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Gregorian calendar

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The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world. [1]

180 relations: Aloysius Lilius, Anna Jagiellon, Anno Domini, Annunciation, Aphrodite, April, Astronomical year numbering, August, Augustus, Austin, Texas, Axial precession, Battle of Agincourt, Battle of Blenheim, Bede, British Empire, Brixham, Byzantine Empire, Calabria, Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, Calendar era, Calendar of saints, Calendar reform, Carolingian Empire, Charles I of England, Christopher Clavius, Cincius, Civil calendar, Cognate, Common Era, Common year, Computus, Conversion between Julian and Gregorian calendars, Council of Trent, Crispin and Crispinian, Dante Alighieri, Day, December, Determination of the day of the week, Doomsday rule, Dual dating, Duchy of Lorraine, Dutch Republic, Earth's rotation, Easter, Eastern Orthodox Church, Etruscan mythology, February, February 29, Februus, Fever, ..., First Council of Nicaea, French Republican Calendar, Giambattista Benedetti, Giuseppe Moletti, Globalization, Greek Old Calendarists, Hand, Hanke–Henry Permanent Calendar, Hebrew calendar, Hijri year, History of calendars, History of Italy (1559–1814), Holocene calendar, Holy Roman Empire, Iberian Union, Index finger, Inter gravissimas, International Fixed Calendar, International Organization for Standardization, International standard, Isaac Asimov, Islamic calendar, ISO 8601, January, Janus, Jean Meeus, Jesus, Johannes de Sacrobosco, John Dee, John Herschel, John James Bond, Julian calendar, Julian day, Julius Caesar, July, June, Juno (mythology), Kingdom of Great Britain, Knuckle, Knuckle mnemonic, Lady Day, Leap second, Leap week calendar, Leap year, List of adoption dates of the Gregorian calendar per country, List of calendars, List of death deities, List of fertility deities, List of war deities, Little finger, Lunar calendar, Lupercalia, Maia, March, Marcus Terentius Varro, Marriage in ancient Rome, Mars (mythology), May, Metonic cycle, Middle Ages, Miguel de Cervantes, Mnemonic, Modern history, Month, Mother Goose, Musical keyboard, Mysterii Paschalis, Nativity of Jesus, New Year, November, October, Old Calendarists, Old Style and New Style dates, Opus Majus, Oral tradition, Oriental Orthodoxy, Papal bull, Papal States, Parilia, Pax Calendar, Perihelion and aphelion, Philip II of Spain, Plutarch, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Pope Gregory XIII, Pope Paul III, Pope Sixtus IV, Portuguese Empire, Proleptic Gregorian calendar, Protestantism, Proto-Indo-European language, Reformation, Regiomontanus, Republic of Venice, Revised Julian calendar, Roger Bacon, Roman calendar, Roman Empire, Roman festivals, Roman mythology, Roman Republic, Rumi calendar, Saint, Semitone, September, Solar calendar, Solar time, Solstice, Southern Netherlands, Spanish Empire, Sulfur, Swedish calendar, Symmetry454, Thirty Days Hath September, Tidal acceleration, Tropical year, Tuscany, UNESCO, United States Naval Observatory, University of Salamanca, Vatican Secret Archives, Vegetation deity, Week, William III of England, William Shakespeare, Workweek and weekend, World Book Day, World Calendar, World Digital Library, Year zero. Expand index (130 more) »

Aloysius Lilius

Aloysius Lilius (c. 1510 – 1576), also variously referred to as Luigi Lilio, Luigi Giglio, was an Italian doctor, astronomer, philosopher and chronologist, and also the "primary author" who provided the proposal that (after modifications) became the basis of the Gregorian Calendar reform of 1582.

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Anna Jagiellon

Anna Jagiellon (Anna Jagiellonka, Ona Jogailaitė; 18 October 1523 – 12 November 1596) was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania in her own right from 1575 to 1586.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Annunciation

The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.

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Aphrodite

Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.

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April

April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, the fifth in the early Julian, the first of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the second of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.

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Astronomical year numbering

Astronomical year numbering is based on AD/CE year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly.

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August

August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

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Augustus

Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Austin, Texas

Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties.

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Axial precession

In astronomy, axial precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis.

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Battle of Agincourt

The Battle of Agincourt (Azincourt) was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War.

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Battle of Blenheim

The Battle of Blenheim (German:Zweite Schlacht bei Höchstädt; French Bataille de Höchstädt), fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession.

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Bede

Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Brixham

Brixham is a small fishing town and civil parish in the district of Torbay in the county of Devon, in the south-west of England.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Calabria

Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.

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Calendar (New Style) Act 1750

The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 (c.23) (also known as Chesterfield's Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.

