237 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Aegean Islands, Aegean Sea, Afyonkarahisar, Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, Aide-de-camp, Aidin Vilayet, Airplane, Alaşehir, Alexander of Greece, Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Allies of World War I, Anastasios Papoulas, Anatolia, Ankara, Antalya, Araklı, Armenian Genocide, Armenians, Armistice of Mudros, Army of Asia Minor, Arnold J. Toynbee, Artillery, Athens, Attica, Aydın, Ömer Halis Bıyıktay, İnebolu, İsmet İnönü, İzmir, İzmit, Şefik Aker, Balıkesir, Battle of Dumlupınar, Battle of Kütahya–Eskişehir, Battle of Sakarya, Batumi, Büyük Menderes River, Bilecik, Black Sea, Blockade, Bolsheviks, Bombardment of Samsun, Bosporus, Bronze Age, Bulgarian Armed Forces, Bulgarians, Bursa, Byzantine Empire, Cannon, ..., Car, Cavalry, Central Powers, Charles Harington Harington, Christian, Chrysostomos of Smyrna, Circassians, Commander-in-chief, Constantine I of Greece, Constantinople, Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations, Crete, Cyprus, Dardanelles, David Fromkin, David Lloyd George, David Walder, Defile (geography), Dimitrios Gounaris, Division (military), East Thrace, Eleftherios Venizelos, Epirus, Ernest Hemingway, Eskişehir, Ethnic cleansing, Fahrettin Altay, Fevzi Çakmak, Field marshal, Fighter aircraft, First Battle of İnönü, France, Franco-Turkish War, Gemlik, General Staff of the Republic of Turkey, Geneva, George Lenczowski, George Pataki, Georgios Hatzianestis, Georgios Polymenakos, GIF, Government of the Grand National Assembly, Great fire of Smyrna, Great Offensive, Greece, Greek Americans, Greek diaspora, Greek genocide, Greek landing at Smyrna, Greek language, Greek Orthodox Church, Greeks, Hagia Sophia, Haymana, Ankara, Heavy machine gun, Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, History of the ambulance, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Imbros, Infantry, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Interwar period, Ioannis Metaxas, Ionia, Irredentism, Islamic religious leaders, Italy, James Harbord, Karşıyaka, Kâzım İnanç, Kâzım Orbay, Kütahya, Kemalettin Sami Gökçen, Kingdom of Greece, Konstantinos Miliotis-Komninos, Konstantinos Nider, Kuva-yi Milliye, Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Light machine gun, List of conferences in London, List of massacres during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), List of Prime Ministers of Greece, Macedonia (Greece), Macedonia (region), Machine gun, Major, Malcolm Yapp, Manisa, Maritsa, Marjorie Housepian Dobkin, Münip Uzsoy, Megali Idea, Middle Eastern theatre of World War I, Military, Military logistics, Military organization, Military technology, Military volunteer, Mirliva, Mudanya, Muhittin Akyüz, Mumbai, Mushir, Muslim, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Naci Eldeniz, Nestorianism, New York (state), Nihat Anılmış, Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos, Nikolaos Trikoupis, Norman Naimark, Nureddin Pasha, Occupation of Smyrna, Orthodoxy, Ottoman Bank, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turks, Partition of the Ottoman Empire, PDF, Phaeton (carriage), Pontus (region), Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, Prime Minister of Greece, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Rüştü Sakarya, Refet Bele, Regiment, Regular army, Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, Rifle, Rize, Roman Empire, Rudolph Rummel, Russian Civil War, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Sakarya River, Salih Bozok, Salihli, Scorched earth, Sea of Marmara, Second Battle of İnönü, Secretary of state, Secretary of State for the Colonies, Seljuq dynasty, Sepsis, Sinop, Turkey, Smyrna, Sword, Sydney Nettleton Fisher, Taner Akçam, Türkiye İş Bankası, Tenedos, Terme, The Big Four (World War I), The New York Times, The Scotsman, Thessaly, Thrace, Timeline of the Turkish War of Independence, Toronto Star, Trabzon, Treaty of Ankara, Treaty of Lausanne, Treaty of Moscow (1921), Treaty of Sèvres, Trench warfare, Triple Entente, Tumbrel, Turgutlu, Turkey, Turkish capture of Smyrna, Turkish Land Forces, Turkish National Movement, Turkish War of Independence, Twice A Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey, Uşak, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, University of Michigan Press, Venizelism, Warship, Western Thrace, Winston Churchill, World War I, Yalova Peninsula massacres, Yusuf Izzet Pasha. Expand index (187 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Aegean Islands (Νησιά Αιγαίου, transliterated: Nisiá Aigaíou; Ege Adaları) are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Afyonkarahisar (afyon "poppy, opium", kara "black", hisar "fortress") is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province.
