370 relations: Achaea, Acrocorinth, Acropolis of Athens, Adamantios Korais, Aegean Islands, Aegean Sea, Age of Enlightenment, Agia Lavra, Agrafa, Aigio, Akkerman Convention, Albania, Albanians, Alexander I of Russia, Alexander Ypsilantis, Alexandria, Alexandros Mavrokordatos, Ali Pasha of Ioannina, Amfissa, Anastasios Karatasos, Ancient Greece, Andreas Londos, Andreas Miaoulis, Andreas Zaimis, Angelis Gatsos, Anthimos Gazis, Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece, Areopoli, Argos, Armatoloi, Armenians, Arta, Greece, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Astros, Greece, Athanasios Diakos, Athanasios Tsakalov, Athens, Attica, Austrian Empire, Balkans, Battle of Alamana, Battle of Dragashani, Battle of Gravia Inn, Battle of Karpenisi, Battle of Maniaki, Battle of Navarino, Battle of Peta, Battle of Petra, Battle of Sphacteria (1825), Battle of Vasilika, ..., Belgrade, Bey, Beylik of Tunis, Boeotia, Bourbon Restoration, Brăila, Brig, Bucharest, Bulgaria, Bulgarians, Carbonari, Central Greece, Central Macedonia, Chalkidiki, Charles Nicolas Fabvier, Charles X of France, Chios, Chios massacre, Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean (France), Concert of Europe, Conference of Poros, Congress Poland, Constantine Kanaris, Constantinople, Constantinople massacre of 1821, Corinth, Cozia Monastery, Crete, Cyclades, Cyprus, Danube, Danubian Principalities, Daskalogiannis, Demetrios Chalkokondyles, Demetrios Ypsilantis, Destruction of Psara, Dimitrios Papanikolis, Dionysios Kokkinos, Dionysios Skylosophos, Dragoman, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Edward Codrington, Edward Everett, Egypt Eyalet, Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–33), Emmanouel Pappas, Emmanouil Tombazis, Emmanuil Xanthos, Epidaurus, Epirus, Epirus (region), Eresos, Eugène Delacroix, Evzones, Expedition of Dramali, Eyalet, Fall of Constantinople, Fener, Fifth National Assembly at Nafplion, Filiki Eteria, Fire ship, Firman, First Hellenic Republic, First National Assembly at Epidaurus, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Frangokastello, Frank Abney Hastings, Freemasonry, French Revolution, Frigate, George Canning, George Finlay, George Jarvis (Philhellene), Georgios Karaiskakis, Georgios Kountouriotis, Gergeri, Germanos III of Old Patras, Giorgakis Olympios, Gramvousa, Great power, Greece, Greek Constitution of 1822, Greek Constitution of 1823, Greek local statutes, Greek National Awakening, Greek Orthodox Church, Greek raid on Alexandria (1825), Gregorian calendar, Gregory V of Constantinople, Gulf of Corinth, H. 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Achaea or Achaia, sometimes transliterated from Greek as Akhaïa (Αχαΐα Achaïa), is one of the regional units of Greece.
Acrocorinth (Ακροκόρινθος), "Upper Corinth", the acropolis of ancient Corinth, is a monolithic rock overseeing the ancient city of Corinth, Greece.
The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon.
Adamantios Korais or Koraïs (Ἀδαμάντιος Κοραῆς; Adamantius Coraes; Adamance Coray; 27 April 17486 April 1833) was a Greek scholar credited with laying the foundations of Modern Greek literature and a major figure in the Greek Enlightenment.
The Aegean Islands (Νησιά Αιγαίου, transliterated: Nisiá Aigaíou; Ege Adaları) are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agia Lavra ("Holy Lavra") is a monastery near Kalavryta, Achaea, Greece.
Agrafa (Άγραφα) is a mountainous region in Evrytania and Karditsa regional units in mainland Greece, consisting mainly of small villages.
Aigio, also written as Aeghion, Aegion, Aegio, Egio, (Αίγιο) is a town and a former municipality in Achaea, West Greece, Greece.
The Akkerman Convention was a treaty signed on October 7, 1826, between the Russian and the Ottoman Empires in the Budjak citadel of Akkerman (present-day Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Ukraine).
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexander Ypsilantis, Ypsilanti, or Alexandros Ypsilantis (Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης Alexandros Yipsilantis; Alexandru Ipsilanti; Александр Константинович Ипсиланти Aleksandr Konstantinovich Ipsilanti; 12 December 179231 January 1828), was a member of a prominent Phanariot Greek family, a prince of the Danubian Principalities, a senior officer of the Imperial Russian cavalry during the Napoleonic Wars, and a leader of the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization that coordinated the beginning of the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alexandros Mavrokordatos (Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος; February 11, 1791August 18, 1865) was a Greek statesman and member of the Mavrocordatos family of Phanariotes.
Ali Pasha (1740 – 24 January 1822), variously referred to as of Tepelena or of Janina/Yannina/Ioannina, or the Lion of Yannina, was an Ottoman Albanian ruler who served as pasha of a large part of western Rumelia, the Ottoman Empire's European territories, which was referred to as the Pashalik of Yanina.
Amfissa (Άμφισσα, also mentioned in classical sources as Amphissa) is a town in Phocis, Greece, part of the municipality of Delphi, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit.
Anastasios Karatasos (Αναστάσιος Καρατάσος; 1764 – 21 January 1830) was a Greek military commander during the Greek War of Independence was born in the village of Dovras (Δοβράς or Δορβρά), Imathia and is considered to be the most important revolutionary from Macedonia.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Andreas Londos (Ανδρέας Λόντος, 1786–1846) was a Greek military leader and politician.
Andreas Vokos, nicknamed Miaoulis (Ανδρέας "Μιαούλης" Βώκος; May 20, 1769 – June 24, 1835), was an admiral and politician who commanded Greek naval forces during the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829).
Andreas Asimakou Zaimis (Ανδρέας Ζαΐμης; 1791–1840) was a Greek freedom fighter and government leader during the Greek War of Independence.
Angelis Gatsos (Αγγελής Γάτσος; 1771–1839) was a Slavophone Greek military commander during the Greek War of Independence.
