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Greenhouse gas

Index Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. [1]

240 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Agriculture, Airborne fraction, Anthracite, Argon, Associated Press, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmosphere of Mars, Atmosphere of Titan, Atmosphere of Venus, Atmospheric chemistry observational databases, Atmospheric methane, Attribution of recent climate change, Avgas, Bicarbonate, Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, Biochar, Biomass, Biome, Bituminous coal, Bromochlorodifluoromethane, Bromotrifluoromethane, Cambridge, Cape Grim, Carbon accounting, Carbon credit, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide equivalent, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Carbon dioxide removal, Carbon emissions reporting, Carbon footprint, Carbon monoxide, Carbon neutrality, Carbon offset, Carbon sink, Carbon tetrachloride, Carbonate, Carbonic acid, Cement, Chemical species, China, Chlorodifluoromethane, Chlorofluorocarbon, Clausius–Clapeyron relation, Climate change, Climate change and agriculture, ..., Climate change and ecosystems, Climate change mitigation, Cloud forcing, Coal, Combustion, Computer simulation, Concentrated solar power, Deforestation, Deforestation and climate change, Deposition (chemistry), Devonian, Diatomic molecule, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dipole, Dobson unit, Earth, Effects of global warming, Effects of global warming on human health, Efficient energy use, Electrical energy, Embedded emissions, Emission intensity, Emission spectrum, Emission standard, Emissions trading, Energy industry, Energy Information Administration, Enteric fermentation, Environmental impact of aviation, Exponential decay, Extreme weather, Fire extinguisher, Firn, First law of thermodynamics, Fluorinated gases, Fluorocarbon, Fossil fuel, Fuel oil, Gas, Gas flare, Gasoline, Generation II reactor, Geophysical Research Letters, Geothermal gradient, Giga-, Global warming, Global warming potential, Greenhouse debt, Greenhouse effect, Greenhouse gas, Greenhouse gas footprint, Group of Eight, Haloalkane, Halocarbon, Hexafluoroethane, Holocene, Hot dry rock geothermal energy, Human behavior, Human impact on the environment, Hydroelectricity, Hydrofluorocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen economy, Hydroxyl radical, Ice core, Ice crystals, Industrial Revolution, Infrared, Integrated Carbon Observation System, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International Energy Agency, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, IPCC list of greenhouse gases, IPCC Third Assessment Report, Iran, Journal of Geophysical Research, Journal of Public Economics, Kenya, Kerosene, Kilowatt hour, Kyoto Protocol, Large goods vehicle, Lignite, Limestone, Liquefied petroleum gas, List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources, List of international environmental agreements, List of onshore wind farms, Low-carbon economy, Marine energy, Methane, Mobile source air pollution, Mole fraction, Monatomic gas, Montreal Protocol, Nairobi, NASA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Natural gas, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Nitrogen, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen trifluoride, Nitrous oxide, Non-methane volatile organic compound, Nuclear power, Ocean acidification, OECD, Oil, Oil sands, Orders of magnitude (mass), Organofluorine chemistry, Ottmar Edenhofer, Oxygen, Ozone, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Parabolic trough, Paris Agreement, Parts-per notation, Percentile, Perfluorotributylamine, Petroleum, Petroleum coke, Phanerozoic, Photochemistry, Photosynthesis, Photovoltaic system, Physical impacts of climate change, Physical properties of greenhouse gases, Polycrystalline silicon, Positive feedback, Princeton University Press, Propane, Purchasing power parity, Radiant energy, Radiative forcing, Radical (chemistry), Redox, Refrigeration, Relative humidity, Renewable energy, Residence time, Revista pădurilor, Rice, Runaway greenhouse effect, Russia, Scientific opinion on climate change, Sea level rise, Slate (magazine), Snowball Earth, Solar System, South Korea, Square metre, Stoma, Stratosphere, Sub-bituminous coal, Sulfur hexafluoride, Sustainability measurement, Tasmania, Tetrafluoromethane, The Guardian, The New York Times, Thermal radiation, Tire, Tire-derived fuel, Tonne, Tourism, Treaty, Trichlorofluoromethane, Troposphere, Ukraine, Ultraviolet, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Water vapor, Watt, Wind, Wood, World energy consumption, Year, Zero-emissions vehicle, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane, 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, 1995 enlargement of the European Union, 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference. Expand index (190 more) »

Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Airborne fraction

The airborne fraction is a scaling factor defined as the ratio of the annual increase in atmospheric 2 to the emissions from anthropogenic sources.

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Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster.

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Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmosphere of Mars

The atmosphere of the planet Mars is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.

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Atmosphere of Titan

The atmosphere of Titan is the layer of gases surrounding Titan, the largest moon of Saturn.

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Atmosphere of Venus

The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding Venus.