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Calendar era

A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar.

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Calendar of saints

The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.

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Calendar reform

Calendar reform, properly calendrical reform, is any significant revision of a calendar system.

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Carolingian Empire

The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.

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Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

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Christopher Clavius

Christopher Clavius (25 March 1538 – 6 February 1612) was a German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who modified the proposal of the modern Gregorian calendar after the death of its primary author, Aloysius Lilius.

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Cincius

Cincius, whose praenomen was likely Lucius and whose cognomen goes unrecorded, was an antiquarian writer probably during the time of Augustus.

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Civil calendar

The civil calendar is the calendar, or possibly one of several calendars, used within a country for civil, official or administrative purposes.

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Cognate

In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Common year

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days.

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Computus

Computus (Latin for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter.

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Conversion between Julian and Gregorian calendars

The tables below list equivalent dates in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Council of Trent

The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.

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Crispin and Crispinian

Saints Crispin and Crispinian are the Christian patron saints of cobblers, curriers, tanners, and leather workers.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Day

A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun (solar day).

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December

December is the twelfth and final month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and is the seventh and last of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

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Determination of the day of the week

The determination of the day of the week for any date may be performed with a variety of algorithms.

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Doomsday rule

The Doomsday rule is an algorithm of determination of the day of the week for a given date.

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Dual dating

Dual dating is the practice, in historical materials, to indicate some dates with what appears to be duplicate, or excessive digits, sometimes separated by a hyphen or a slash.

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Duchy of Lorraine

The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.

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Dutch Republic

The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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Earth's rotation

Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.

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Easter

Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Etruscan mythology

Etruscan mythology comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious practices of the Etruscan civilization, originating in the 7th century BC from the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture, with its influences in the mythology of ancient Greece and Phoenicia, and sharing similarities with concurrent Roman mythology.

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February

February is the second and shortest month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar with 28 days in common years and 29 days in leap years, with the quadrennial 29th day being called the leap day.

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February 29

February 29, also known as leap day or leap year day, is a date added to most years that are divisible by 4, such as 2008, 2012, 2016, 2020, and 2024.

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Februus

In ancient Roman religion, Februus, whose name means "purifier", was the god of purification.

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Fever

Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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First Council of Nicaea

The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.

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French Republican Calendar

The French Republican Calendar (calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary Calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français), was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871.

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Giambattista Benedetti

Giambattista (Gianbattista) Benedetti (August 14, 1530 in Venice – January 20, 1590 in Turin) was an Italian mathematician from Venice who was also interested in physics, mechanics, the construction of sundials, and the science of music.

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Giuseppe Moletti

Giuseppe Moletti (1531–1588) was an Italian mathematician best known for his Dialogo intorno alla Meccanica (Dialogue on Mechanics).

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Globalization

Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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Greek Old Calendarists

Greek Old Calendarists (Greek: Παλαιοημερολογίτες, Paleoimerologites), sometimes abbreviated as GOC ("Genuine Orthodox Christians"), are groups of Old Calendarist Orthodox Christians that remained committed to the traditional Orthodox practice and are not in communion with many other Orthodox churches such as the Orthodox Church of Greece, the Patriarchate of Constantinople, or the Church of Cyprus.

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Hand

A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.

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Hanke–Henry Permanent Calendar

The Hanke–Henry Permanent Calendar (HHPC) is a proposal for calendar reform.

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Hebrew calendar

The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.

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Hijri year

The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.

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History of calendars

The history of calendars, that is, of people creating and using methods for keeping track of days and larger divisions of time, covers a practice with very ancient roots.

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History of Italy (1559–1814)

The history of Italy in the Early Modern period was partially characterized by foreign domination.

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Holocene calendar

The Holocene calendar, also known as the Holocene Era or Human Era (HE), is a year numbering system that adds exactly 10,000 years to the currently dominant (AD or CE) numbering scheme, placing its first year near the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch and the Neolithic Revolution, when humans transitioned from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to agriculture and fixed settlements.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Iberian Union

The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.

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Index finger

The index finger (also referred to as forefinger, first finger, pointer finger, trigger finger, digitus secundus, digitus II, and many other terms), is the first finger and the second digit of a human hand.

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Inter gravissimas

Inter gravissimas was a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582.

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International Fixed Calendar

The International Fixed Calendar (also known as the Cotsworth plan, the Eastman plan, the 13 Month calendar or the Equal Month calendar) is a solar calendar proposal for calendar reform designed by Moses B. Cotsworth, who presented it in 1902.

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International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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International standard

International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations.

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Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.

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Islamic calendar

The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.

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ISO 8601

ISO 8601 Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times is an international standard covering the exchange of date- and time-related data.