Anthimos Gazis or Gazes (Ἄνθιμος Γαζῆς, born Anastasios Gazalis, Ἀναστάσιος Γαζαλῆς; 1758 24 June 1828) was a Greek scholar, revolutionary and politician.
The Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece (Άρειος Πάγος της Ανατολικής Χέρσου Ελλάδος) was a provisional regime that existed in eastern Central Greece during the Greek War of Independence.
Areopoli (Αρεόπολη, before 1912 also: Τσίμοβα - Tsimova), known as "Χειμαύα" (from Greek "Χειμαδιών") in the regional Maniot tongue, is a town on the Mani Peninsula, Laconia, Greece.
Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
Armatoloi (Greek plural Αρματολοί; singular Armatolos, Αρματολός; also called Armatoles in English) were Christian Greek irregular soldiers, or militia, commissioned by the Ottomans to enforce the Sultan's authority within an administrative district called an Armatoliki (Greek singular Αρματολίκι; plural Armatolikia, Αρματολίκια).
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Arta (Άρτα) is a city in northwestern Greece, capital of the regional unit of Arta, which is part of Epirus region.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Astros (Greek: Άστρος or Μεσόγειο Άστρος, "Inland Astros") is a town near the Argolic Gulf in the northeast Peloponnese in eastern Arcadia.
Athanasios Diakos (Αθανάσιος Διάκος: 1788 – 24 April 1821) was a Greek military commander during the Greek War of Independence, considered a venerable national hero in Greece.
Athanasios Tsakalov (Αθανάσιος Τσακάλωφ) was a member of the Filiki Eteria ("Society of Friends"), a Greek patriotic organization against Ottoman rule.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Battle of Alamana was fought between the Greeks and the Ottoman Empire during the Greek War of Independence on April 22, 1821.
The Battle of Dragashani (or Battle of Drăgășani) was fought on 19 June 1821 in Drăgășani, Wallachia, between the Ottoman forces of Sultan Mahmud II and the Greek Filiki Etaireia insurgents.
The Battle of Gravia Inn (Μάχη στο Χάνι της Γραβιάς) was fought between Greek revolutionaries and the Ottoman Empire during the Greek War of Independence.
The Battle of Karpenisi took place near the town of Karpenisi (in Evrytania, central Greece) on the night of 8 August 1823 between units of the Greek revolutionary army and Ottoman troops.
The Battle of Maniaki was fought on May 20, 1825 in Maniaki, Greece (in the hills east of Gargalianoi) between Egyptian forces led by Ibrahim Pasha and Greek forces led by Papaflessas.
The Battle of Navarino was a naval battle fought on 20 October 1827, during the Greek War of Independence (1821–32), in Navarino Bay (modern Pylos), on the west coast of the Peloponnese peninsula, in the Ionian Sea.
The Battle of Peta or Battle of Petta was fought between the Greeks (with Philhellenes) led by Alexandros Mavrokordatos with Markos Botsaris and the Ottomans led by Omer Vrioni on July 16, 1822 (July 4 Julian calendar).
The Battle of Petra was the final battle fought in the Greek War of Independence.
The Battle of Sphacteria was fought on 8 May 1825 in Sphacteria, Greece between the Egyptian forces of Ibrahim Pasha and Greek forces led by Captain Anastasios Tsamados along with Alexandros Mavrokordatos.
The Battle of Vasilika was fought between Greek revolutionaries and the Ottoman Empire during the Greek War of Independence on August 25, 1821, near Thermopylae.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.
The Beylik of Tunis was a largely autonomous beylik of the Ottoman Empire founded on July 15, 1705, after the Husainid Dynasty led by Al-Husayn I ibn Ali at-Turki defeated the Turkish Deys, that controlled what is now Tunisia.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.
Brăila (Βράιλα; Turkish: İbrail) is a city in Muntenia, eastern Romania, a port on the Danube and the capital of Brăila County.
A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
The Carbonari (Italian for "charcoal makers") was an informal network of secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to 1831.
Continental Greece (Στερεά Ελλάδα, Stereá Elláda; formerly Χέρσος Ἑλλάς, Chérsos Ellás), colloquially known as Roúmeli (Ρούμελη), is a traditional geographic region of Greece.
Central Macedonia (Κεντρική Μακεδονία, Kentrikí Makedonía) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central part of the geographical and historical region of Macedonia.
Chalkidiki, also spelt Chalkidike, Chalcidice or Halkidiki (Χαλκιδική, Chalkidikí), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece.
Charles Nicolas Fabvier (Κάρολος Φαβιέρος) (10 December 1782 – 15 September 1855) was an ambassador, general and French member of parliament who played a distinguished role in the Greek War of Independence.
Charles X (Charles Philippe; 9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836) was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830.
Chios (Χίος, Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast.
The Chios massacre (in Η σφαγή της Χίου) was the killing of tens of thousands of Greeks on the island of Chios by Ottoman troops during the Greek War of Independence in 1822.
The French Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean, (Commandant En Chef pour la 'Mediterranée) ((C)ommandant (E)n (C)hef pour la (MED)iterranée) is commandant of the maritime arrondissement Mediterranean.
The Concert of Europe, also known as the Congress System or the Vienna System after the Congress of Vienna, was a system of dispute resolution adopted by the major conservative powers of Europe to maintain their power, oppose revolutionary movements, weaken the forces of nationalism, and uphold the balance of power.
The Conference of Poros was a meeting held in 1828 by British, French and Russian diplomats to determine the borders of independent Greece.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
Constantine Kanaris or Canaris (Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης; 1793 or 1795September 2, 1877) was a Greek Prime Minister, admiral and politician who in his youth was a freedom fighter in the Greek War of Independence.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Constantinople massacre of 1821 was orchestrated by the authorities of the Ottoman Empire against the Greek community of Constantinople (modern Istanbul) in retaliation for the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence (1821–1830).
Corinth (Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece.
Cozia Monastery, erected close to Călimănești by Mircea the Elder in 1388 and housing his tomb, is one of the most valuable monuments of national medieval art and architecture in Romania.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
The Cyclades (Κυκλάδες) are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Danubian Principalities (Principatele Dunărene, translit) was a conventional name given to the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which emerged in the early 14th century.