The Agreement of St.-Jean-de-Maurienne was an agreement between France, Italy and Great Britain, signed at Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne on April 26, 1917, and endorsed August 18 – September 26, 1917.
An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.
The Vilayet of Aidin or Aydin (translit), also known as Vilayet of Smyrna or Izmir after its administrative centre, was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the south-west of Asia Minor, including the ancient regions of Lydia, Ionia, Caria and western Lycia.
An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.
Alaşehir, in Antiquity and the Middle Ages known as Philadelphia (Φιλαδέλφεια, i.e., "the city of him who loves his brother") is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.
Alexander (Αλέξανδρος, Aléxandros; 1 August 189325 October 1920) was King of Greece from 11 June 1917 until his death three years later, at the age of 27, from the effects of a monkey bite.
Ali Fuat Cebesoy (September 1882,Ayfer Özçelik, Ali Fuad Cepesoy, Akçağ Yayınları, 1993,, p. 1. Constantinople (Istanbul) – January 10, 1968, Istanbul) was a Turkish army officer and politician.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Anastasios Papoulas (Αναστάσιος Παπούλας; 1/13 January 1857 – 24 April 1935) was a Greek general, most notable as the Greek commander-in-chief during most of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–22.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Antalya is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.
Araklı (from Greek "Ηράκλεια" - Erakleia) is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Armistice of Mudros (Mondros Mütarekesi), concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS ''Agamemnon'' in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.
The Army of Asia Minor (Στρατιά Μικράς Ασίας) was the field army-level command controlling the Greek forces in Asia Minor (Anatolia) during the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922.
Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.
Aydın (EYE-din;; formerly named Güzelhisar), ancient Greek Tralles, is a city in and the seat of Aydın Province in Turkey's Aegean Region.
Ömer Halis Bıyıktay (1883; Erzincan - December 25, 1939; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and a general of the Turkish Army.
İnebolu is a town and district of the Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Mustafa İsmet İnönü (24 September 1884 – 25 December 1973) was a Turkish general and statesman, who served as the second President of Turkey from 10 November 1938 to 27 May 1950, when his Republican People's Party was defeated in Turkey's second free elections.
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.
İzmit, known as Nicomedia in antiquity, is a city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Kocaeli Province as well as the Metropolitan Municipality.
Şefik Aker (1877; Kesriye (Kastoria) – 6 February 1964; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and the Turkish Army.
Balıkesir is the capital city of Balıkesir Province.
The Battle of Dumlupınar (Μάχη του Τουμλού Μπουνάρ; Dumlupınar (Meydan) Muharebesi or Başkumandanlık Meydan Muharebesi, literally "Field Battle of the Commander-in-Chief") was the last battle in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) (part of the Turkish War of Independence).
The Battle of Kütahya–Eskişehir (Μάχες Κιουτάχειας-Εσκί Σεχίρ (Δορυλαίου), Kütahya-Eskişehir Muharebeleri), was fought between July 10 and July 24 (or June 27 and July 10 in the old calendar, then in use in Greece), 1921 when the Greek Army of Asia Minor defeated the Turkish troops commanded by İsmet Pasha in defence of the line of Kara Hisâr-ı Sahib (present day Afyonkarahisar)-Kütahya-Eskişehir.
The Battle of Sakarya (Sakarya Meydan Muharebesi), also known as the Battle of the Sangarios (Μάχη του Σαγγάριου), was an important engagement in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), the western front of the Turkish War of Independence.
Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.
The Büyük Menderes River (historically the Maeander or Meander, from Ancient Greek: Μαίανδρος, Maíandros; Büyük Menderes Irmağı), is a river in southwestern Turkey.
