Army officer who reached the rank of Lieutenant General.

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GIF

The Graphics Interchange Format, better known by its acronym GIF, is a bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the bulletin board service (BBS) provider CompuServe led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite on June 15, 1987.

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Government of the Grand National Assembly

The Government of the Grand National Assembly (Büyük Millet Meclisi Hükûmeti), commonly known as the Ankara Government (Ankara Hükûmeti), was the name given to the provisional and revolutionary Turkish government based in Ankara during the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) and during the final years of the Ottoman Empire.

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Great fire of Smyrna

The Great fire of Smyrna or the Catastrophe of Smyrna (Καταστροφή της Σμύρνης, "Smyrna Catastrophe"; 1922 İzmir Yangını, "1922 Izmir Fire"; Զմիւռնիոյ Մեծ Հրդեհ, Zmyuṙno Mets Hrdeh) destroyed much of the port city of Smyrna (modern İzmir, Turkey) in September 1922.

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Great Offensive

The Great Offensive (Büyük Taarruz) was the largest and final military operation of the Turkish War of Independence, fought between the Turkish Armed Forces loyal to the government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the Kingdom of Greece, during the Greco-Turkish War.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek Americans

Greek Americans (Ελληνοαμερικανοί, Ellinoamerikanoi) are Americans of full or partial Greek ancestry.

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Greek diaspora

The Greek diaspora, Hellenic diaspora or Omogenia (Ομογένεια) refers to the communities of Greek people living outside; Greece, Cyprus, the traditional Greek homelands, Albania, parts of the Balkans, southern Russia, Ukraine, Asia Minor, the region of Pontus, as well as Eastern Anatolia, Georgia, the South Caucasus, Egypt, Southern Italy and Cargèse in Corsica.

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Greek genocide

The Greek genocide, including the Pontic genocide, was the systematic genocide of the Christian Ottoman Greek population carried out in its historic homeland in Anatolia during World War I and its aftermath (1914–1922).

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Greek landing at Smyrna

The Greek landing at Smyrna was a military operation by Greek forces starting on May 15, 1919 which involved landing troops in the city of Smyrna and surrounding areas.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greek Orthodox Church

The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.

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Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Haymana, Ankara

Haymana is a town and district of Ankara Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, 72 km south of the capital, Ankara.

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Heavy machine gun

The heavy machine gun or HMG is a class of machine gun implying greater characteristics than general purpose or medium machine guns.

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Hellenic Army

The Hellenic Army (Ελληνικός Στρατός, Ellinikós Stratós, sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece (with Hellenic being a synonym for Greek).

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Hellenic Navy

The Hellenic Navy (HN; Πολεμικό Ναυτικό, Polemikó Naftikó, abbreviated ΠΝ) is the naval force of Greece, part of the Hellenic Armed Forces.

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History of the ambulance

The history of the ambulance begins in ancient times, with the use of carts to transport patients.

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Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.

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Imbros

Imbros or İmroz, officially changed to Gökçeada since 29 July 1970,Alexis Alexandris, "The Identity Issue of The Minorities In Greece An Turkey", in Hirschon, Renée (ed.), Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey, Berghahn Books, 2003, (older name in Turkish: İmroz; Greek: Ίμβρος Imvros), is the largest island of Turkey and the seat of Gökçeada District of Çanakkale Province.

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Infantry

Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

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International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

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Interwar period

In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.

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Ioannis Metaxas

Ioannis Metaxas (Ιωάννης Μεταξάς; 12 April 1871 – 29 January 1941) was a Greek military officer and politician, serving as Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941.

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Ionia

Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.

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Irredentism

Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to reclaim and reoccupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past.

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Islamic religious leaders

Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been people who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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James Harbord

Lieutenant General James Guthrie Harbord (March 21, 1866 – August 20, 1947) was a senior officer of the United States Army and President and Chairman of the Board of RCA.

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Karşıyaka

Karşıyaka is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey.

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Kâzım İnanç

Kâzım İnanç (1880; Diyarbakır, Diyarbekir Vilayet - 21 September 1938; Ankara) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and a general of the Turkish Army.