Ioannis Vlachos, better known as Daskalogiannis (1722/30 – June 17, 1771) was a wealthy shipbuilder and shipowner who led a Cretan revolt against Ottoman rule in the 18th century.
Demetrios Chalkokondyles (Δημήτριος Χαλκοκονδύλης), Latinized as Demetrius Chalcocondyles and found variously as Demetricocondyles, Chalcocondylas or Chalcondyles (14239 January 1511) was one of the most eminent Greek scholars in the West.
Demetrios Ypsilantis (also spelt using Dimitrios, Demetrius and/or Ypsilanti; Δημήτριος Υψηλάντης; Dumitru Ipsilanti; 1793August 16, 1832) was a member of a prominent Phanariot Greek family Ypsilantis, a dragoman of the Ottoman Empire, served as an officer in the Imperial Russian Army and played an important role in the Greek War of Independence.
The Destruction of Psara or Holocaust of Psara was an event in which the Ottomans destroyed the civilian population of the Greek island of Psara on July 5, 1824.
Dimitrios Papanikolis (Δημήτριος Παπανικολής) (1790–1855) was a naval hero of the Greek Revolution, famous for being the first to successfully employ a fireship to destroy an Ottoman ship of the line.
Dionysios Kokkinos (Greek: Διονύσιος Κόκκινος; 1884–1967) was a Greek historian and writer.
Dionysios Skylosophos (Διονύσιος ὁ Σκυλόσοφος; c. 1560–1611), "the Dog-Philosopher" or "Dogwise" ("skylosophist"), was a Greek Orthodox bishop who led two farmer revolts against the Ottoman Empire, in Thessaly (1600) and Ioannina (1611), with Spanish aid.
A dragoman was an interpreter, translator, and official guide between Turkish, Arabic, and Persian-speaking countries and polities of the Middle East and European embassies, consulates, vice-consulates and trading posts.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Sir Edward Codrington, (27 April 1770 – 28 April 1851) was a British admiral, who took part in the Battle of Trafalgar and the Battle of Navarino.
Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865) was an American politician, pastor, educator, diplomat, and orator from Massachusetts.
The Eyalet of Egypt was the result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516.
The First Egyptian-Ottoman War, First Turco-Egyptian War or First Syrian War (1831–1833) was a military conflict between the Ottoman Empire and Egypt brought about by Muhammad Ali Pasha's demand to the Sublime Porte for control of Greater Syria, as reward for aiding the Sultan during the Greek War of Independence.
Emmanouel Pappas (Εμμανουήλ Παππάς; 1772–1821) was a prominent member of Filiki Eteria and leader of the Greek War of Independence in Macedonia.
Emmanouil Tombazis (Εμμανουήλ Τομπάζης, 1784–1831) was a Greek naval captain from Hydra, active during the Greek War of Independence, who was appointed Commissioner of Crete for the Greek provisional government in 1823–1824 and naval minister for a short period in 1828.
Emmanuil Xanthos (Εμμανουήλ Ξάνθος; 1772 – November 28, 1852) was a Greek merchant.
Epidaurus (Ἐπίδαυρος, Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece, on the Argolid Peninsula at the Saronic Gulf.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
Epirus (Ήπειρος, Ípeiros), is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece.
Eresos (Ερεσός) and its twin beach village Skala Eresou are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Lesbos.
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.
The Evzones or Evzonoi (Εύζωνες, Εύζωνοι), is the name of several historical elite light infantry and mountain units of the Greek Army.
The Expedition of Dramali also known as Dramali's campaign, or Dramali's expedition, was an Ottoman military campaign led by Mahmud Dramali Pasha during the Greek War of Independence in the summer of 1822.
Eyalets (ایالت,, English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
Fener (Φανάρι) is a quarter midway up the Golden Horn within the district of Fatih in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Fifth National Assembly (Εʹ Εθνοσυνέλευση) of the Greeks convened at Argos on 5 December 1831, before relocating to Nafplion in early 1832.
Filiki Eteria or Society of Friends (Φιλική Εταιρεία or Εταιρεία των Φιλικών) was a secret 19th-century organization whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule of Greece and establish an independent Greek state.
A fire ship or fireship, used in the days of wooden rowed or sailing ships, was a ship filled with combustibles, deliberately set on fire and steered (or, when possible, allowed to drift) into an enemy fleet, in order to destroy ships, or to create panic and make the enemy break formation.
A firman (فرمان farmân), or ferman (Turkish), at the constitutional level, was a royal mandate or decree issued by a sovereign in an Islamic state, namely the Ottoman Empire.
The First Hellenic Republic (Αʹ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is a historiographical term for the provisional Greek state during the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.
The First National Assembly of Epidaurus (1821–1822) was the first meeting of the Greek National Assembly, a national representative political gathering of the Greek revolutionaries.
Francis II (Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
Frangokastello (Φραγκοκάστελλο) is the location of a castle and scattered settlement on the south coast of Crete, Greece, about 12 km.
Frank Abney Hastings (Φραγκίσκος Άστιγξ) (14 February 1794 – 1 June 1828) was a British naval officer and Philhellene.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
George Canning (11 April 17708 August 1827) was a British statesman and Tory politician who served in various senior cabinet positions under numerous Prime Ministers, before himself serving as Prime Minister for the final four months of his life.
George Finlay (Faversham, Kent, 21 December 1799 – Athens, 26 January 1875) was a Scottish historian.
George Jarvis (1797–1828) was the first American Philhellene, who took part in the Greek Revolution.
Georgios Karaiskakis (Γεώργιος Καραϊσκάκης), born Georgios Karaiskos (Γεώργιος Καραΐσκος) (January 23, 1780 or January 23, 1782 – April 23, 1827), was a famous Greek military commander and a leader of the Greek War of Independence.
Georgios Kountouriotis (Γεώργιος Κουντουριώτης) (1782–1858) was a Greek ship-owner and politician who served as prime minister from March to October 1848.
Gergeri (Γέργερη) is the seat of Rouvas municipal unit in Heraklion regional unit in the Greek island of Crete.
Germanos III of Old Patras (Παλαιών Πατρών Γερμανός Γʹ; 1771–1826), born Georgios Gotzias, was an Orthodox Metropolitan of Patras.