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January

January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

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Janus

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus (IANVS (Iānus)) is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, duality, doorways, passages, and endings.

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Jean Meeus

Jean Meeus (born 12 December 1928) is a Belgian meteorologist and amateur astronomer specializing in celestial mechanics, spherical and mathematical astronomy.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Johannes de Sacrobosco

Johannes de Sacrobosco, also written Ioannis de Sacro Bosco (1195 – 1256), was a scholar, monk and astronomer who was a teacher at the University of Paris.

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John Dee

John Dee (13 July 1527 – 1608 or 1609) was an English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occult philosopher, and advisor to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination, and Hermetic philosophy.

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John Herschel

Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical work.

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John James Bond

John James Bond (9 December 1819 – 9 December 1883) was an English chronologist, who served in the record office of Queen Victoria.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Julian day

Julian day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period and is used primarily by astronomers.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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July

July is the seventh month of the year (between June and August) in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the fourth of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

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June

June is the sixth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the second of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the third of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.

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Juno (mythology)

Juno (Latin: IVNO, Iūnō) is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state.

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Kingdom of Great Britain

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.

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Knuckle

The knuckles are the joints of the fingers which are brought into prominence when the hand is clenched and a fist is made.

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Knuckle mnemonic

The knuckle mnemonic is a mnemonic device for remembering the number of days in the months of the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Lady Day

In the western liturgical year, Lady Day is the traditional name in some English speaking countries of the Feast of the Annunciation (25 March), known in the 1549 Prayer Book of Edward VI and the 1667 Book of Common Prayer as "The Annunciation of the (Blessed) Virgin Mary" but more accurately (as currently in the 1997 Calendar of the Church of England) termed "The Annunciation of our Lord to the Blessed Virgin Mary".

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Leap second

A leap second is a one-second adjustment that is occasionally applied to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in order to keep its time of day close to the mean solar time as realized by UT1.

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Leap week calendar

A leap week calendar is a calendar system with a whole number of weeks every year, and with every year starting on the same weekday.

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Leap year

A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year containing one additional day (or, in the case of lunisolar calendars, a month) added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year.

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List of adoption dates of the Gregorian calendar per country

This is a list of adoption dates of the Gregorian calendar per country.

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List of calendars

This is a list of calendars.

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List of death deities

Deities associated with death take many different forms, depending on the specific culture and religion being referenced.

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List of fertility deities

A fertility deity is a god or goddess associated with sex, fertility, pregnancy, and childbirth.

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List of war deities

A war deity is a god or goddess in mythology associated with war, combat, or bloodshed.

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Little finger

The little finger or pinky finger, also known as the fourth digit or just pinky, is the most ulnar and smallest finger of the human hand, opposite the thumb, and next to the ring finger.

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Lunar calendar

A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.

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Lupercalia

Lupercalia was a very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral annual festival, observed in the city of Rome on February 15, to avert evil spirits and purify the city, releasing health and fertility.

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Maia

Maia (or; Μαῖα; Maia), in ancient Greek religion, is one of the Pleiades and the mother of Hermes.

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March

March is the third month of the year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Marcus Terentius Varro

Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.

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Marriage in ancient Rome

Marriage in ancient Rome was a strictly monogamous institution: a Roman citizen by law could have only one spouse at a time.

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Mars (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.

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May

May is the fifth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the third of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

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Metonic cycle

For astronomy and calendar studies, the Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris (from ἐννεακαιδεκαετηρίς, "nineteen years") is a period of very close to 19 years that is nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic (lunar) month.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Miguel de Cervantes

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.

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Mnemonic

A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.

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Modern history

Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.

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Month

A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural period related to the motion of the Moon; month and Moon are cognates.

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Mother Goose

The figure of Mother Goose is the imaginary author of a collection of fairy tales and nursery rhymes often published as Old Mother Goose's Rhymes, as illustrated by Arthur Rackham in 1913.

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Musical keyboard

A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument.

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Mysterii Paschalis

Mysterii Paschalis is the incipit of an apostolic letter issued motu proprio (that is, "of his own accord") by Pope Paul VI on 14 February 1969.

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Nativity of Jesus

The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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November

November is the eleventh and penultimate month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars, the fourth and last of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the fifth and last of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.

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October

October is the tenth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the sixth of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

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Old Calendarists

An Old Calendarist is any Eastern Orthodox Christian or any Eastern Orthodox Church body which uses the historic Julian calendar (called "Old Style Calendar" or "Church calendar" or "Old Calendar"), and whose Church body is not in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Churches that use the New Calendar.

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Old Style and New Style dates

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.

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Opus Majus

The Opus Majus (Latin for "Greater Work") is the most important work of Roger Bacon.

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Oral tradition

Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.

