234 relations: Abjad, Acute accent, Afghanistan, ALA-LC romanization, Albanian alphabet, Albanian language, Aleph, Alpha, Alpha Centauri, Alphabet, Alphabets of Asia Minor, Americanist phonetic notation, Ancient Greek, Ancient Macedonian language, Arabic, Aramaic language, Archaic Greek alphabets, Arkhyz, Armenian alphabet, Aromanian language, Arvanitika, Ascender (typography), Athens, Ayin, ß, Back vowel, Bactrian language, Balkan Gagauz Turkish, Bet (letter), Beta, Bible, Bitola, Book hand, Boustrophedon, Breve, Bulgarian language, C, Centaurus, Chi (letter), Circumflex, Code page 437, Code page 860, Code page 861, Code page 862, Code page 863, Code page 865, Combining character, Comma, Compound (linguistics), Constellation, ..., Coptic alphabet, Coptic language, Currency Symbols (Unicode block), Cursive, Cypriot Greek, Cyrillic alphabets, Cyrillic script, Dalet, Delta (letter), Demotic (Egyptian), Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Dialectology, Digamma, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Eastern Orthodox Church, Egypt, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Epigraphy, Eponymous archon, Epsilon, Eta, Etruscan language, Euboea, Eucleides, ɪ, Fraternities and sororities, Fraternity, Fricative consonant, Gagauz language, Gamma, Gaulish language, Gemination, Georgian scripts, Gheg Albanian, Gimel, Glagolitic script, Glottal stop, Gothic alphabet, Gothic language, Grave accent, Greco-Iberian alphabet, Greek Dark Ages, Greek diacritics, Greek drachma, Greek language, Greek letters used in mathematics, science, and engineering, Greek ligatures, Greek minuscule, He (letter), Hebrew language, Hellenistic period, Heta, Heth, Hexapla, Hiatus (linguistics), Iberian language, IBM, International Organization for Standardization, International Phonetic Alphabet, Intervocalic consonant, Ionia, Ionic Greek, Iota, Iota subscript, Iranian languages, ISO 843, ISO/IEC 8859-7, Judaeo-Spanish, Kaph, Kappa, Karamanli Turkish, Karamanlides, Koppa (letter), Kushan Empire, Lambda, Lamedh, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Letter case, Letterlike Symbols, Limit (mathematics), Linear B, Lydian language, Macedonian language, Macron (diacritic), Makuria, Mathematics, Mem, Meroitic alphabet, Modern Greek, Modern history, Moscopole, Mu (letter), Mycenaean Greece, Mycenaean Greek, Near-close back rounded vowel, Near-close front unrounded vowel, Nu (letter), Numero sign, Nun (letter), Ogg, Old Church Slavonic, Old Italic script, Old Nubian language, Omega, Omicron, Open back unrounded vowel, Open-mid front unrounded vowel, Ordinal indicator, Origen, Ossetian language, Palamedes (mythology), Palatal lateral approximant, Paleo-Balkan languages, Papyrus, Pe (letter), Pharyngeal consonant, Phi, Phi Beta Kappa, Philology, Phoenician alphabet, Phrygian language, Physics, Pi, Pi (letter), Pitch-accent language, Pomak language, Pronunciation of Ancient Greek in teaching, Proto-Sinaitic script, Psi (letter), Qoph, Renaissance, Resh, Rho, Romanian language, Rough breathing, Samekh, Sampi, San (letter), Science, Semitic languages, Serif, Shin (letter), Sho (letter), Sigma, Silent letter, Smooth breathing, South Slavic languages, Spanish language, Standard deviation, Stress (linguistics), Summation, Tau, Taw, Teth, Theta, Thracian language, Tosk Albanian, Transliteration, Tsade, Turkic languages, Turkish language, Uncial script, Unicode, United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Upsilon, Urum language, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Voiced bilabial fricative, Voiced velar fricative, Voiceless bilabial fricative, Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiceless dental fricative, Voiceless uvular fricative, Waw (letter), West Semitic languages, Western Thrace, Xi (letter), Yodh, Zayin, Zeta. Expand index (184 more) » « Shrink index
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.
The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
Alpha (uppercase, lowercase; ἄλφα, álpha, modern pronunciation álfa) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.
Alpha Centauri (α Centauri, abbreviated Alf Cen or α Cen) is the star system closest to the Solar System, being from the Sun.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Various alphabetic writing systems were in use in Iron Age Anatolia to record Anatolian languages and Phrygian.