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Atmospheric chemistry observational databases

Over the last two centuries many environmental chemical observations have been made from a variety of ground-based, airborne, and orbital platforms and deposited in databases.

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Atmospheric methane

Atmospheric methane is the methane present in earth's atmosphere.

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Attribution of recent climate change

Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for recent climate changes on Earth, commonly known as 'global warming'.

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Avgas (aviation gasoline, also known as aviation spirit in the UK), is an aviation fuel used in spark-ignited internal-combustion engines to propel aircraft.

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In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.

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Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage

Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a future greenhouse gas mitigation technology which produces negative carbon dioxide emissions by combining bioenergy (energy from biomass) use with geologic carbon capture and storage.

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Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment.

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Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.

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Bituminous coal

Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen or asphalt.

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Bromochlorodifluoromethane, also known by the trade name Halon 1211, or BCF, or Halon 1211 BCF, or Freon 12B1, is a haloalkane with the chemical formula CF2ClBr.

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Bromotrifluoromethane, commonly known as Halon 1301, R13B1, Halon 13B1 or BTM, is an organic halide with the chemical formula CBrF3.

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Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Cape Grim

Cape Grim is the northwestern point of Tasmania, Australia.

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Carbon accounting

Carbon accounting refers generally to processes undertaken to "measure" amounts of carbon dioxide equivalents emitted by an entity.

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Carbon credit

A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the mass of another greenhouse gas with a carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide.

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Carbon cycle

The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon dioxide equivalent

Carbon dioxide equivalent (CDE) and equivalent carbon dioxide (e and eq) are two related but distinct measures for describing how much global warming a given type and amount of greenhouse gas may cause, using the functionally equivalent amount or concentration of carbon dioxide as the reference.

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Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.

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Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) was an organization within the United States Department of Energy that had the primary responsibility for providing the US government and research community with global warming data and analysis as it pertains to energy issues.

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Carbon dioxide removal

Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) refers to a number of technologies, the objective of which is the large-scale removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

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Carbon emissions reporting

Human activities continue to impact Earth's climate through the emission of greenhouse gases.

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Carbon footprint

A carbon footprint is historically defined as the total emissions caused by an individual, event, organisation, or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon neutrality

Carbon neutrality, or having a net zero carbon footprint, refers to achieving net zero carbon emissions by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount sequestered or offset, or buying enough carbon credits to make up the difference.

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Carbon offset

A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere.

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Carbon sink

A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.

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Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.

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In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.

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Carbonic acid

Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).

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A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.

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Chemical species

A chemical species is a chemical substance or ensemble composed of chemically identical molecular entities that can explore the same set of molecular energy levels on a characteristic or delineated time scale.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC).

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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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Clausius–Clapeyron relation

The Clausius–Clapeyron relation, named after Rudolf Clausius and Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron, is a way of characterizing a discontinuous phase transition between two phases of matter of a single constituent.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Climate change and agriculture

Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale.

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Climate change and ecosystems

This article is about climate change and ecosystems.

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Climate change mitigation

Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change.

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Cloud forcing

Cloud forcing (sometimes described as cloud radiative forcing or cloud radiative effect) is, in meteorology, the difference between the radiation budget components for average cloud conditions and cloud-free conditions.

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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

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Concentrated solar power

Concentrated solar power (also called concentrating solar power, concentrated solar thermal, and CSP) systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area.

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Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Deforestation and climate change

Deforestation is one of the main contributors to climate change.

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Deposition (chemistry)

In chemistry, deposition occurs when molecules settle out of a solution.

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Diatomic molecule

Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.

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Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) is a colorless gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant.

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In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.

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Dobson unit

The Dobson unit (DU) is a unit of measurement of the amount of a trace gas in a vertical column through the Earth's atmosphere.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Effects of global warming

The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.

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Effects of global warming on human health

The effects of global warming include its effects on human health.

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Efficient energy use

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.

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Electrical energy

Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.

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Embedded emissions

One way of attributing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is to measure the embedded emissions of goods that are being consumed (also referred to as "embodied emissions").

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Emission intensity

An emission intensity (also carbon intensity, C.I.) is the emission rate of a given pollutant relative to the intensity of a specific activity, or an industrial production process; for example grams of carbon dioxide released per megajoule of energy produced, or the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions produced to gross domestic product (GDP).

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Emission spectrum

The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.

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Emission standard

Emission standards are the legal requirements governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere.

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Emissions trading

Emissions trading, or cap and trade, is a government, market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.

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Energy industry

The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution.

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Energy Information Administration

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.

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Enteric fermentation

Enteric fermentation is a digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by microorganisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream of an animal.

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Environmental impact of aviation

The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit heat, noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and global dimming.

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Exponential decay

A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

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Extreme weather

Extreme weather includes unexpected, unusual, unpredictable, severe or unseasonal weather; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution—the range that has been seen in the past.