Bilecik is the provincial capital of Turkey's Bilecik Province.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Bombardment of Samsun was a naval operation carried out by the Greek Navy and the United States Navy against the Turkish town of Samsun in 1922.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Bulgarian Army (Българска армия) represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
General Sir Charles Harington Harington, (31 May 1872 – 22 October 1940) was a British Army officer most noted for his service during the First World War and the Chanak Crisis.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Chrysostomos Kalafatis (8 January 1867 – 10 September 1922) (Χρυσόστομος Καλαφάτης), known as Saint Chrysostomos of Smyrna, Chrysostomos of Smyrna and Metropolitan Chrysostom, was the Greek Orthodox metropolitan bishop of Smyrna (Izmir) between 1910 and 1914, and again from 1919 until his death in 1922.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Constantine I (Κωνσταντίνος Αʹ, Konstantínos I; – 11 January 1923) was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations, also known as the Lausanne Convention, was an agreement between the Greek and Turkish governments signed by their representatives in Lausanne on 30 January 1923, in the aftermath of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
David Henry Fromkin (August 27, 1932 June 11, 2017) was an American author, lawyer, and historian, best known for his historical account on the Middle East, A Peace to End All Peace (1989), in which he recounts the role European powers played between 1914 and 1922 in creating the modern Middle East.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
Alan David Walder (13 November 1928 – 26 October 1978) was a British Conservative Party politician.
In geography, a defile is a narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills.
Dimitrios Gounaris (Patras, 5 January 1867 – Athens, 15 November 1922) was the Prime Minister of Greece from 25 February to 10 August 1915 and 26 March 1921 to 3 May 1922.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.
Eleftherios Kyriakou Venizelos (full name Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos, Ελευθέριος Κυριάκου Βενιζέλος,; 23 August 1864 – 18 March 1936) was an eminent Greek leader of the Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century remembered for his promotion of liberal-democratic policies.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.
Eskişehir (eski "old", şehir "city"), is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. In the Byzantine era its name was Dorylaeum. The urban population of the city is 717,135 with a metropolitan population of 826,135. The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is to the west of Ankara, to the southeast of Istanbul and to the northeast of Kütahya. Known as a university town, both Eskişehir Osmangazi University and Anadolu University (which has one of the largest student enrollments in the world) are based in Eskişehir. The province covers an area of.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
Fahrettin Altay (12 January 1880 – 25 October 1974) was an Ottoman-born Turkish military officer.
Mustafa Fevzi Çakmak (12 January, 1876 – 10 April 1950) was a Turkish field marshal (Mareşal) and politician.
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
The First Battle of İnönü (Birinci İnönü Muharebesi) took place between 6 and 11 January 1921 near İnönü in Hüdavendigâr Vilayet (present-day Eskişehir Province, Turkey) during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), also known as the western front of the larger Turkish War of Independence. This was the first battle for the Army of the Grand National Assembly that was newly built standing army (Düzenli ordu) in place of irregular troops.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franco-Turkish War, known as the Cilicia Campaign (La campagne de Cilicie) in France and as the Southern Front (Güney Cephesi) of the Turkish War of Independence in Turkey, was a series of conflicts fought between France (the French Colonial Forces and the French Armenian Legion) and the Turkish National Forces (led by the Turkish provisional government after April 1920) from December 1918 to October 1921 in the aftermath of World War I. French interest in the region resulted from the Sykes-Picot Agreement and returning Armenian refugees of the Armenian Genocide back to their homes. Along with the other Allied powers, the French abandoned interest in Armenian population in favor of supporting Turkey as a buffer state from Bolshevik expansionism.
Gemlik is a town and district in the Bursa Province in Turkey on the southern gulf of Armutlu Peninsula on the coast of the Sea of Marmara.
The General Staff of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Genelkurmay Başkanlığı, abbreviation: T.C. Gnkur. Bşk.lığı) presides over the Armed Forces of the Republic of Turkey, comprising the Land Forces, Navy, Air Force and Special Forces.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
George Lenczowski (pol. Jerzy Lenczowski; February 2, 1915 - February 19, 2000) was a lawyer, diplomat, scholar, and Professor of Political Science, Emeritus, at the University of California, Berkeley.
George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is an American lawyer and Republican politician who served as the 53rd Governor of New York (1995–2006).
Georgios Hatzianestis (Γεώργιος Χατζηανέστης, 3 December 1863 – 28 November 1922) was a Greek artillery and general staff officer who rose to the rank of Lieutenant General.
Georgios Polymenakos (Γεώργιος Πολυμενάκος) was a Greek Army officer who reached the rank of Lieutenant General.
The Graphics Interchange Format, better known by its acronym GIF, is a bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the bulletin board service (BBS) provider CompuServe led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite on June 15, 1987.
