355 relations: Abdi İpekçi, Abdullah Çatlı, Adolf Hitler, Al-Monitor, Alevism, Alfortville, Alfortville Armenian Genocide Memorial bombings, Algemeen Nederlands Persbureau, Alparslan Çelik, Alparslan Türkeş, Amberin Zaman, Amnesty International, Ani, Annan Plan for Cyprus, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Annual Report on the Protection of the Constitution, Anti-Armenian sentiment, Anti-communism, Anti-Greek sentiment, Anti-Iranian sentiment, Anti-Kurdish sentiment, Anti-Russian sentiment, Antisemitism, Aram (2002 film), Ararat (film), Argumenty i Fakty, Armenian Genocide, Armenian Genocide denial, Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day, Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia, Armenian Weekly, Armenians, Army of Conquest, Asbarez, Asena, Assassination, Assassination of Andrei Karlov, Attacks on parachutists, Autonomous republic, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan National Democrat Party, Azerbaijani Armed Forces, Azerbaijani Popular Front Party, Çorum massacre, Ürümqi, Şişli, Baden-Württemberg, Bahçelievler massacre, BBC News, Belgian local elections, 2006, ..., Berchem, Beyazıt massacre, Bianet, Black Garden, Blank-firing adaptor, Bolu, Bomb, Brookings Institution, Business Insider, Central Asia, Central Intelligence Agency, Chechnya, Chicago Tribune, China, China Times, Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams, Christian, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, City with special status, Club (weapon), CNN, Committee for a Workers' International, Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Constitutional Court of Turkey, Counter-Guerrilla, Crimea, Crimean Tatars, Cypriot Annan Plan referendums, 2004, Dagestan, Daniel Pipes, Daniele Ganser, De Standaard, Death of Tassos Isaac, Death squad, Deep state in Turkey, Defense Technical Information Center, Democratic Regions Party, Der Spiegel, Devlet Bahçeli, Die Welt, Die Zeit, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doğan News Agency, Echo of Moscow, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Effigy, Ege University, Elâzığ, Elections in Northern Cyprus, Empire of the Wolves, Ergenekon, Ergenekon (allegation), Ergenekon trials, Erik Zürcher, Europe-Asia Studies, European Stability Initiative, Extortion, Extremism, False dilemma, Far-right politics, Federal Agency for Civic Education, Federal cities of Russia, Federal Counterintelligence Service, Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community, Federal subjects of Russia, Federation Council (Russia), Fener, First Chechen War, Flag of China, Forbes, Freedom and Solidarity Party, Gazeta.ru, Gazi Quarter riots, General Directorate for Internal Security, Georgia (country), Ghent, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Grassroots, Great Unity Party, Greek–Turkish relations, Greeks, Green Left Weekly, Green Party (Sweden), Guerrilla warfare, Hagia Sophia, Harry Anastasiou, Hürriyet, Hürriyet Daily News, Heydar Aliyev, IFEX (organization), Ilham Aliyev, Illegal drug trade, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Index finger, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, International Business Times, International Crisis Group, International Press Institute, International Strategic Studies Association, International Workers' Day, Iraqi insurgency (2003–11), Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraqi Turkmens, Isgandar Hamidov, Islam, Israel, Istanbul pogrom, Istanbul University, Jacob M. Landau, Jean-Baptiste Kléber, Jean-Christophe Grangé, Journal of Conflict Resolution, July 2009 Ürümqi riots, Justice and Development Party (Turkey), Kahramanmaraş, Katana, Köşklüçiftlik, Kütahya Dumlupınar University, Kenan Evren, Khalid Duran, Kherson Oblast, Kirkuk Governorate, Kommersant, Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present), Kurdish–Turkish conflict (2015–present), Kurdistan Democratic Party, Kurdistan Workers' Party, Kurds, Kurds in Germany, Kutlu Adalı, Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia, Le Figaro, Le Monde, Le Point, Le Soir, Little finger, Los Angeles Times, M. E. Sharpe, Mahir Ünal, Maraş massacre, Marmara University, Masoud Barzani, Massacre, Mehmet Ali Ağca, Mehmet Ali Birand, Mehmet Kaplan, Mein Kampf, Middle East Eye, Middle East Institute, Middle East Report, Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, Military, Milliyet, Minorities at Risk, Monoethnicity, Motherland Party (Turkey), Murder of Sevag Balıkçı, Nagorno-Karabakh War, National Criminal Justice Reference Service, National Democratic Party of Germany, National Intelligence Organization (Turkey), Nationalist Movement Party, NATO, Nazi Germany, Near East University, Neo-fascism, Neues Deutschland, New America Media, Nineveh Governorate, North Nicosia, North Rhine-Westphalia, Northern Cyprus, NTV (Russia), Open Society Foundations, Operation Gladio, Orhan Kemal Cengiz, Pan-Turkism, PanARMENIAN.Net, Paramilitary, Parti Socialiste (Belgium), Paul Beliën, People smuggling, People's Democracy Party, Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkey), Pluto Press, Political violence in Turkey (1976–80), Politico, Pope Benedict XVI, Pope John Paul II, Pope John Paul II assassination attempt, Pravda.ru, R. W. Apple Jr., Radikal, Radio France Internationale, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, RAND Corporation, Rauf Denktaş, RBK Group, Refugees of the Syrian Civil War, Reporters Without Borders, Republican People's Party (Turkey), Reuters, Rovshan Javadov, Rowman & Littlefield, Royal United Services Institute, Ruben Safrastyan, Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War, Sabah (newspaper), SAGE Publications, Sancaktepe, Sözcü, Schaerbeek, Schutzstaffel, Scientific Council for Government Policy, Second Chechen War, Security Dialogue, Sevastopol, Siege of Kobanî, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Socialistische Partij Anders, SoL (newspaper), Solution process, South Asia Analysis Group, South China Morning Post, Soviet Union, Special Warfare Department, Sputnik (news agency), St. Peter's Square, State Duma, Status quo, Stay-behind, Stephen E. Ambrose, Steven Emerson, Sukhoi Su-24, Suleiman al-Halabi, Susurluk car crash, Susurluk scandal, Svante Cornell, Svenska Dagbladet, Syria, Syrian Civil War, Syrian Turkmen, Syrian Turkmen Assembly, Syrian Turkmen Brigades, Taksim Square, Taksim Square massacre, Taraf, Taser, Taylor & Francis, Tbilisi State University, Terrorism, The Beast Reawakens, The Brussels Journal, The Christian Science Monitor, The Daily Beast, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Independent, The Irish Times, The Local, The New York Times, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The Sydney Morning Herald, The Washington Post, The Washington Times, Thomas de Waal, Tigran Hamasyan, Today's Zaman, Turanism, Turgut Özal, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkic mythology, Turkic peoples, Turkish general election, 1999, Turkish invasion of Cyprus, Turkish nationalism, Turkistan Islamic Party, Turks in Belgium, Turks in Germany, Ukraine, Ultranationalism, United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United States Institute of Peace, University of Southern California, University of St Andrews, Urban guerrilla warfare, Uyghur language, Uyghur nationalism, Uyghurs, Vatansever Kuvvetler Güç Birliği Hareketi, Vox (website), Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Western Europe, Xinjiang, Youm7, Zaman (newspaper), 1980 Turkish coup d'état, 1993 Solingen arson attack, 1995 Azerbaijani coup d'état attempt, 2015 Bangkok bombing, 2015 Russian Sukhoi Su-24 shootdown. 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Abdi İpekçi (9 August 1929 – 1 February 1979) was a Turkish journalist, intellectual and an activist for human rights.
Abdullah Çatlı (1 June 1956 – 3 November 1996) was a convicted Turkish secret government agent, and contract killer for the Counter-Guerrilla.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Al-Monitor (المونيتور) is a media site launched in February 2012 by the Arab American entrepreneur Jamal Daniel and based in Washington, DC.
Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.
Alfortville is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France.
The Alfortville Armenian Genocide Memorial bombing was a hit-team headed attack undertaken by Grey Wolves member Abdullah Catli and paid for by the Turkish National Intelligence Organization.
The Algemeen Nederlands Persbureau (ANP) is the largest news agency in the Netherlands.
Alparslan Çelik is a Turkish Islamist-Nationalist Alperen Ocakları member.
Alparslan Türkeş (25 November 1917 – 4 April 1997) was a Turkish politician who was the founder and president of the Nationalist Movement Party.
Amberin Zaman is a Turkish journalist.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.
The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus reunification plan.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
The Annual Report on the Protection of the Constitution (Verfassungsschutzbericht) is an annual report on the activities of far right, far left, and Islamic extremist circles and on espionage activities in Germany.
Anti-Armenian sentiment, also known as Anti-Armenianism and Armenophobia, is a diverse spectrum of negative feelings, dislikes, fears, aversion, derision and/or prejudice towards Armenians, Armenia, and Armenian culture.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Anti-Greek sentiment (also known as Hellenophobia (translit), anti-Hellenism, mishellenism (translit), or Greek-bashing) refers to negative feelings, dislike, hatred, derision and/or prejudice towards Greeks, the Hellenic Republic, and Greek culture.
Anti-Iranian sentiment also known as Anti-Persian sentiment, Persophobia, or IranophobiaRam, H. (2009): Iranophobia: The Logic of an Israeli Obsession, Stanford University Press, refers to feelings and expression of hostility, hatred, discrimination, or prejudice towards Iran (Persia) and its culture, and towards persons based on their association with Iran and Iranian culture.
Anti-Kurdish sentiment, also known as anti-Kurdism or Kurdophobia, is the hostility, fear, intolerance or racism against the Kurdish people, Kurdish culture, or Kurdish languages.