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Fire extinguisher

A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.

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Firn (from Swiss German firn "last year's", cognate with before) is partially compacted névé, a type of snow that has been left over from past seasons and has been recrystallized into a substance denser than névé.

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First law of thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.

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Fluorinated gases

Fluorinated gases (F-gases) are man-made gases that can stay in the atmosphere for centuries and contribute to a global greenhouse effect.

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Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed.

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Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.

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Fuel oil

Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.

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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Gas flare

A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack, is a gas combustion device used in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants as well as at oil or gas production sites having oil wells, gas wells, offshore oil and gas rigs and landfills.

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Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Generation II reactor

A generation II reactor is a design classification for a nuclear reactor, and refers to the class of commercial reactors built up to the end of the 1990s.

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Geophysical Research Letters

Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.

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Geothermal gradient

Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.

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Giga is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of a (short-form) billion (109 or 000).

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Global warming potential

Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.

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Greenhouse debt

Greenhouse debt is the measure to which an individual person, incorporated association, business enterprise, government instrumentality or / (per Neb., USA) geographic community exceeds its permitted greenhouse footprint and contributes greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming and climate change.

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Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Greenhouse gas footprint

The Greenhouse gas footprint, or GHG footprint, refers to the amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted during the creation of products or services.

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Group of Eight

The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.

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The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.

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Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine –) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds.

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Hexafluoroethane is a fluorocarbon counterpart to the hydrocarbon ethane.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Hot dry rock geothermal energy

Hot dry rock (HDR) is an abundant source of geothermal energy available to mankind.

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Human behavior

Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.

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Human impact on the environment

Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.

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Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.

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Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, are the most common type of organofluorine compounds.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen chloride

The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.

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Hydrogen economy

The hydrogen economy is a proposed system of delivering energy using hydrogen.

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Hydroxyl radical

The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).

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Ice core

An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet or a high mountain glacier.

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Ice crystals

Ice crystals are solid ice exhibiting atomic ordering on various length scales and include hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, dendritic crystals, and diamond dust.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Integrated Carbon Observation System

The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a research infrastructure to quantify the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.

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International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.

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IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of reports intended to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, its potential effects, and options for adaptation and mitigation.

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IPCC list of greenhouse gases

This is a list of LLGHG (long-lived greenhouse gases) greenhouse gases as used by the IPCC TAR.

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IPCC Third Assessment Report

The IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR), Climate Change 2001, is an assessment of available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change by the IPCC.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Journal of Geophysical Research

The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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Journal of Public Economics

The Journal of Public Economics is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering public economics, with particular emphasis on the application of modern economic theory and methods of quantitative analysis.

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Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

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Kilowatt hour

The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.

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Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.

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Large goods vehicle

A heavy goods vehicle (HGV), also large goods vehicle (LGV) or medium goods vehicle, is the European Union (EU) term for any truck with a gross combination mass (GCM) of over. Sub-category N2 is used for vehicles between and and N3 for all goods vehicles over as defined in Directive 2001/116/EC. The term medium goods vehicle is used within parts of the UK government to refer to goods vehicles of between 3.5 and 7.5 tonnes which according to the EU are also "large goods vehicles". Commercial carrier vehicles of up to are referred to as Light commercial vehicles and come into category N1. Confusingly though, parts of the UK government refer to these as "light goods vehicles" (also abbreviated "LGV"), with the term LGV" appearing on tax discs for these smaller vehicles. Tax discs use the term "HGV" for vehicles over 3.5 tonnes. HGVs must not exceed 40 tonnes laden weight or in length to cross boundaries in the EU, but longer and heavier vehicles (LHVs) known as Gigaliner, EuroCombi, EcoLiner, innovative commercial vehicle, mega-truck, etc., typically long and weighing up to 60 tonnes are used in some countries, and the implications of allowing them to cross borders was being considered.

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Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Liquefied petroleum gas

Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

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List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources

This article is a list of countries by electricity generation from renewable sources every year.

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List of international environmental agreements

This is a list of international environmental agreements.

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List of onshore wind farms

This is a list of the largest onshore wind farms that are currently operational, rated by generating capacity.

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Low-carbon economy

A low-carbon economy (LCE), low-fossil-fuel economy (LFFE), or decarbonised economy is an economy based on low carbon power sources that therefore has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the biosphere, but specifically refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.

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Marine energy

Marine energy or marine power (also sometimes referred to as ocean energy, ocean power, or marine and hydrokinetic energy) refers to the energy carried by ocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperature differences.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Mobile source air pollution

Mobile source air pollution includes any air pollution emitted by motor vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, and other engines and equipment that can be moved from one location to another.

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Mole fraction

In chemistry, the mole fraction or molar fraction (xi) is defined as the amount of a constituent (expressed in moles), ni, divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture (also expressed in moles), ntot: The sum of all the mole fractions is equal to 1: The same concept expressed with a denominator of 100 is the mole percent or molar percentage or molar proportion (mol%).