Giorgakis Olympios (Γιωργάκης Ολύμπιος; Iordache Olimpiotul; 1772–1821) was a Greek armatolos and military commander during the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.
Gramvousa also Grampousa (Γραμβούσα or Γραμπούσα, further names include Akra, Cavo Buso, Cavo Bouza, Garabusa and Grabusa) refers to two small uninhabited islands off the coast of a peninsula also known as Gramvousa Peninsula (Greek: Χερσόνησος Γραμβούσας) in north-western Crete in the regional unit of Chania.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Greek Constitution of 1822 was a document adopted by the First National Assembly of Epidaurus on January 1, 1822.
Greek Constitution of 1823 is the second constitutional text adopted during the Greek War of Independence, which started in 1821.
The Greek Local Statutes were the local assemblies of Greece (the Charter of the Senate of Western Continental Greece, the Legal Order of Eastern Continental Greece, the Peloponnesian Senate Organization, the Provisional Regime of Crete, and the Military-Political Organization of the Island of Samos) during the Greek War of Independence who codified certain 'proto-constitutions' ratified by local assemblies with the aim of eventually establishing a centralized Parliament under a single constitution.
The concept and term “National Awakening” (in Greek Εθνική αφύπνιση) is used by many historians, intellectuals and lay authors to refer to the revival of the Greek national self-conscious, or modern Greek nationalism, which paved the way to the Greek Revolution of 1821.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Greek raid on Alexandria was an unsuccessful attempt organized by Greek bruloteer Constantine Kanaris to destroy the Egyptian fleet at its base in Alexandria in 1825 during the Greek War of Independence.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Gregory V (Greek: Γρηγόριος Ε΄, born Γεώργιος Αγγελόπουλος, Georgios Angelopoulos), (1746 – 22 April 1821) was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1797 to 1798, from 1806 to 1808 and from 1818 to 1821.
The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf (Κορινθιακός Kόλπος, Korinthiakόs Kόlpos) is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece.
Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher H.A.L. Fisher: A History of Europe, Volume II: From the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century to 1935, Glasgow: Fontana/Collins, 1984, p. i. (21 March 1865 – 18 April 1940) was an English historian, educator, and Liberal politician.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
A hajduk is a type of peasant irregular infantry found in Central and Southeast Europe from the early 17th to mid 19th centuries.
Hatzimichalis Dalianis (Χατζημιχάλης Νταλιάνης, 1775–1828) was a commander of the Greek War of Independence (1821–1830) and revolutionary leader in Crete in 1828.
Marie Henri Daniel Gauthier, comte de Rigny (2 February 1782 – 6 November 1835) was the commander of the French squadron at the Battle of Navarino in the Greek War of Independence.
Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century.
Himara or Himarë (from Χειμάρρα, Himarra) is a bilingual region and municipality in southern Albania, part of Vlorë County.
The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.
HMS Asia was an 84-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 19 January 1824 at Bombay Dockyard.
The Holy Alliance (Heilige Allianz; Священный союз, Svyashchennyy soyuz; also called the Grand Alliance) was a coalition created by the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria and Prussia.
Hurşid Ahmed Pasha (died 30 November 1822) was an Ottoman general and Grand Vizier during the early 19th century.
Hydra (Ύδρα, pronounced in modern Greek) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece, located in the Aegean Sea between the Saronic Gulf and the Argolic Gulf.
Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the second-largest city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Iași County.
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Ioannina (Ιωάννινα), often called Yannena (Γιάννενα) within Greece, is the capital and largest city of the Ioannina regional unit and of Epirus, an administrative region in north-western Greece.
Count Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias (10 or 11 February 1776 – 9 October 1831), sometimes anglicized as John Capodistrias (Κόμης Ιωάννης Αντώνιος Καποδίστριας Komis Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias; граф Иоанн Каподистрия Graf Ioann Kapodistriya; Giovanni Antonio Capodistria Conte Capo d'Istria), was a Greek statesman who served as the Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire and was one of the most distinguished politicians and diplomats of Europe.
Ioannis Kolettis (1773 – 1847) was a Greek politician who played a significant role in Greek affairs from the Greek War of Independence through the early years of the Greek Kingdom, including as Minister to France and serving twice as Prime Minister.
Ioannis Theodorakopoulos (Ἰωάννης Θεοδωρακόπουλος; 28 February 1900, Vassaras, Lakonia – 20 February 1981, Athens) was a Greek philosopher.
The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece.
Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to reclaim and reoccupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past.
Jean-François-Maxime Raybaud (June 19, 1795 La Colle-sur-Loup, – January 1, 1894 La Colle-sur-Loup, Alpes-Maritimes) was a French philhellene officer and writer, and a participant in the War of Independence of Greece.
Jean-Pierre Boyer (possibly 15 February 1776 – 9 July 1850) was one of the leaders of the Haitian Revolution, and President of Haiti from 1818 to 1843.
The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.
The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution (révolution de Juillet), Third French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French ("Three Glorious "), led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848.
Kalamata (Καλαμάτα Kalamáta) is the second most populous city of the Peloponnese peninsula, after Patras, in southern Greece and the largest city of the homonymous administrative region.
Kalavryta (Καλάβρυτα) is a town and a municipality in the mountainous east-central part of the regional unit of Achaea, Greece.
The Kapudan Pasha (قپودان پاشا, modern Turkish: Kaptan Paşa), was the Grand Admiral of the navy of the Ottoman Empire.
Hellenic sloop-of-war Kartería (Καρτερία; Greek for "Perseverance") was the first steam-powered warship to be used in combat operations in history.
Kασος (also Kassos, Kασος) is a Greek island municipality in the Dodecanese.
Kassandra (Κασσάνδρα) or Kassandra Peninsula (Χερσόνησος Κασσάνδρας) is a peninsula and a municipality in Chalkidiki, Greece.
Kastania (Καστανιά) is a village in Pieria, Greece.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
Kissamos (Κίσσαμος) is a town and municipality, multiple (former) bishopric and Latin titular see in the west of the island of Crete, Greece.
Kitsos Tzavelas (Κίτσος Τζαβέλας; 1800–1855) was a Greek fighter in the Greek War of Independence and later Greek Army General and Prime Minister of Greece.