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Oriental Orthodoxy

Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.

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Papal bull

A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Papal States

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.

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Parilia

''Festa di Pales, o L'estate'' (1783), a reimagining of the Festival of Pales by Joseph-Benoît Suvée In ancient Roman religion, the Parilia is a festival of rural character performed annually on 21 April, aimed at cleansing both sheep and shepherd.

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Pax Calendar

The Pax calendar was invented by James A. Colligan, SJ in 1930 as a perennializing reform of the annualized Gregorian calendar.

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Perihelion and aphelion

The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.

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Philip II of Spain

Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).

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Plutarch

Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Pope Gregory XIII

Pope Gregory XIII (Gregorius XIII; 7 January 1502 – 10 April 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585.

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Pope Paul III

Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.

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Pope Sixtus IV

Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.

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Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.

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Proleptic Gregorian calendar

The proleptic Gregorian calendar is produced by extending the Gregorian calendar backward to dates preceding its official introduction in 1582.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Reformation

The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Regiomontanus

Johannes Müller von Königsberg (6 June 1436 – 6 July 1476), better known as Regiomontanus, was a mathematician and astronomer of the German Renaissance, active in Vienna, Buda and Nuremberg.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Revised Julian calendar

The Revised Julian calendar, also known as the Milanković calendar, or, less formally, new calendar, is a calendar proposed by the Serbian scientist Milutin Milanković in 1923, which effectively discontinued the 340 years of divergence between the naming of dates sanctioned by those Eastern Orthodox churches adopting it and the Gregorian calendar that has come to predominate worldwide.

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Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.

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Roman calendar

The Roman calendar was the calendar used by the Roman kingdom and republic.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman festivals

Festivals in ancient Rome were a very important part of Roman religious life during both the Republican and Imperial eras, and one of the primary features of the Roman calendar.

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Roman mythology

Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Rumi calendar

The Rumi calendar (Rumi takvim, "Roman calendar"), a specific calendar based on the Julian calendar was officially used by the Ottoman Empire after Tanzimat (1839) and by its successor, the Republic of Turkey until 1926.

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Saint

A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.

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Semitone

A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone, is the smallest musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music, and it is considered the most dissonant when sounded harmonically.

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September

September is the ninth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the third of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the fourth of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.

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Solar calendar

A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the position of the apparent position of the sun in relative to the stars.

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Solar time

Solar time is a calculation of the passage of time based on the position of the Sun in the sky.

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Solstice

A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.

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Southern Netherlands

The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Swedish calendar

The Swedish calendar (Svenska kalendern) or Swedish style (Svenska stilen) was a calendar in use in Sweden and its possessions from 1 March 1700 until 30 February 1712 (see below).

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Symmetry454

The Symmetry454 Calendar (Sym454) is a proposal for calendar reform created by Dr.

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Thirty Days Hath September

"Thirty Days Hath September..." or "Thirty Days Has September..." is a traditional verse mnemonic used to remember the number of days in the months of the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Tidal acceleration

Tidal acceleration is an effect of the tidal forces between an orbiting natural satellite (e.g. the Moon), and the primary planet that it orbits (e.g. Earth).

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Tropical year

A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice.

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Tuscany

Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United States Naval Observatory

The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.

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University of Salamanca

The University of Salamanca (Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the city of Salamanca, west of Madrid, in the autonomous community of Castile and León.

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Vatican Secret Archives

The Vatican Secret Archives (Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum; Archivio Segreto Vaticano) is the central repository in the Vatican City for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See.

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Vegetation deity

A vegetation deity is a nature deity whose disappearance and reappearance, or life, death and rebirth, embodies the growth cycle of plants.

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Week

A week is a time unit equal to seven days.

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William III of England

William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Workweek and weekend

The workweek and weekend are those complementary parts of the week devoted to labour and rest, respectively.

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World Book Day

World Book Day or World Book and Copyright Day (also known as International Day of the Book or World Book Days) is a yearly event on April 23rd, organized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to promote reading, publishing and copyright.

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World Calendar

The World Calendar is a proposed reform of the Gregorian calendar created by Elisabeth Achelis of Brooklyn, New York in 1930.

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World Digital Library

The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.

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Year zero

Year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini system usually used to number years in the Gregorian calendar and in its predecessor, the Julian calendar.

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Redirects here:

Catholic calendar, Christian Calendar, Christian calendar, Common calendar, Gregoran calendar, Gregorean calendar, Gregorian Calendar, Gregorian Calender, Gregorian Christian calendar, Gregorian Date, Gregorian calendar reform, Gregorian calender, Gregorian date, Gregorian era, Gregorian month, Gregorian reform of the calendar, International calendar, Western calendar.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregorian_calendar

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