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Monatomic gas

In physics and chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words "mono" and "atomic", and means "single atom".

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Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.

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Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency

The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - abbr. PBL) is a Dutch research institute that advises the Dutch government on environmental policy and regional planning issues.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Nitrogen trifluoride

Nitrogen trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NF3.

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Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.

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Non-methane volatile organic compound

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are a large variety of chemically different compounds, such as benzene, ethanol, formaldehyde, cyclohexane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane or acetone.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").

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Oil sands

Oil sands, also known as tar sands or crude bitumen, or more technically bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit.

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Orders of magnitude (mass)

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg.

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Organofluorine chemistry

Organofluorine chemistry describes the chemistry of the organofluorines, organic compounds that contain the carbon–fluorine bond.

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Ottmar Edenhofer

Ottmar Georg Edenhofer (born in 8 July 1961 in Gangkofen, Lower Bavaria, Germany) is one of the world's leading experts on climate change policy, environmental and energy policy, and energy economics.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.

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Parabolic trough

A parabolic trough is a type of solar thermal collector that is straight in one dimension and curved as a parabola in the other two, lined with a polished metal mirror.

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Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement (Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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A percentile (or a centile) is a measure used in statistics indicating the value below which a given percentage of observations in a group of observations fall.

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Perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA), also referred to as FC43, is a colorless liquid with the formula N(C4F9)3.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Petroleum coke

Petroleum coke, abbreviated coke or petcoke, is a final carbon-rich solid material that derives from oil refining, and is one type of the group of fuels referred to as cokes.

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The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed.

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Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Photovoltaic system

A photovoltaic system, also PV system or solar power system, is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics.

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Physical impacts of climate change

This article is about the physical impacts of climate change.

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Physical properties of greenhouse gases

Category:Greenhouse gases.

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Polycrystalline silicon

Polycrystalline silicon, also called polysilicon or poly-Si, is a high purity, polycrystalline form of silicon, used as a raw material by the solar photovoltaic and electronics industry.

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Positive feedback

Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Radiant energy

In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.

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Radiative forcing

Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.

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Relative humidity

Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Residence time

For material flowing through a volume, the residence time is a measure of how much time the matter spends in it.

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Revista pădurilor

Revista pădurilor (Journal of Forests) is a Romanian peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1882 that has appeared without interruption since 1886, making it the oldest Romanian journal published without interruption and one of the oldest forestry journals in the world.

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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Runaway greenhouse effect

A runaway greenhouse effect is a process in which a net positive feedback between surface temperature and atmospheric opacity increases the strength of the greenhouse effect on a planet until its oceans boil away.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Scientific opinion on climate change

The scientific opinion on climate change is the overall judgment among scientists regarding the extent to which global warming is occurring, its likely causes, and its probable consequences.

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Sea level rise

A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.

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Snowball Earth

The Snowball Earth hypothesis proposes that Earth surface's became entirely or nearly entirely frozen at least once, sometime earlier than 650 Mya (million years ago).

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Square metre

The square metre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square meter (American spelling) is the SI derived unit of area, with symbol m2 (Unicode character). It is the area of a square whose sides measure exactly one metre.

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In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.

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The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.

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Sub-bituminous coal

Sub-bituminous coal is a type of coal whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation.

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Sulfur hexafluoride

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator.

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Sustainability measurement

Sustainability measurement is the quantitative basis for the informed management of sustainability.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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Tetrafluoromethane, also known as carbon tetrafluoride, is the simplest fluorocarbon (CF4).

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

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A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.

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Tire-derived fuel

Tire-derived fuel (TDF) is composed of shredded scrap tires.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.

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A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.

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Trichlorofluoromethane, also called freon-11, CFC-11, or R-11, is a chlorofluorocarbon.

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The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted on 9 May 1992 and opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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Water vapor

No description.

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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World energy consumption

World energy consumption is the total energy used by the entire human civilization.

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A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.

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Zero-emissions vehicle

A zero-emissions vehicle, or ZEV, is a vehicle that emits no exhaust gas from the onboard source of power.

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1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (also known as norflurane (INN), R-134a, Freon 134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a, or HFC-134a) is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1,430, compared to R-12's GWP of 10,900).

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Trichlorotrifluoroethane, also called 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane or CFC-113 is a chlorofluorocarbon.

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1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane is a haloalkane with the formula.

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1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b, also known by trade names including Freon-142b) is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) with the chemical formula CH3CClF2.

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1995 enlargement of the European Union

The 1995 enlargement of the European Union saw Austria, Finland, and Sweden accede to the European Union (EU).

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2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Cancún, Mexico, from 29 November to 10 December 2010.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas

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