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who was one of the most important of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
Klephts (Greek κλέφτης, kléftis, pl. κλέφτες, kléftes, which means "thief" and perhaps originally meant just "brigand": "Other Greeks, taking to the mountains, became unofficial, self-appointed armatoles and were known as klephts (from the Greek kleptes, "brigand").") were highwaymen turned self-appointed armatoloi, anti-Ottoman insurgents, and warlike mountain-folk who lived in the countryside when Greece was a part of the Ottoman Empire.
Mehmed Hüsrev Pasha (also known as Koca Hüsrev Pasha; sometimes known in Western sources as just Husrev Pasha or Khosrew Pasha;Inalcık, Halil. Trans. by Gibb, H.A.R. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Ed., Vol. V, Fascicules 79-80, pp. 35 f. "". E.J. Brill (Leiden), 1979. Accessed 13 Sept 2011. 1769–1855) was an Ottoman Kapudan Pasha ("Grand Admiral") of the Ottoman Navy and statesman who reached the position of Grand Vizier rather late in his career, between 2 July 1839 and 8 June 1840 in the reign of Abdülmecid I. However, during the 1820s, he occupied key administrative roles in the fight against regional warlords, the reformation of the army, and the reformation of Turkish attire.
Kolindros (Κολινδρός) is a town and a former municipality in Pieria regional unit, Greece.
Konstantinos Despotopoulos (Κωνσταντίνος Δεσποτόπουλος; 8 February 1913 – 7 February 2016) was a Greek philosopher and intellectual who became a university professor and the Minister of National Education and Religious Affairs of Greece.
Kozani (Κοζάνη) is a city in northern Greece, capital of Kozani regional unit and of West Macedonia region.
Kranidi (Κρανίδι, Katharevousa: Κρανίδιον) is a town and a former municipality in Argolis, Peloponnese, Greece.
Archbishop Kyprianos of Cyprus (Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κύπρου Κυπριανός) was the head of the Cypriot Orthodox Church in the early 19th century at the time that the Greek War of Independence broke out.
Laconia (Λακωνία, Lakonía), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a region in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.
Lambros Katsonis (Λάμπρος Κατσώνης; Ламброс Кацонис; 1752–1804) was a Greek revolutionary hero of the 18th century; he was also a knight of the Russian Empire and an officer with the rank of colonel in the Imperial Russian Army (or Navy), decorated with an Order of St. George, IV class medal.
This is a list of languages spoken in regions ruled by Balkan countries.
Larnaca (Λάρνακα; Larnaka or İskele) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and the capital of the eponymous district.
Leonardos Philaras (c. 1595 – 1673) (Greek: Λεονάρδος Φιλαρᾶς, Leonardos Filaras, French: Leonard Philara also known as Villeret, Villare) was a Greek Athenian scholar, politician, diplomat and advisor to the French court.
Leopold I (Léopold Ier; German and Leopold I; 16 December 1790 – 10 December 1865) was a German prince who became the first King of the Belgians following the country's independence in 1830.
The first ambassador from England to the Ottoman Empire or Porte was appointed in 1583 under the reign of Elizabeth I.
This is a List of rulers of Moldavia, from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality, to form the modern-day state of Romania.
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.
Livadeia (Λιβαδειά Livadiá,; Ancient Greek: Λεβάδεια, Lebadeia) is a town in central Greece.
Imperial Count Lodewijk Sigismund Vincent Gustaaf van Heiden (Ло́гин Петро́вич Ге́йден; transliterated Russian name: Login Petrovich Geiden) (6 September 1772 – 17 October 1850) was a Dutch Admiral who commanded a squadron of the Imperial Russian Navy in the Battle of Navarino (1827).
The London Conference of 1832 was an international conference convened to establish a stable government in Greece.
The London Philhellenic Committee (1823–1826) was a Philhellenic group established to support the Greek War of Independence from Ottoman rule by raising funds by subscription for military supplies to Greece and by raising a major loan to stabilize the fledgling Greek government.
The London Protocol of 22 March 1829 was an agreement between the three Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia), which amended the first London Protocol on the creation of an internally autonomous, but tributary Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty.
The London Protocol of 3 February 1830 was an agreement between the three Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia), which amended the decisions of the 1829 protocol and established Greece as an independent, sovereign state.
On 30 August 1832, a London Protocol was signed to ratify and reiterate the terms of the Treaty of Constantinople.
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.
Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.
Dramalı Mahmud Pasha,(Μαχμούτ πασάς Δράμαλης, c. 1770 Istanbul - Corinth, 26 October 1822) was an Ottoman statesman and military leader.
Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
Mani | conventional_long_name.
The Maniots or Maniates (Μανιάτες) are the inhabitants of the Mani Peninsula, Laconia, in the southern Peloponnese, Greece.
Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.
Markos Botsaris (Μάρκος Μπότσαρης, c. 1788 – 21 August 1823) was a Greek general and hero of the Greek War of Independence and captain of the Souliotes.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers was an independent academic publishing company dating back to the nineteenth century, which is now an imprint of Brill Publishers.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).
The Mavromichalis (Μαυρομιχάλης) family is a prominent clan from Mani Peninsula, which played a major role in modern Greek history.
The British Mediterranean Fleet also known as the Mediterranean Station was part of the Royal Navy.
The Megali Idea (Μεγάλη Ιδέα, Megáli Idéa, "Great Idea") was an irredentist concept of Greek nationalism that expressed the goal of establishing a Greek state that would encompass all historically ethnic Greek-inhabited areas, including the large Greek populations that were still under Ottoman rule after the Greek War of Independence (1830) and all the regions that traditionally belonged to Greeks in ancient times (the Southern Balkans, Anatolia and Cyprus).
Messenia (Μεσσηνία Messinia) is a regional unit (perifereiaki enotita) in the southwestern part of the Peloponnese region, in Greece.
Methoni (Μεθώνη, Modone, Modon) is a village and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Michael Soutzos (Constantinople, 1778 or 1784 – Athens, 12 June 1864), was a member of the Soutzos family of Phanariotes, he was the nephew of Michael Drakos Soutzos; he was in turn a Prince of Moldavia, between 12 June 1819 and 29 March 1821.
Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States.
In the Ottoman Empire, a millet was a separate court of law pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own laws.