Americanist phonetic notation, also known as the North American Phonetic Alphabet or NAPA, is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and American anthropologists and language scientists (many of whom were students of Neogrammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of indigenous languages of the Americas and for languages of Europe.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Macedonian, the language of the ancient Macedonians, either a dialect of Ancient Greek or a separate language closely related to Greek, was spoken in the kingdom of Macedonia during the 1st millennium BC and belongs to the Indo-European language family.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
Arkhyz (Russian/Karachay-Balkar: Архыз; "mudflows") is a village in the valley of the Bolshoy Zelenchuk River, in the Republic of Karachay–Cherkessia, Greater Caucasus, Russia, about 70 km inland from the Black Sea shore.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
Aromanian (rrãmãneshti, armãneashti, armãneshce., "Aromanian", or limba rrãmãniascã/ armãneascã/ armãneshce, "Aromanian language"), also known as Macedo-Romanian or Vlach, is an Eastern Romance language, similar to Meglenoromanian, or a dialect of the Romanian language.
Arvanitika (Arvanitika: αρbε̰ρίσ̈τ, arbërisht; αρβανίτικα, arvanítika), also known as Arvanitic, is the variety of Albanian traditionally spoken by the Arvanites, a population group in Greece.
In typography, an ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter in a Latin-derived alphabet that extends above the mean line of a font.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
In German orthography, the grapheme ß, called Eszett or scharfes S, in English "sharp S", represents the phoneme in Standard German, specifically when following long vowels and diphthongs, while ss is used after short vowels.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Bactrian (Αριαο, Aryao, arjaːu̯ɔ) is an Iranian language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria (present-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan) and used as the official language of the Kushan and the Hephthalite empires.
Balkan Gagauz Turkish, also known as Balkan Turkic, is a Turkic language spoken in European Turkey, in Dulovo and the Deliorman area in Bulgaria, and in the Kumanovo and Bitola areas of the Republic of Macedonia.
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
Beta (uppercase, lowercase, or cursive; bē̂ta or βήτα) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bitola (Битола known also by several alternative names) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia.
A book hand was any of several stylized handwriting scripts used during ancient and medieval times.
Boustrophedon (βουστροφηδόν, "ox-turning" from βοῦς,, "ox", στροφή,, "turn" and the adverbial suffix -δόν, "like, in the manner of"; that is, turning like oxen in ploughing) is a kind of bi-directional text, mostly seen in ancient manuscripts and other inscriptions.
A breve (less often;; neuter form of the Latin brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
Centaurus is a bright constellation in the southern sky.
Chi (uppercase Χ, lowercase χ; χῖ) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, pronounced or in English.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
Code page 437 is the character set of the original IBM PC (personal computer), or DOS.
Code page 860 (also known as CP 860, IBM 00860, OEM 860, DOS Portuguese) is a code page used under DOS to write Portuguese and it is also suitable to write Spanish and Italian.
Code page 861 (also known as CP 861, IBM 00861, OEM 861, DOS Icelandic) is a code page used under DOS to write the Icelandic language (as well as other Nordic languages).
Code page 862 (also known as CP 862, IBM 00862, OEM 862 (Hebrew), MS-DOS Hebrew) is a code page used under DOS for Hebrew.
Code page 863 (also known as CP 863, IBM 00863, OEM 863, MS-DOS French Canada) is a code page used under DOS to write French language (mainly in Quebec) although it lacks the letters Æ, æ, Œ, œ, Ÿ and ÿ.
Code page 865 (also known as CP 865, IBM 00865, OEM 865, DOS Nordic) is a code page used under DOS to write Nordic languages (except Icelandic, for which code page 861 is used).
In digital typography, combining characters are characters that are intended to modify other characters.
The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
Currency Symbols is a Unicode block containing characters for representing unique monetary signs.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
Cypriot Greek (Κυπριακά) is the variety of Modern Greek that is spoken by the majority of the Cypriot populace and Greek Cypriot diaspora.
Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Dalet (also spelled Daleth or Daled) is the fourth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Dālet, Hebrew 'Dālet ד, Aramaic Dālath, Syriac Dālaṯ ܕ, and Arabic د (in abjadi order; 8th in modern order).