The Government of the Grand National Assembly (Büyük Millet Meclisi Hükûmeti), commonly known as the Ankara Government (Ankara Hükûmeti), was the name given to the provisional and revolutionary Turkish government based in Ankara during the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) and during the final years of the Ottoman Empire.
The Great fire of Smyrna or the Catastrophe of Smyrna (Καταστροφή της Σμύρνης, "Smyrna Catastrophe"; 1922 İzmir Yangını, "1922 Izmir Fire"; Զմիւռնիոյ Մեծ Հրդեհ, Zmyuṙno Mets Hrdeh) destroyed much of the port city of Smyrna (modern İzmir, Turkey) in September 1922.
The Great Offensive (Büyük Taarruz) was the largest and final military operation of the Turkish War of Independence, fought between the Turkish Armed Forces loyal to the government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the Kingdom of Greece, during the Greco-Turkish War.
Greek Americans (Ελληνοαμερικανοί, Ellinoamerikanoi) are Americans of full or partial Greek ancestry.
The Greek diaspora, Hellenic diaspora or Omogenia (Ομογένεια) refers to the communities of Greek people living outside; Greece, Cyprus, the traditional Greek homelands, Albania, parts of the Balkans, southern Russia, Ukraine, Asia Minor, the region of Pontus, as well as Eastern Anatolia, Georgia, the South Caucasus, Egypt, Southern Italy and Cargèse in Corsica.
The Greek genocide, including the Pontic genocide, was the systematic genocide of the Christian Ottoman Greek population carried out in its historic homeland in Anatolia during World War I and its aftermath (1914–1922).
The Greek landing at Smyrna was a military operation by Greek forces starting on May 15, 1919 which involved landing troops in the city of Smyrna and surrounding areas.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.
Haymana is a town and district of Ankara Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, 72 km south of the capital, Ankara.
The heavy machine gun or HMG is a class of machine gun implying greater characteristics than general purpose or medium machine guns.
The Hellenic Army (Ελληνικός Στρατός, Ellinikós Stratós, sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece (with Hellenic being a synonym for Greek).
The Hellenic Navy (HN; Πολεμικό Ναυτικό, Polemikó Naftikó, abbreviated ΠΝ) is the naval force of Greece, part of the Hellenic Armed Forces.
The history of the ambulance begins in ancient times, with the use of carts to transport patients.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Imbros or İmroz, officially changed to Gökçeada since 29 July 1970,Alexis Alexandris, "The Identity Issue of The Minorities In Greece An Turkey", in Hirschon, Renée (ed.), Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey, Berghahn Books, 2003, (older name in Turkish: İmroz; Greek: Ίμβρος Imvros), is the largest island of Turkey and the seat of Gökçeada District of Çanakkale Province.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Ioannis Metaxas (Ιωάννης Μεταξάς; 12 April 1871 – 29 January 1941) was a Greek military officer and politician, serving as Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to reclaim and reoccupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past.
Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been people who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Lieutenant General James Guthrie Harbord (March 21, 1866 – August 20, 1947) was a senior officer of the United States Army and President and Chairman of the Board of RCA.
Karşıyaka is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey.
Kâzım İnanç (1880; Diyarbakır, Diyarbekir Vilayet - 21 September 1938; Ankara) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and a general of the Turkish Army.
Mehmet Kâzım Orbay (11 March 1887 – 3 June 1964) was a Turkish general and senator.
Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants (2011 estimate), lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level.
Kemalettin Sami Gökçen (1884; Sinop, Kastamonu Vilayet – 15 April 1934; Berlin) was a Turkish career officer and politician.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
Konstantinos Miliotis-Komninos (Κωνσταντίνος Μηλιώτης-Κομνηνός, 1854–1941) was a Greek Army officer who rose to the rank of Lieutenant General.
Konstantinos Nider (Κωνσταντίνος Νίδερ, 1865–1942) was a Greek Army officer, who rose to the rank of lieutenant general and distinguished himself during the First World War and the subsequent Asia Minor Campaign.
Kuva-yi Milliye (Ottoman Turkish: قواي ملّيه, Kuvâ-yi Milliye meaning either National Forces or Nationalist Forces in Ottoman Turkish) refers to the irregular Turkish militia forces in the early period of the Turkish War of Independence.