This is a list of foreign ministers of Tsardom of Russia, Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation.
Missolonghi (Μεσολόγγι, Mesolongi) is a municipality of 34,416 people (according to the 2011 census) in western Greece.
The Modern Greek Enlightenment (Διαφωτισμός, Diafotismos, "enlightenment," "illumination") was the Greek expression of the Age of Enlightenment.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
The monarchy of Belgium is a constitutional, hereditary, and popular monarchy whose incumbent is titled the King or Queen of the Belgians (Koning(in) der Belgen, Roi / Reine des Belges, König(in) der Belgier) and serves as the country's head of state.
Monemvasia (Μονεμβασία) is a town and a municipality in Laconia, Greece.
The Morea (Μορέας or Μοριάς, Moreja, Morée, Morea, Mora) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
The Morea expedition (Expédition de Morée) is the name given in France to the land intervention of the French Army in the Peloponnese (at the time often still known by its medieval name, Morea) between 1828 and 1833, at the time of the Greek War of Independence.
The Morean War (Guerra di Morea) is the better-known name for the Sixth Ottoman–Venetian War.
Mount Athos (Άθως, Áthos) is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism.
Mount Olympus (Όλυμπος Olympos, for Modern Greek also transliterated Olimbos, or) is the highest mountain in Greece.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
The Municipality of Thessaloniki (Δήμος Θεσσαλονίκης) is the second largest municipality by population in Greece after the Municipality of Athens.
Murad II (June 1404 – 3 February 1451) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451.
Mustafa Naili Pasha (Mustafa Naili Paşa or Giritli Mustafa Naili Paşa, literally "Mustafa Naili Pasha the Cretan"; 1798–1871) was an Ottoman statesman who held the office of grand vizier twice during the reign of Abdülmecid I, the first time between 14 May 1853 and 29 May 1854, and the second time between 6 August 1857 and 22 October 1857.
Mustafa Pasha Bushatli (Mustafa Paşa Buşatlı, 1797 – May 27, 1860), called Işkodralı ("from Scutari"), was an Ottoman statesman, the last hereditary governor of the sanjak of Scutari.
Nafplio (Ναύπλιο, Nauplio or Nauplion in Italian and other Western European languages) is a seaport town in the Peloponnese in Greece that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf.
Naousa (Νάουσα, historically Νάουσσα - Naoussa), officially The Heroic City of Naousa is a city in the Imathia regional unit of Macedonia, Greece with a population of 21,139 (2016).
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.
The Navarino massacre was one of a series of massacres that occurred following the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence, which resulted in the extermination of the Turkish civilian population previously inhabiting the region.
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
Nicolas Astrinidis (Greek: Νίκος Αστρινίδης; Cetatea Albă, 6 May 1921– Thessaloniki, 10 December 2010) was a Romanian-born Greek composer, pianist, conductor, and educator, known for his large-scale symphonic oratorios St.
Nicolas Joseph Maison, 1er Marquis Maison (19 December 1771 – 13 February 1840) was a Marshal of France and Minister of War.
Nikitaras (Νικηταράς) was the nom de guerre of Nikitas Stamatelopoulos (Νικήτας Σταματελόπουλος) (c. 17841849), a Greek revolutionary in the Greek War of Independence.
Nikolaos Skoufas (Νικόλαος Σκουφάς; 1779 – July 31, 1818) was a founding member of the Filiki Eteria ("Society of Friends"), a Greek conspiratorial organization against the Ottoman Empire.
The North Aegean (Περιφέρεια Βορείου Αιγαίου) is one of the thirteen regions of Greece.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Odysseas Androutsos (also Odysseus Androutsos; Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος; 1788–1825) was a hero of the Greek War of Independence.
Oltenia (also called Lesser Wallachia in antiquated versions, with the alternate Latin names Wallachia Minor, Wallachia Alutana, Wallachia Caesarea between 1718 and 1739) is a historical province and geographical region of Romania in western Wallachia.
Omer Vrioni was a leading Ottoman figure in the Greek War of Independence.
The Orlov revolt (Ορλωφικά, Ορλοφικά, Ορλώφεια) was a Greek uprising in the Peloponnese and later also in Crete that broke out in February 1770, following the arrival of Russian Admiral Alexey Orlov, commander of the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), to the Mani Peninsula.
Otto (Óthon; 1 June 1815 – 26 July 1867) was a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London.
The regency of Algiers' (in Arabic: Al Jazâ'ir), was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The 1770 Ottoman Invasion of Mani was one of a series of invasions by the Ottomans to subdue the Maniots.
The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.
The coastal region of what is today Libya was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania (ایالت طرابلس غرب Eyālet-i Trâblus Gârb) or Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary from 1551 to 1864 and as the Vilayet of Tripolitania (ولايت طرابلس غرب Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârb) from 1864 to 1911.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani was a campaign during the Greek War of Independence that consisted of three battles.
Panagiotis Karatzas (Παναγιώτης Καρατζάς; 17th century – 1824) was a Greek revolutionary leader in Patras during the Greek Revolution of 1821.
Panagiotis Zographos was a Greek painter who worked from 1836 to 1839 with his two sons to produce several scenes from the Greek battle for independence against the Turks.
Papaflessas (1788–1825), born Georgios Dimitrios Dikaios (Γεώργιος Δημητρίου Δικαίος), was a Greek patriot, priest, and government official of the old Dikaios- Flessas Family.
Patras (Πάτρα, Classical Greek and Katharevousa: Πάτραι (pl.),, Patrae (pl.)) is Greece's third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese, west of Athens.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.
Petalidi (Πεταλίδι) is a village and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Petros Mavromichalis (1765–1848), also known as Petrobey, was the leader of the Maniot people during the first half of the 19th century.
Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Φαναριώτες, Fanarioți, Fenerliler) were members of prominent Greek families in PhanarEncyclopædia Britannica,Phanariote, 2008, O.Ed.
Philhellenism ("the love of Greek culture") and philhellene ("the admirer of Greeks and everything Greek"), from the Greek φίλος philos "friend, lover" and ἑλληνισμός hellenism "Greek", was an intellectual fashion prominent mostly at the turn of the 19th century.
Phocis (Φωκίδα,, Φωκίς) is one of the regional units of Greece.