Delta (uppercase Δ, lowercase δ or 𝛿; δέλτα délta) is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet.
Demotic (from δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
Dialectology (from Greek διάλεκτος, dialektos, "talk, dialect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics.
Digamma, waw, or wau (uppercase: Ϝ, lowercase: ϝ, numeral: ϛ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, epōnymos archōn).
Epsilon (uppercase Ε, lowercase ε or lunate ϵ; έψιλον) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid<!-- not close-mid, see Arvanti (1999) - Illustrations of the IPA: Modern Greek. --> front unrounded vowel.
Eta (uppercase, lowercase; ἦτα ē̂ta or ήτα ita) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Eucleides (Εὐκλείδης) was archon of Athens towards the end of the fifth century BC.
Small capital I is an additional letter of the Latin alphabet similar in its dimensions to the letter "i" but with a shape based on, its capital form.
Fraternities and sororities, or Greek letter organizations (GLOs) (collectively referred to as "Greek life") are social organizations at colleges and universities.
A fraternity (from Latin frater: "brother"; "brotherhood"), fraternal order or fraternal organization is an organization, a society or a club of men associated together for various religious or secular aims.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili, Gagauzça) is a Turkic language spoken by the Gagauz people of Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey, and it is the official language of the Autonomous Region of Gagauzia in Moldova.
Gamma (uppercase, lowercase; gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
Gheg (or Geg; Gheg Albanian: gegnisht, Standard Albanian: gegë or gegërisht) is one of the two major varieties of Albanian.
Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).
The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
The Greco-Iberian alphabet is a direct adaptation of an Ionic variant of a Greek alphabet to the specifics of the Iberian language, thus this script is an alphabet and lacks the distinctive characteristic of the rest of paleohispanic scripts that present signs with syllabic value, for the occlusives and signs with monophonemic value for the rest of consonants and vowels.
The Greek Dark Age, also called Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time), is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis, city states, in the 9th century BC.
Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period.
Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities.
Greek ligatures are graphic combinations of the letters of the Greek alphabet that were used in medieval handwritten Greek and in early printing.
The minuscule script was a Greek writing style which was developed as a book hand in Byzantine manuscripts during the 9th and 10th centuries.
He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic ﻫ. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Heta is a conventional name for the historical Greek alphabet letter Eta (Η) and several of its variants, when used in their original function of denoting the consonant.
or H̱et (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the eighth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ḥēt, Hebrew Ḥēt, Aramaic Ḥēth, Syriac Ḥēṯ ܚ, and Arabic Ḥā'.
Hexapla (Ἑξαπλᾶ, "sixfold") is the term for a critical edition of the Hebrew Bible in six versions, four of them translated into Greek, preserved only in fragments.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
The Iberian language was the language of an indigenous pre-Migration Period people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the Iberian Peninsula.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
In phonetics and phonology, an intervocalic consonant is a consonant that occurs in the middle of a word, between two vowels.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
Ionic Greek was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects).
Iota (uppercase Ι, lowercase ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet.
The iota subscript is a diacritic mark in the Greek alphabet shaped like a small vertical stroke or miniature iota placed below the letter.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
ISO 843 is a system for the transliteration of Greek characters into Latin characters.
ISO/IEC 8859-7:2003, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 7: Latin/Greek alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
Kappa (uppercase Κ, lowercase κ or cursive ϰ; κάππα, káppa) is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the sound in Ancient and Modern Greek.
Karamanlı Turkish is both a form of written Turkish, and a dialect of Turkish spoken by the Karamanlides, a community of Turkish-speaking Orthodox Christians in Ottoman Turkey.
The Karamanlides (Καραμανλήδες; Karamanlılar), or simply Karamanlis are a Greek-Orthodox, Turkish-speaking people native to the Karaman and Cappadocia regions of Anatolia.
Koppa or qoppa (Ϙ, ϙ; as a modern numeral sign) is a letter that was used in early forms of the Greek alphabet, derived from Phoenician qoph.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
Lambda, Λ, λ (uppercase Λ, lowercase λ; λάμ(β)δα lám(b)da) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Lāmed, Hebrew 'Lāmed, Aramaic Lāmadh, Syriac Lāmaḏ ܠ, and Arabic.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
Letterlike Symbols is a Unicode block containing 80 characters which are constructed mainly from the glyphs of one or more letters.
In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function (or sequence) "approaches" as the input (or index) "approaches" some value.