Leonidas Paraskevopoulos (Λεωνίδας Παρασκευόπουλος; 7 October 1860 – 16 May 1936) was a senior Greek military officer and politician.
A light machine gun (LMG) is a machine gun designed to be employed by an individual soldier, with or without an assistant, as an infantry support weapon.
List of conferences in London (chronological).
Category:Greco-Turkish War (1919–22).
This is a list of the heads of government of the modern Greek state, from its establishment during the Greek Revolution to the present day.
Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.
Malcolm Edward Yapp (born 29 May 1931) is a British historian, professor emeritus of modern history of Western Asia at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London.
Manisa is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province.
The Maritsa, Meriç or Evros (Марица, Marica; Ἕβρος, Hébros; Έβρος, Évros; Hebrus; Romanized Thracian: Evgos or Ebros; Meriç) is, with a length of, the longest river that runs solely in the interior of the Balkans.
Marjorie Anais Housepian Dobkin (Մարջըրի Հուսեփյան-Դոբկին; November 21, 1922 - February 8, 2013) was Professor Emerita in English at Barnard College, Columbia University, New York.
Münip Uzsoy (1878; Constantinople (Istanbul) – July 29, 1950; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and the Turkish Army.
The Megali Idea (Μεγάλη Ιδέα, Megáli Idéa, "Great Idea") was an irredentist concept of Greek nationalism that expressed the goal of establishing a Greek state that would encompass all historically ethnic Greek-inhabited areas, including the large Greek populations that were still under Ottoman rule after the Greek War of Independence (1830) and all the regions that traditionally belonged to Greeks in ancient times (the Southern Balkans, Anatolia and Cyprus).
The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I saw action between 29 October 1914 and 30 October 1918.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare.
A military volunteer is a person who enlists in military service by free will, and is not a mercenary or a foreign legionnaire.
Mirliva or Mîr-i livâ was a military rank of the Ottoman Army and Navy.
Mudanya (Mudania, Greek: τα Μουδανιά) (the site of ancient Apamea Myrlea), is a town and district of Bursa Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.
Muhittin Akyüz (1870 – 11 November 1940), known as Muhiddin Pasha before 1934, was a Turkish military officer and diplomat.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Mushir (مشير) is an Arab word meaning "counsellor" or "advisor".
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
Ahmet Naci Eldeniz (1875 – March 20, 1948) was an officer of the Ottoman Army, a general of the Turkish Army, and a politician of the Republic of Turkey.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
Nihat Anılmış (1876; Filibe (Plovdiv) - May 31, 1954; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and a general of the Turkish Army.
Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos (Νικόλαος Καλογερόπουλος; 23 July 1851 – 7 January 1927) was a Greek politician and briefly Prime Minister of Greece.
Nikolaos Trikoupis (Νικόλαος Τρικούπης; 1868–1956) was a Greek general and politician, most notable for his service in the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, where he was taken as a prisoner of war.
Norman M. Naimark (born 1944 in New York City) is an American historian.
Nureddin Ibrahim Pasha (Nurettin Paşa, Nureddin İbrahim Paşa; 1873 – 18 February 1932), known as Nureddin İbrahim Konyar after 1934 and often called Bearded Nureddin (Sakallı Nurettin), was a Turkish military officer who served in the Ottoman Army during World War I and in the Turkish Army during the Eastern Front of the Turkish War of Independence.
The Occupation of Smyrna was the military control by Greek forces of the city of Smyrna (modern-day İzmir) and surrounding areas from 15 May 1919 until 9 September 1922.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
The Ottoman Bank (Osmanlı Bankası) (formerly Imperial Ottoman Bank, Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane) was founded in 1856 in the Galata business section of Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, as a joint venture between British interests, the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas of France, and the Ottoman government.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The partition of the Ottoman Empire (Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A Phaeton (also Phaéton) was a form of sporty open carriage popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.
Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.
The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.
The Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic (Πρωθυπουργός της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας, Pro̱thypourgós ti̱s Elli̱nikí̱s Di̱mokratías), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister of Greece (Πρωθυπουργός της Ελλάδας, Pro̱thypourgós ti̱s Elládas), is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Rüştü Sakarya (1877 in Constantinople (Istanbul) – December 2, 1951) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and the general of the Turkish Army.
Refet Bele also known as Refet Bey or Refet Pasha (1877; Salonica – October 3, 1963; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and the Turkish Army, where he retired as a general.
A regiment is a military unit.