The phoenix (φοίνιξ, foinix) was the first currency of the modern Greek state.
Pieria (Πιερία) is one of the regional units of Greece located in the southern part of the Region of Central Macedonia, within the historical province of Macedonia.
Polygyros (Greek: Πολύγυρος) is a town and municipality in Central Macedonia, Greece.
Poros (Πόρος) is a small Greek island-pair in the southern part of the Saronic Gulf, about (31 nautical miles) south from Piraeus and separated from the Peloponnese by a wide sea channel, with the town of Galatas on the mainland across the strait.
The Propylaea (German:Propyläen) is a city gate in Munich at the west side of Königsplatz.
The Protocol of St Petersburg was an 1826 Anglo-Russian agreement for the settlement of the Greek War of Independence.
The Prut (also spelled in English as Pruth;, Прут) is a long river in Eastern Europe.
The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, erupted as a consequence of the defeat of Sweden by the Russian Empire in the Battle of Poltava and the escape of the wounded Charles XII of Sweden and his large retinue to the Ottoman-held fortress of Bender.
Psara (Ψαρά, Psará,; formerly known as Ψύρα, Psyra, or Ψυρίη, Psyriī) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea.
Pylos ((Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. Greece Ministry of Interior It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2. Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site. Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.
Pyrgos Dirou (Greek: Πύργος Διρού) is a town in Mani, Laconia, Greece.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
A rayah or reaya (from ra`aya, a plural of رعيّة ra`iya "flock, subject", also spelled raya, raja, raiah, re'aya; Ottoman Turkish رعايا; Modern Turkish râya or reaya) was a member of the tax-paying lower class of Ottoman society, in contrast to the askeri (upper class) and kul (slaves).
Râmnicu Vâlcea (also spelled Rîmnicu Vîlcea) (population: 92,573) is the capital city of Vâlcea County, Romania (in the historical province of Oltenia).
Reşid Mehmed Pasha, also known as Kütahı (Μεχμέτ Ρεσίτ πασάς Κιουταχής, 1780–1836), was a prominent Ottoman statesman and general who reached the post of Grand Vizier in the first half of the 19th century, playing an important role in the Greek War of Independence.
Rentina (Ρεντίνα) is a village and a former municipality in the Thessaloniki regional unit, Greece.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Revolutions of 1820 were a revolutionary wave in Europe.
Sir Richard Church CB, GCH (23 February 1784 – 20 March 1873),For the date of death see relevant Section of the article explaining the discrepancy of sources was an Irish military officer in the British Army and commander of the Greek forces during the last stages of the Greek War of Independence after 1827.
Rigas Feraios (Ρήγας Φεραίος, or Rhegas Pheraeos) or Velestinlis (Βελεστινλής, or Velestinles)); 1757 – 24 June 1798) was a Greek writer, political thinker and revolutionary, active in the Modern Greek Enlightenment, remembered as a Greek national hero, a victim of the Balkan uprising against the Ottoman Empire and a pioneer of the Greek War of Independence.
The Rio Castle (κάστρο του Ρίου or Καστέλι της Πάτρας) is located at the north tip of the Rio peninsula in Achaea, Greece, at the entrance of the Corinthian Gulf.
Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry, (18 June 1769 – 12 August 1822), usually known as Lord Castlereagh, which is derived from his courtesy title Viscount Castlereagh,The name Castlereagh derives from the baronies of Castlereagh (or Castellrioughe) and Ards, in which the manors of Newtownards and Comber were located.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved an unsuccessful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to the Russian Empire in the course of the previous Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774).
The Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greek War of Independence.
The Sacred Band (Greek: Ἱερὸς Λόχος) was a military force founded by Alexander Ypsilantis at the beginning of the Greek War of Independence, in the middle of March 1821 in Wallachia, now part of Romania.
Samos (Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait.
Samuel Gridley Howe (November 10, 1801 – January 9, 1876) was a nineteenth century United States physician, abolitionist, and an advocate of education for the blind.
The Saronic Islands or Argo-Saronic Islands is an archipelago in Greece, named after the Saronic Gulf in which they are located, just off the Greek mainland.
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was an Ernestine duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consisting of territories in the present-day states of Bavaria and Thuringia in Germany.
Scarlat Callimachi (Istanbul, 1773 – December 12, 1821, Bolu) was Grand Dragoman of the Sublime Porte 1801–1806, Prince of Moldavia between August 24, 1806 – October 26, 1806, August 4, 1807 – June 13, 1810, September 17, 1812 – June 1819 and Prince of Wallachia between February 1821 – June 1821.
The Second National Assembly at Astros (Βʹ Εθνοσυνέλευση στο Άστρος) was the second Greek National Assembly, a national representative body of the Greeks who had rebelled against the Ottoman Empire.
The Second Siege of Missolonghi was a second attempt by Ottoman forces to capture the strategically located port town of Missolonghi during the third year of the Greek War of Independence (1823).
The Senate of Western Continental Greece (Γερουσία της Δυτικής Χέρσου Ελλάδος) was a provisional regime that existed in western Central Greece during the early stages of the Greek War of Independence.
Serasker, or seraskier (سرعسكر), is a title formerly used in the Ottoman Empire for a vizier who commanded an army.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Serres (Περιφερειακή ενότητα Σερρών) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Sfakiá (Σφακιά) is a mountainous area in the southwestern part of the island of Crete, in the Chania regional unit.
A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside firepower to bear.
Siatista (Σιάτιστα) is a town and a former municipality in Kozani regional unit, West Macedonia, Greece.
The Siege of the Acropolis in 1826–1827 during the Greek War of Independence involved the siege of the Acropolis of Athens, the last fortress still held by the Greek rebels in Central Greece, by the forces of the Ottoman Empire.
The Siege of Tripolitsa or the Fall of Tripolitsa (Άλωση της Τριπολιτσάς, Álosi tis Tripolitsás,; Tripoliçe Katliamı) to revolutionary Greek forces in the summer of 1821 marked an early victory in the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire, which had begun earlier in that year.
Sithonia (Σιθωνία), also known as Longos, is a peninsula of Chalkidiki, which itself is located on a larger peninsula within Greece.