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Kâzım Orbay

Mehmet Kâzım Orbay (11 March 1887 – 3 June 1964) was a Turkish general and senator.

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Kütahya

Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants (2011 estimate), lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level.

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Kemalettin Sami Gökçen

Kemalettin Sami Gökçen (1884; Sinop, Kastamonu Vilayet – 15 April 1934; Berlin) was a Turkish career officer and politician.

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Kingdom of Greece

The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).

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Konstantinos Miliotis-Komninos

Konstantinos Miliotis-Komninos (Κωνσταντίνος Μηλιώτης-Κομνηνός, 1854–1941) was a Greek Army officer who rose to the rank of Lieutenant General.

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Konstantinos Nider

Konstantinos Nider (Κωνσταντίνος Νίδερ, 1865–1942) was a Greek Army officer, who rose to the rank of lieutenant general and distinguished himself during the First World War and the subsequent Asia Minor Campaign.

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Kuva-yi Milliye

Kuva-yi Milliye (Ottoman Turkish: قواي ملّيه, Kuvâ-yi Milliye meaning either National Forces or Nationalist Forces in Ottoman Turkish) refers to the irregular Turkish militia forces in the early period of the Turkish War of Independence.

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Leonidas Paraskevopoulos

Leonidas Paraskevopoulos (Λεωνίδας Παρασκευόπουλος; 7 October 1860 – 16 May 1936) was a senior Greek military officer and politician.

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Light machine gun

A light machine gun (LMG) is a machine gun designed to be employed by an individual soldier, with or without an assistant, as an infantry support weapon.

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List of conferences in London

List of conferences in London (chronological).

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List of massacres during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22)

Category:Greco-Turkish War (1919–22).

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List of Prime Ministers of Greece

This is a list of the heads of government of the modern Greek state, from its establishment during the Greek Revolution to the present day.

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Macedonia (Greece)

Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.

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Macedonia (region)

Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.

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Machine gun

A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.

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Major

Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.

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Malcolm Yapp

Malcolm Edward Yapp (born 29 May 1931) is a British historian, professor emeritus of modern history of Western Asia at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London.

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Manisa

Manisa is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province.

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Maritsa

The Maritsa, Meriç or Evros (Марица, Marica; Ἕβρος, Hébros; Έβρος, Évros; Hebrus; Romanized Thracian: Evgos or Ebros; Meriç) is, with a length of, the longest river that runs solely in the interior of the Balkans.

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Marjorie Housepian Dobkin

Marjorie Anais Housepian Dobkin (Մարջըրի Հուսեփյան-Դոբկին; November 21, 1922 - February 8, 2013) was Professor Emerita in English at Barnard College, Columbia University, New York.

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Münip Uzsoy

Münip Uzsoy (1878; Constantinople (Istanbul) – July 29, 1950; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and the Turkish Army.

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Megali Idea

The Megali Idea (Μεγάλη Ιδέα, Megáli Idéa, "Great Idea") was an irredentist concept of Greek nationalism that expressed the goal of establishing a Greek state that would encompass all historically ethnic Greek-inhabited areas, including the large Greek populations that were still under Ottoman rule after the Greek War of Independence (1830) and all the regions that traditionally belonged to Greeks in ancient times (the Southern Balkans, Anatolia and Cyprus).

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Middle Eastern theatre of World War I

The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I saw action between 29 October 1914 and 30 October 1918.

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Military

A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Military logistics

Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.

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Military organization

Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.

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Military technology

Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare.

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Military volunteer

A military volunteer is a person who enlists in military service by free will, and is not a mercenary or a foreign legionnaire.

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Mirliva

Mirliva or Mîr-i livâ was a military rank of the Ottoman Army and Navy.

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Mudanya

Mudanya (Mudania, Greek: τα Μουδανιά) (the site of ancient Apamea Myrlea), is a town and district of Bursa Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.

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Muhittin Akyüz

Muhittin Akyüz (1870 – 11 November 1940), known as Muhiddin Pasha before 1934, was a Turkish military officer and diplomat.

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Mumbai

Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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Mushir

Mushir (مشير) is an Arab word meaning "counsellor" or "advisor".

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.