A regular army is the official army of a state or country (the official armed forces), contrasting with irregular forces, such as volunteer irregular militias, private armies, mercenaries, etc.
The Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor (1917–1921) was a relief organization established during World War I in response to the genocide of Greeks in the Ottoman Empire.
A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.
Rize is the capital city of Rize Province in the eastern part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor of political science who taught at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaii.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The Sakarya (Sakarya Irmağı, translit) is the third longest river in Turkey.
Salih Bozok (1881 – April 25, 1941) was an officer of the Ottoman Army, later the Turkish Army and a politician of the Republic of Turkey.
Salihli is a large town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
The Second Battle of İnönü (İkinci İnönü Muharebesi) was a battle fought between March 23 and April 1, 1921 near İnönü in present-day Eskişehir Province, Turkey during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), also known as the western front of the larger Turkish War of Independence.
The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.
The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Sinop (Σινώπη, Sinōpē, historically known as Sinope) is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
Sydney Nettleton Fisher (August 8, 1906 – December 10, 1987) was an American historian of the Middle East.
Altuğ Taner Akçam (born in Ardahan, Turkey, October 23, 1953) is a Turkish-German historian and sociologist.
Türkiye İş Bankası or simply İşbank is Turkey's largest bank.
Tenedos (Tenedhos) or Bozcaada (Bozcaada) is an island of Turkey in the northeastern part of the Aegean Sea.
Terme (formerly spelled Termeh; Ancient greek: Thèrmae, Θέρμαι) is a town, the headquarters of Terme District, Samsun Province, Turkey; both are named after the Terme River.
The Big Four or The Four Nations refer to the four top Allied powers of the World War I and their leaders who met at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Scotsman is a Scottish compact newspaper and daily news website headquartered in Edinburgh.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
This chronology of the Turkish War of Independence is a timeline of events during the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923).
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper.
Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.
The Ankara Agreement (or the Accord of Ankara; Franklin-Bouillon Agreement; Franco-Turkish Agreement of Ankara, Turkish: Ankara Anlaşması French: Traité d'Ankara) was signed on 20 October 1921"Ankara, Treaty of" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
The Treaty of Moscow or Treaty of Brotherhood (Moskova Antlaşması, Московский договор) was a peace treaty between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM), under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and the Russian SFSR, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, signed on 16 March 1921.
The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
A tumbrel (alternatively tumbril) is a two-wheeled cart or wagon typically designed to be hauled by a single horse or ox.
Turgutlu, also known as Kasaba (Cassaba or Casaba) is a city and district in Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkish capture of Smyrna (İzmir'in Kurtuluşu; Liberation of İzmir) was the final phase of the Great Offensive and last conflict of the Turkish War of Independence.
The Turkish Land Forces (Türk Kara Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Army (Türk Ordusu), is the main branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.
The Turkish National Movement (Türk Ulusal Hareketi) encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the subsequent occupation of Constantinople and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros.
The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.
Twice A Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey (also published as Twice A Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey) is a book by Bruce Clark published in 2006 concerning the population exchange between Greece and Turkey which took place in the early 1920s, following the Treaty of Lausanne.
Uşak is a city in the interior part of the Aegean Region of Turkey.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
Venizelism (Βενιζελισμός) was one of the major political movements in Greece from the 1900s until the mid-1970s.
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.
Western Thrace (Θράκη, Thráki; Batı Trakya; Западна Тракия, Zapadna Trakiya or Беломорска Тракия, Belomorska Trakiya) is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country; Eastern Thrace, which lies east of the river Evros, forms the European part of Turkey, and the area to the north, in Bulgaria, is known as Northern Thrace.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Yalova Peninsula massacres were a series of massacres and ethnic cleansings during 1920–1921, the majority of which occurred during March – May 1921.
Yusuf Izzet Pasha (1876 in Yozgat – April 15, 1922 in Ankara) was a general of the Ottoman Army and the Turkish Army.
Asia Minor Campaign, Asia Minor Catastrophe, Asia Minor Disaster, Asia Minor disaster, Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922), Greco-Turkish War (1919-22), Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922, Greco-Turkish War of 1919-22, Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, Greco-Turkish War of 1919–22, Greco-Turkish war (1919-1922), Greco–Turkish War (1919–1922), Greco–Turkish War of 1919–1922, Minor Asia Catastrophe, Second Greco-Turkish War, War in Asia Minor, 1919-1922.