157 relations: Ablative case, Acute accent, Adverb, Affirmation and negation, Agent (grammar), Agreement (linguistics), Alaska, Allative case, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Ammassalik Island, Antipassive voice, Assimilation (phonology), Atuagagdliutit/Grønlandsposten, Aymara language, Canada, Circumflex, Clause, Compound verb, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Consonant gradation, Consonant voicing and devoicing, Coordination (linguistics), Danish language, Definiteness, Den Store Danske Encyklopædi, Denmark, Dependent-marking language, Disko Bay, Dorset culture, Dual (grammatical number), English language, Equative case, Ergative–absolutive language, Eskimo–Aleut languages, Evidentiality, Focus (linguistics), Fricative consonant, Gemination, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grave accent, Greenland, Greenlandic Inuit, ..., Head-marking language, Imperative mood, Incorporation (linguistics), Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indo-European languages, Inflection, Instrumental case, International Journal of American Linguistics, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Interrogative, Intonation (linguistics), Inuit grammar, Inuit languages, Inuit phonology, Inuktitut, Inuktun, Inuttitut, Ittoqqortoormiit, Journal of Linguistics, Kalaallisut, Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa, Kra (letter), Labial consonant, Labrador, Language (journal), Latin script, Lexical aspect, Liquid consonant, Loanword, Maniitsoq, Middle Greenlandic language, Mora (linguistics), Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Morphophonology, Morphosyntactic alignment, Naalakkersuisut, Narsaq, Nasal consonant, Nelson H. H. Graburn, Nominative case, Nominative–accusative language, Noun, Noun phrase, Nunatsiavut, Nuuk, Object (grammar), Obviative, Old Greenlandic language, Optative mood, Palatal consonant, Palate, Part of speech, Patient (grammar), Paul Egede, Phoneme, Phonetic transcription, Polysynthetic language, Possession (linguistics), Postbase, Pragmatics, Prolative case, Prosody (linguistics), Proto-Eskimo–Aleut language, Q, Qaanaaq, Qaqortoq, Quechuan languages, Quotation mark, Realis mood, Red Book of Endangered Languages, Relative clause, Root (linguistics), Samuel Kleinschmidt, Saqqaq culture, Scandinavian Braille, Semivowel, Sermitsiaq (newspaper), Sisimiut, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Subject (grammar), Subject–object–verb, Subordination (linguistics), Suffix, Switch-reference, Syllable, Taboo, Telicity, Thule people, Tilde, Tone (linguistics), Topic and comment, Transitivity (grammar), Tunumiit dialect, UNESCO, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Upernavik, Uummannaq, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Verb, Vocabulary, Voice (grammar), Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Vowel. Expand index (107 more) » « Shrink index
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively and) are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.
In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the thematic relation of the cause or initiator to an event.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Allative case (abbreviated; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of locative case.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Ammassalik Island (Ammassalik Ø) is an island in the Sermersooq municipality in southeastern Greenland, with an area of.
The antipassive voice (abbreviated or) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Atuagagdliutit/Grønlandsposten, usually referred to as AG, is one of two newspapers in Greenland which are distributed nationwide.
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
In linguistics, a compound verb or complex predicate is a multi-word compound that functions as a single verb.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
Consonant gradation is a type of consonant mutation in which consonants alternate between various "grades".
In phonology, voicing (or sonorization) is a sound change where a voiceless consonant becomes voiced due to the influence of its phonological environment; shift in the opposite direction is referred to as devoicing or desonorization.
In linguistics, coordination is a frequently occurring complex syntactic structure that links together two or more elements, known as conjuncts or conjoins.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).
Den Store Danske Encyklopædi (The Great Danish Encyclopedia) is the most comprehensive contemporary Danish language encyclopedia.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
A dependent-marking language has grammatical markers of agreement and case government between the words of phrases that tend to appear more on dependents than on heads.