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
Lydian is an extinct Indo-European language spoken in the region of Lydia, in western Anatolia (now in Turkey).
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.
The Kingdom of Makuria (Old Nubian: ⲇⲱⲧⲁⲩⲟ, Dotawo; Greek: Μακογρια, Makouria; مقرة, al-Muqurra) was a Nubian kingdom located in what is today Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Mem (also spelled Meem, Meme, or Mim) is the thirteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Mēm, Hebrew Mēm, Aramaic Mem, Syriac Mīm ܡܡ, and Arabic Mīm.
The Meroitic script refers to two alphasyllabaric scripts developed to write the Kushite language at the beginning of the Meroitic Period (3rd century BC) of the Kingdom of Kush.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
Moscopole (Voskopojë; Moscopole; Μοσχόπολις or Βοσκόπολις; İskopol or OskopolAnscombe, Frederick (2006). ". In Anscombe, Frederick. The Ottoman Balkans, 1750–1830. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 99. "İskopol/Oskopol (Voskopoje, southeast Albania") is a village in Korçë County in southeastern Albania. During the 18th century, it was the cultural and commercial center of the Aromanians. At its peak, in the mid 18th century, it hosted the first printing press in the Ottoman Balkans outside Istanbul, educational institutions and numerous churches and became a leading center of Greek culture. Historians have attributed the decline of the city to a series of raids by Muslim Albanian bandits. Moscopole was initially attacked and almost destroyed by those groups in 1769 following the participation of the residents in the preparations for a Greek revolt supported by the Russian Empire. Its destruction culminated with the abandoning and destruction of 1788. Moscopole, once a prosperous city, was reduced to a small village by Ali Pasha. According to another opinion, the city's decline was mainly due to the relocation of the trade routes in central and eastern Europe following these raids. Today Moscopole, known as Voskopojë, is a small mountain village, and along with a few other local settlements is considered a holy place by local Orthodox Christians. It was one of the original homelands of the Aromanian diaspora.
Mu (uppercase Μ, lowercase μ; Ancient Greek μῦ, μι or μυ—both) or my is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
The near-close back rounded vowel, or near-high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some vocal languages.
The near-close front unrounded vowel, or near-high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Nu (uppercase Ν lowercase ν; νι ni) or ny is the 13th letter of the Greek alphabet.
The numero sign or numero symbol, № (also represented as Nº, No, No. or no. (US English), or No or no (UK English) plural Nos. or nos. (US English) or Nos or nos UK English), is a typographic abbreviation of the word number(s) indicating ordinal numeration, especially in names and titles.
Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Nūn, Hebrew Nun, Aramaic Nun, Syriac Nūn ܢܢ, and Arabic Nūn (in abjadi order).
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
Old Nubian (also called Middle Nubian or Old Nobiin) is an extinct Nubian language, attested in writing from the 8th to the 15th century CE.
Omega (capital: Ω, lowercase: ω; Greek ὦ, later ὦ μέγα, Modern Greek ωμέγα) is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet.
Omicron (uppercase Ο, lowercase ο, literally "small o": όμικρον back rounded vowel. Letters that arose from omicron include Roman O and Cyrillic O. The upper-case letter of omicron (O) was originally used in mathematics as a symbol for Big O notation (representing a function's asymptotic growth rate), but has fallen out of favor because omicron is indistinguishable from the Latin letter O and easily confused with the digit zero (0). Omicron is used to designate the fifteenth star in a constellation group, its ordinal placement a function of both magnitude and position. Such stars include Omicron Andromedae, Omicron Ceti, and Omicron Persei.
The open back unrounded vowel, or low back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In written languages, an ordinal indicator is a character, or group of characters, following a numeral denoting that it is an ordinal number, rather than a cardinal number.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
In Greek mythology, Palamedes (Παλαμήδης) was the son of Nauplius and Clymene.
The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The Paleo-Balkan languages are the various extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Pe is the seventeenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Pē, Hebrew Pē פ, Aramaic Pē, Syriac Pē ܦ, and Arabic ف (in abjadi order).
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
Phi (uppercase Φ, lowercase φ or ϕ; ϕεῖ pheî; φι fi) is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Phi Beta Kappa Society (ΦΒΚ) is the oldest academic honor society in the United States.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, spoken in Asia Minor during Classical Antiquity (c. 8th century BCE to 5th century CE).