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Naci Eldeniz

Ahmet Naci Eldeniz (1875 – March 20, 1948) was an officer of the Ottoman Army, a general of the Turkish Army, and a politician of the Republic of Turkey.

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Nestorianism

Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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Nihat Anılmış

Nihat Anılmış (1876; Filibe (Plovdiv) - May 31, 1954; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and a general of the Turkish Army.

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Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos

Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos (Νικόλαος Καλογερόπουλος; 23 July 1851 – 7 January 1927) was a Greek politician and briefly Prime Minister of Greece.

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Nikolaos Trikoupis

Nikolaos Trikoupis (Νικόλαος Τρικούπης; 1868–1956) was a Greek general and politician, most notable for his service in the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, where he was taken as a prisoner of war.

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Norman Naimark

Norman M. Naimark (born 1944 in New York City) is an American historian.

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Nureddin Pasha

Nureddin Ibrahim Pasha (Nurettin Paşa, Nureddin İbrahim Paşa; 1873 – 18 February 1932), known as Nureddin İbrahim Konyar after 1934 and often called Bearded Nureddin (Sakallı Nurettin), was a Turkish military officer who served in the Ottoman Army during World War I and in the Turkish Army during the Eastern Front of the Turkish War of Independence.

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Occupation of Smyrna

The Occupation of Smyrna was the military control by Greek forces of the city of Smyrna (modern-day İzmir) and surrounding areas from 15 May 1919 until 9 September 1922.

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Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.

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Ottoman Bank

The Ottoman Bank (Osmanlı Bankası) (formerly Imperial Ottoman Bank, Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane) was founded in 1856 in the Galata business section of Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, as a joint venture between British interests, the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas of France, and the Ottoman government.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.

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Partition of the Ottoman Empire

The partition of the Ottoman Empire (Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.

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PDF

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Phaeton (carriage)

A Phaeton (also Phaéton) was a form of sporty open carriage popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.

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Pontus (region)

Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.

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Population exchange between Greece and Turkey

The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.

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Prime Minister of Greece

The Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic (Πρωθυπουργός της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας, Pro̱thypourgós ti̱s Elli̱nikí̱s Di̱mokratías), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister of Greece (Πρωθυπουργός της Ελλάδας, Pro̱thypourgós ti̱s Elládas), is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.

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Rüştü Sakarya

Rüştü Sakarya (1877 in Constantinople (Istanbul) – December 2, 1951) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and the general of the Turkish Army.

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Refet Bele

Refet Bele also known as Refet Bey or Refet Pasha (1877; Salonica – October 3, 1963; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and the Turkish Army, where he retired as a general.

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Regiment

A regiment is a military unit.

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Regular army

A regular army is the official army of a state or country (the official armed forces), contrasting with irregular forces, such as volunteer irregular militias, private armies, mercenaries, etc.

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Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor

The Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor (1917–1921) was a relief organization established during World War I in response to the genocide of Greeks in the Ottoman Empire.

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Rifle

A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.

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Rize

Rize is the capital city of Rize Province in the eastern part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Rudolph Rummel

Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor of political science who taught at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaii.

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Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Sakarya River

The Sakarya (Sakarya Irmağı, translit) is the third longest river in Turkey.

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Salih Bozok

Salih Bozok (1881 – April 25, 1941) was an officer of the Ottoman Army, later the Turkish Army and a politician of the Republic of Turkey.

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Salihli

Salihli is a large town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.

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Scorched earth

A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.

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Sea of Marmara

The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.

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Second Battle of İnönü

The Second Battle of İnönü (İkinci İnönü Muharebesi) was a battle fought between March 23 and April 1, 1921 near İnönü in present-day Eskişehir Province, Turkey during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), also known as the western front of the larger Turkish War of Independence.

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Secretary of state

The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.

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Secretary of State for the Colonies

The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Sepsis

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

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Sinop, Turkey

Sinop (Σινώπη, Sinōpē, historically known as Sinope) is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey.

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Smyrna

Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.

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Sword

A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.

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Sydney Nettleton Fisher

Sydney Nettleton Fisher (August 8, 1906 – December 10, 1987) was an American historian of the Middle East.

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Taner Akçam

Altuğ Taner Akçam (born in Ardahan, Turkey, October 23, 1953) is a Turkish-German historian and sociologist.