Disko Bay (Qeqertarsuup tunua; DiskobugtenChristensen, N.O. & al. "". Arctic Circular, Vol. 4 (1951), pp. 83–85. Op. cit. "Northern News". Arctic, Vol. 5, No. 1 (Mar 1952), pp. 58–59.) is a bay on the western coast of Greenland.
The Dorset was a Paleo-Eskimo culture, lasting from 500 BC to between 1000 and 1500 AD, that followed the Pre-Dorset and preceded the Inuit in the Arctic of North America.
Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Equative is a case prototypically expressing the standard of comparison of equal values ("as… as a …").
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia.
In linguistics, evidentiality is, broadly, the indication of the nature of evidence for a given statement; that is, whether evidence exists for the statement and if so what kind.
Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Greenlandic Inuit (kalaallit) are the most populous ethnic group in Greenland.
A language is head-marking if the grammatical marks showing agreement between different words of a phrase tend to be placed on the heads (or nuclei) of phrases, rather than on the modifiers or dependents.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
Incorporation is a phenomenon by which a grammatical category, such as a verb, forms a compound with its direct object (object incorporation) or adverbial modifier, while retaining its original syntactic function.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
The International Journal of American Linguistics (IJAL) is an academic journal devoted to the study of the indigenous languages of the Americas.
The International Journal of the Sociology of Language is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of sociology of language.
Interrogative is a term used in grammar to refer to features that form questions.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
The Inuit language, like other Eskimo–Aleut languages, exhibits a regular agglutinative and heavily suffixing morphology.
The Inuit languages are a closely related group of indigenous American languages traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador.
This article discusses the phonology of the Inuit languages.
Inuktitut (syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk, "person" + -titut, "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.
Inuktun (Polar Eskimo, avanersuarmiutut, nordgrønlandsk, polareskimoisk, thulesproget) is the language of approximately 1,000 indigenous Inughuit, inhabiting the world's northernmost settlements in Qaanaaq and the surrounding villages in northwestern Greenland.
Inuttitut, or Inuttut is a Canadian dialect of Inuktitut.
Ittoqqortoormiit (East Greenlandic) or Illoqqortoormiut (West Greenlandic), formerly known as Scoresbysund, is a settlement in the Sermersooq municipality in eastern Greenland.
The Journal of Linguistics is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal covering all branches of theoretical linguistics and the official publication of the Linguistics Association of Great Britain.
Kalaallisut, or West Greenlandic, is the standard dialect of the Greenlandic language, spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants of Greenland, as well as by thousands of Greenlandic Inuit in Denmark proper (in total, approximately 50,000 people).
Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa (KNR) (literally Greenland's Radio), officially rendered into English as Greenlandic Broadcasting Corporation is the national public broadcasting corporation of Greenland, based in the country's capital city, Nuuk.
Kra (Kʼ / ĸ) is a glyph formerly used to write the Kalaallisut language of Greenland and is now only found in Nunatsiavummiutut, a distinct Inuktitut dialect.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labrador is the continental-mainland part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Language is a peer-reviewed quarterly academic journal published by the Linguistic Society of America since 1925.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The lexical aspect or aktionsart (plural aktionsarten) of a verb is a part of the way in which that verb is structured in relation to time.
In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Maniitsoq, formerly Sukkertoppen, is a town in Maniitsoq Island, western Greenland located in the Qeqqata municipality.
Middle Greenlandic is the period in the history of the Greenlandic language between the 18th and 19th centuries.
A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.
In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the grammatical relationship between arguments—specifically, between the two arguments (in English, subject and object) of transitive verbs like the dog chased the cat, and the single argument of intransitive verbs like the cat ran away.
The Naalakkersuisut is the government of Greenland, a "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of Denmark, takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic country, whereby the prime minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.