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The number is a mathematical constant.
Pi (uppercase Π, lowercase π; πι) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the sound.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
Pomak language (πομακική γλώσσα, pomakiki glosa or πομακικά, pomakika, помашки език, pomaški ezik, Pomakça) is a term used in Greece and Turkey to refer to some of the Rup dialects of the Bulgarian language spoken by the Pomaks in Western Thrace in Greece and Eastern Thrace in Turkey.
Ancient Greek has been pronounced in various ways by those studying Ancient Greek literature in various times and places.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Psi (uppercase Ψ, lowercase ψ; psi) is the 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 700.
Qoph or Qop (Phoenician Qōp) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Resh is the twentieth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Rēsh, Hebrew Rēsh, Aramaic Rēsh, Syriac Rēsh ܪ, and Arabic.
Rho (uppercase Ρ, lowercase ρ or ϱ; ῥῶ) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, the rough breathing (dasỳ pneûma or δασεῖα daseîa; δασεία dasía; Latin spīritus asper), is a diacritical mark used to indicate the presence of an sound before a vowel, diphthong, or after rho.
Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Samek, Hebrew ˈSamekh, Aramaic Semkath, Syriac Semkaṯ ܣ, representing.
Sampi (modern: ϡ; ancient shapes) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet.
San (Ϻ) was an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
In typography, a serif is a small line attached to the end of a stroke in a letter or symbol.
Shin (also spelled Šin or Sheen) is the name of the twenty-first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Shin, Hebrew Shin, Aramaic Shin, Syriac Shin ܫ, and Arabic Shin (in abjadi order, 13th in modern order).
The letter ϸ (sometimes called sho or san) was a letter added to the Greek alphabet in order to write the Bactrian language.
Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.
In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.
The smooth breathing (psilòn pneûma; ψιλή psilí; spīritus lēnis) is a diacritical mark used in polytonic orthography.
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
In mathematics, summation (capital Greek sigma symbol: ∑) is the addition of a sequence of numbers; the result is their sum or total.
Tau (uppercase Τ, lowercase τ; ταυ) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Taw, tav, or taf is the twenty-second and last letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Tāw, Hebrew Tav, Aramaic Taw, Syriac Taw ܬ, and Arabic Tāʼ ت (in abjadi order, 3rd in modern order).
Teth, also written as or Tet, is the ninth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ṭēt, Hebrew Ṭēt, Aramaic Ṭēth, Syriac Ṭēṯ ܛ, and Arabic ط. It is 16th in modern Arabic order.
Theta (uppercase Θ or ϴ, lowercase θ (which resembles digit 0 with horizontal line) or ϑ; θῆτα thē̂ta; Modern: θήτα| thī́ta) is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter Teth.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
Tosk is the southern dialect group of the Albanian language, spoken by the ethnographic group known as Tosks.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Ṣade (also spelled Ṣādē, Tsade, Ṣaddi,, Tzadi, Sadhe, Tzaddik) is the eighteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Çādē, Hebrew Ṣādi, Aramaic Ṣāḏē, Syriac Ṣāḏē ܨ, Ge'ez Ṣädäy ጸ, and Arabic.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and deals with the national and international standardization of geographical names.
Upsilon (or; uppercase Υ, lowercase υ; ύψιλον ýpsilon) or ypsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand ethnic Greeks who inhabit a few villages in Georgia and Southeastern Ukraine.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.
The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Waw/Vav ("hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician wāw, Aramaic waw, Hebrew vav, Syriac waw ܘ and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).
The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of ancient Semitic languages.
Western Thrace (Θράκη, Thráki; Batı Trakya; Западна Тракия, Zapadna Trakiya or Беломорска Тракия, Belomorska Trakiya) is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country; Eastern Thrace, which lies east of the river Evros, forms the European part of Turkey, and the area to the north, in Bulgaria, is known as Northern Thrace.
Xi (uppercase Ξ, lowercase ξ; ξι) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܚ, and Arabic ي (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order).
Zayin (also spelled zain or zayn or simply zay) is the seventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Zayin, Hebrew 'Zayin, Yiddish Zoyen, Aramaic Zain, Syriac Zayn ܙ, and Arabic Zayn or Zāy ز. It represents the sound.
Zeta (uppercase Ζ, lowercase ζ; ζῆτα, label, classical or zē̂ta; zíta) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet.
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