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Türkiye İş Bankası

Türkiye İş Bankası or simply İşbank is Turkey's largest bank.

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Tenedos

Tenedos (Tenedhos) or Bozcaada (Bozcaada) is an island of Turkey in the northeastern part of the Aegean Sea.

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Terme

Terme (formerly spelled Termeh; Ancient greek: Thèrmae, Θέρμαι) is a town, the headquarters of Terme District, Samsun Province, Turkey; both are named after the Terme River.

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The Big Four (World War I)

The Big Four or The Four Nations refer to the four top Allied powers of the World War I and their leaders who met at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Scotsman

The Scotsman is a Scottish compact newspaper and daily news website headquartered in Edinburgh.

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Thessaly

Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.

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Thrace

Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.

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Timeline of the Turkish War of Independence

This chronology of the Turkish War of Independence is a timeline of events during the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923).

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Toronto Star

The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper.

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Trabzon

Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.

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Treaty of Ankara

The Ankara Agreement (or the Accord of Ankara; Franklin-Bouillon Agreement; Franco-Turkish Agreement of Ankara, Turkish: Ankara Anlaşması French: Traité d'Ankara) was signed on 20 October 1921"Ankara, Treaty of" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.

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Treaty of Lausanne

The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.

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Treaty of Moscow (1921)

The Treaty of Moscow or Treaty of Brotherhood (Moskova Antlaşması, Московский договор) was a peace treaty between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM), under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and the Russian SFSR, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, signed on 16 March 1921.

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Treaty of Sèvres

The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.

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Trench warfare

Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.

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Triple Entente

The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.

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Tumbrel

A tumbrel (alternatively tumbril) is a two-wheeled cart or wagon typically designed to be hauled by a single horse or ox.

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Turgutlu

Turgutlu, also known as Kasaba (Cassaba or Casaba) is a city and district in Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish capture of Smyrna

The Turkish capture of Smyrna (İzmir'in Kurtuluşu; Liberation of İzmir) was the final phase of the Great Offensive and last conflict of the Turkish War of Independence.

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Turkish Land Forces

The Turkish Land Forces (Türk Kara Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Army (Türk Ordusu), is the main branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.

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Turkish National Movement

The Turkish National Movement (Türk Ulusal Hareketi) encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the subsequent occupation of Constantinople and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros.

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Turkish War of Independence

The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.

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Twice A Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey

Twice A Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey (also published as Twice A Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey) is a book by Bruce Clark published in 2006 concerning the population exchange between Greece and Turkey which took place in the early 1920s, following the Treaty of Lausanne.

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Uşak

Uşak is a city in the interior part of the Aegean Region of Turkey.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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University of Michigan Press

The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.

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Venizelism

Venizelism (Βενιζελισμός) was one of the major political movements in Greece from the 1900s until the mid-1970s.

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Warship

A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.

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Western Thrace

Western Thrace (Θράκη, Thráki; Batı Trakya; Западна Тракия, Zapadna Trakiya or Беломорска Тракия, Belomorska Trakiya) is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country; Eastern Thrace, which lies east of the river Evros, forms the European part of Turkey, and the area to the north, in Bulgaria, is known as Northern Thrace.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Yalova Peninsula massacres

The Yalova Peninsula massacres were a series of massacres and ethnic cleansings during 1920–1921, the majority of which occurred during March – May 1921.

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Yusuf Izzet Pasha

Yusuf Izzet Pasha (1876 in Yozgat – April 15, 1922 in Ankara) was a general of the Ottoman Army and the Turkish Army.

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Redirects here:

Asia Minor Campaign, Asia Minor Catastrophe, Asia Minor Disaster, Asia Minor disaster, Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922), Greco-Turkish War (1919-22), Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922, Greco-Turkish War of 1919-22, Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, Greco-Turkish War of 1919–22, Greco-Turkish war (1919-1922), Greco–Turkish War (1919–1922), Greco–Turkish War of 1919–1922, Minor Asia Catastrophe, Second Greco-Turkish War, War in Asia Minor, 1919-1922.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greco-Turkish_War_(1919–1922)

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