Narsaq is a town in the Kujalleq municipality in southern Greenland.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nelson H. H. Graburn, is a Professor Emeritus in Sociocultural Anthropology at University of California, Berkeley.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Nominative–accusative languages, or nominative languages have a form of morphosyntactic alignment in which subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs are distinguished from objects of transitive verbs by word order, case-marking, and/or verb agreement.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
Nunatsiavut is an autonomous area claimed by the Inuit in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
Nuuk (Godthåb) is the capital and largest city of Greenland and the municipality of Sermersooq.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
Obviative (abbreviated) third person is a grammatical-person marking that distinguishes a non-salient (obviative) third-person referent from a more salient (proximate) third-person referent in a given discourse context.
Old Greenlandic is the period in the history of the Greenlandic language between the 16th and 17th centuries.
The optative mood or (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
In linguistics, a grammatical patient, also called the target or undergoer, is the participant of a situation upon whom an action is carried out or the thematic relation such a participant has with an action.
Paul or Poul Hansen Egede (9 September 1708 – 6 June 1789) was a Dano-Norwegian theologian, missionary, and scholar, principally concerned with the Lutheran mission among the Kalaallit people of the Greenland established by his father Hans in 1721.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed).
In linguistics a postbase is a special kind of grammatical suffixing morpheme that is suffixed to a base.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
The prolative case (abbreviated), also called the vialis case (abbreviated), prosecutive case (abbreviated), traversal case, mediative case, or translative case,Haspelmath, Martin.
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
Proto-Eskimo–Aleut was the common ancestor of the Eskimo languages and Aleut.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Qaanaaq, formerly Thule or New Thule, is the main town in the northern part of the Avannaata municipality in northwestern Greenland.
Qaqortoq, formerly Julianehåb, is a town in the Kujalleq municipality in southern Greenland, located near Cape Thorvaldsen.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
The Red Book of Endangered Languages was published by UNESCO and collected a comprehensive list of the world's endangered languages.
A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Samuel Petrus Kleinschmidt (27 February 1814–9 February 1886) was a German/Danish missionary linguist born in Greenland known for having written extensively about the Greenlandic language and having invented the orthography used for writing this language from 1851 to 1973.
The Saqqaq culture (named after the Saqqaq settlement, the site of many archaeological finds) was a Paleo-Eskimo culture in southern Greenland.
Scandinavian Braille is a braille alphabet used, with differences in orthography and punctuation, for the languages of the mainland Nordic countries: Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and Finnish.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Sermitsiaq (Greenlandic for Saddle Mountain) is one of two national newspapers in Greenland.
Sisimiut, formerly known by its colonial name Holsteinsborg, is the capital and largest city of the Qeqqata municipality, and the second-largest city in Greenland.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In linguistics, subordination (abbreviated variously,, or) is a principle of the hierarchical organization of linguistic units.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
In linguistics, switch-reference (SR) describes any clause-level morpheme that signals whether certain prominent arguments in 'adjacent' clauses corefer.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.
In linguistics, telicity (from the Greek, meaning "end" or "goal") is the property of a verb or verb phrase that presents an action or event as being complete in some sense.
The Thule or proto-Inuit were the ancestors of all modern Inuit.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.
In linguistics, transitivity is a property of verbs that relates to whether a verb can take direct objects and how many such objects a verb can take.
Tunumiit oraasiat or East Greenlandic (Kalaallisut: tunumiusut, East Greenlandic: tunumiisut) is a variety of Greenlandic spoken in eastern Greenland by the Tunumiit.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Upernavik (Kalaallisut: "Springtime Place") is a small town in the Avannaata municipality in northwestern Greenland, located on a small island of the same name.
Uummannaq is a town in the Avannaata municipality, in northwestern Greenland.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Eastern Greenlandic, Greenlandic Eskimo, Greenlandic Eskimo language, Greenlandic Inuit language, Greenlandic Inuktitut, Greenlandic Inuktitut language, Greenlandic Kalaallisut language, Greenlandic alphabet, Greenlandic eskimo, Greenlandic phonology, ISO 639:kal, ISO 639:kl, Kalaalisut, Kalaallisut alphabet, Kalaallisut language, Kalaallisut orthography, West Greenlandic, West Greenlandic language, Western Greenlandic, Western Greenlandic language.