Skiathos (Σκιάθος, Skiáthos,; Ancient Greek: Σκίαθος, Skíathos; Latin forms: Sciathos and Sciathus) is a small Greek island in the northwest Aegean Sea.
Skopelos (Σκόπελος) is a Greek island in the western Aegean Sea.
Skyros (Greek: Σκύρος) is an island in Greece, the southernmost of the Sporades, an archipelago in the Aegean Sea.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
Souda Bay is a bay and natural harbour near the town of Souda on the northwest coast of the Greek island of Crete.
The Souliotes were an Orthodox Christian community of the area of Souli, in Epirus, known for their military prowess, their resistance to the local Ottoman ruler Ali Pasha, and their contribution to the Greek cause in the Greek War of Independence, under leaders such as Markos Botsaris and Kitsos Tzavelas.
The Spercheios (Sperkheiós), also known as the Spercheus from its Latin name, is a river in Phthiotis in central Greece.
Spetses (Modern Greek: Σπέτσες, Katharevousa: Σπέτσαι, Spetsai, Ancient: Πιτυούσσα, "Pityoussa") is an affluent island and a municipality in the Islands regional unit, Attica, Greece.
Sphacteria (Σφακτηρία - Sfaktiria, in 19th century context also Sphagia) is a small island at the entrance to the bay of Pylos in the Peloponnese, Greece.
The (Northern) Sporades (Βόρειες Σποράδες) are an archipelago along the east coast of Greece, northeast of the island of Euboea,"Skyros - Britannica Concise" (description), Britannica Concise, 2006, webpage: notes "including Skiathos, Skopelos, Skyros, and Alonnisos." in the Aegean Sea.
Stomio (Στόμιο) is a village and a community of the Agia municipality.
Stratford Canning, 1st Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe, (4 November 1786 – 14 August 1880) was a British diplomat and politician, best known as the longtime British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire.
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Te Deum (also known as Ambrosian Hymn or A Song of the Church) is an early Christian hymn of praise.
Thasos or Thassos (Θάσος) is a Greek island, geographically part of the North Aegean Sea, but administratively part of the Kavala regional unit.
The Massacre at Chios (Scène des massacres de Scio) is the second major oil painting by the French artist Eugène Delacroix.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Theodoros Kolokotronis (Θεόδωρος Κολοκοτρώνης; 3 April 1770 – 4 February 1843) was a Greek general and the pre-eminent leader of the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829) against the Ottoman Empire.
Theodoros Negris (Θεόδωρος Νέγρης, Constantinople, 1790 – Nafplio, 22 November 1824) was a Greek politician.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
The Third Siege of Missolonghi (Τρίτη Πολιορκία του Μεσσολογίου, often erroneously referred to as the Second Siege) was fought in the Greek War of Independence, between the Ottoman Empire and the Greek rebels, from 15 April 1825 to 10 April 1826.
Major-General Thomas Gordon (1788 – 20 April 1841) was a British army officer and historian.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Τreaty of Constantinople was the product of the Constantinople Conference which opened in February 1832 with the participation of the Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia) on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other.
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca (today Kaynardzha, Bulgaria) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of London was signed by the United Kingdom, France, and Russia on 6 July 1827.
Mănăstirea Trei Ierarhi (Monastery of the Three Hierarchs) is a seventeenth-century monastery located in Iaşi, Romania.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
Tripoli (Τρίπολη, Trípoli, formerly Τρίπολις, Trípolis; earlier Τριπολιτσά Tripolitsá) is a city in the central part of the Peloponnese, in Greece.
Tudor Vladimirescu (c. 1780 –) was a Romanian revolutionary hero, the leader of the Wallachian uprising of 1821 and of the Pandur militia.
The Unification of Hispaniola was a forceful annexation of briefly independent Republic of Spanish Haiti (formerly Santo Domingo) into the Republic of Haiti, that lasted twenty-two years, from 9 February 1822 to 27 February 1844.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.
Vasilis Michaelides (Βασίλης Μιχαηλίδης, before 1853–18 December 1917) is considered by many and often referred to as the national poet of Cyprus.
The Vermio Mountains (Βέρμιο), the ancient Bermion (Βέρμιον), is a mountain range in northern Greece.
Volos (Βόλος) is a coastal port city in Thessaly situated midway on the Greek mainland, about north of Athens and south of Thessaloniki.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
The uprising of 1821 was a social and political rebellion in Wallachia, which was at the time a tributary state of the Ottoman Empire.
A war of independence or independence war is a conflict occurring over a territory that has declared independence.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Western Macedonia (Δυτική Μακεδονία, Dytiki Makedonía) is one of the thirteen regions of Greece, consisting of the western part of Greek Macedonia.
Yannis Gouras (Γιάννης Γκούρας, 1771–1826) was a Greek military leader during the Greek War of Independence.
Yannis Makriyannis (Γιάννης or Ιωάννης Μακρυγιάννης, Giánnēs or Iōánnīs Makrygiánnīs; 1797–1864), born Ioannis Triantaphyllos (Ιωάννης Τριαντάφυλλος, Iōánnēs Triantáfyllos), was a Greek merchant, military officer, politician and author, best known today for his Memoirs.
Yiannis Pharmakis or Ioannis Farmakis (Ιωάννης Φαρμάκης) (1772–1821), born in Vlasti, Macedonia (Greece), was a Greek revolutionary leader of the Greek War of Independence, active in Wallachia and Moldavia.
Zafeirakis Theodosiou (Ζαφειράκης Θεοδοσίου) (1772 - 1822) was a Greek prokritos (πρόκριτος), meaning political leader of Greeks during Ottoman rule, of Naousa, Imathia and an important figure of the Greek War of Independence in the region of Macedonia.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
1821 Revolution, 1821 revolution, Elliniki Epanastasi, Greek Independence, Greek Liberation War, Greek Rebellion, Greek Revolt, Greek Revolution, Greek Revolution of 1821, Greek Uprising, Greek War for Independence, Greek independence, Greek insurrection, Greek revolution, Greek war of independence, Hellenic Revolution, Independence of Greece, Revolutionary Greece, War of Greek Independence, War of the Greek Revolution, Wars of the Greek Revolution, Yunan İsyanı, Ελληνική Επανάσταση, يونان عصياني.