Anti-Russian sentiment or Russophobia is a diverse spectrum of negative feelings, dislikes, fears, aversion, derision and/or prejudice of Russia, Russians or Russian culture.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Aram is a 2002 French action drama film written and directed by Robert Kechichian.
Ararat is a 2002 Canadian-French historical-drama film written and directed by Atom Egoyan and starring Charles Aznavour, Christopher Plummer, David Alpay, Arsinée Khanjian, Eric Bogosian, Bruce Greenwood and Elias Koteas.
Argumenty i Fakty (Аргументы и факты, commonly abbreviated "АиФ" and translated as Arguments and Facts) is a weekly newspaper based in Moscow and a publishing house in Russia and worldwide.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Armenian Genocide denial is the act of denying the planned systematic genocide of 1.5 million Armenians during World War I, conducted by the Ottoman government.
Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day (Մեծ Եղեռնի զոհերի հիշատակի օր Mets Yegherrni zoheri hishataki or; Геноцид армян День памяти, Genotsid armyan Den' pamyati; Ermeni Soykırımı Anma Günü) or Armenian Genocide Memorial Day is a national holiday in Armenia and the Republic of Artsakh and is observed by the Armenian diaspora on 24 April.
The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) (Հայաստանի Ազատագրութեան Հայ Գաղտնի Բանակ, ՀԱՀԳԲ, Hayasdani Azadakrut'ean Hay Kaghdni Panag, HAHKP) was an Armenian militant organization, that operated from 1975 to the early 1990s.
Armenian Weekly (originally Hairenik Weekly) is an English Armenian publication published by Hairenik Association, Inc.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Army of Conquest (جيش الفتح) or Jaish al-Fatah, abbreviated JaF, was a joint command center of Sunni Islamist Syrian rebel factions participating in the Syrian Civil War.
Asbarez (Ասպարէզ "Arena") is an Armenian-American bilingual daily newspaper published in Armenian and English in Los Angeles, California, by the Western USA Central Committee of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
Asena is the name of a she-wolf associated with a Göktürk ethnogenic myth "full of shamanic symbolism.".
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
Andrei Karlov, the Russian Ambassador to Turkey, was assassinated by Mevlüt Mert Altıntaş, an off-duty Turkish police officer, at an art exhibition in Ankara, Turkey on the evening of 19 December 2016.
Attacks on parachutists, as defined by the law of war, is when pilots, aircrews, and passengers are attacked while descending by parachute from disabled aircraft during wartime.
An autonomous republic is a type of administrative division similar to a province or state.
The Azerbaijan National Democrat Party (Milli Demokrat İdrak Partiyası), formerly known as the Grey Wolves Party, is a political party in Azerbaijan.
The Armed Forces of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Silahlı Qüvvələri) were re-established according to the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Armed Forces from 9 October 1991.
The Azerbaijani Popular Front Party (APFP) (Azərbaycan Xalq Cəbhəsi Partiyası) is an opposition political party in Azerbaijan, founded in 1992 by Abulfaz Elchibey.
The Çorum pogrom or Çorum massacres occurred in the province of Çorum in Turkey between May and July 1980.
Ürümqi (yengi; from Oirat "beautiful pasture") is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China.
Şişli is one of 39 districts of Istanbul, Turkey.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
The Bahçelievler massacre is the name given to the events of October 9, 1978 in Bahçelievler, Ankara, Turkey, when seven university students, members of the Turkish Workers' Party, were assassinated by ultra-nationalists including Grey Wolves' leader Abdullah Çatlı, and Haluk Kırcı.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Belgian provincial, municipal and district elections of 2006 took place on Sunday 8 October 2006.
Berchem is a southern district of the municipality and city of Antwerp in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
The Beyazıt massacre (Beyazıt katliamı) of 16 March 1978 was the massacre of students at Istanbul University, in which 7 died and 41 were injured.
Bianet (acronym for lit) is an independent Turkish press agency based in Istanbul.
Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War is a 2003 book by Thomas de Waal, based on the study of Armenia and Azerbaijan, two former Soviet republics, during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
A blank-firing adapter or blank-firing attachment (BFA), sometimes called a blank adapter or blank attachment, is a device used in conjunction with blank ammunition.
Bolu is a city in Turkey, and administrative center of the Bolu Province.
A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The China Times is a daily Chinese newspaper published in Taiwan.
Christian Democratic and Flemish (Dutch: Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams, CD&V) is a Christian democratic Flemish political party in Belgium.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
City with special status (місто зі спеціальним статусом) (formerly, "city of republican subordinance") refers to two of Ukraine's 27 administrative regions, which are the cities of Kiev and Sevastopol.
A club (also known as a cudgel, baton, truncheon, cosh, nightstick, beating stick, or bludgeon) is among the simplest of all weapons: a short staff or stick, usually made of wood, wielded as a weapon since prehistoric times.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The Committee for a Workers' International (CWI) is an international association of Trotskyist political parties.
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF; Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации; КПРФ; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, KPRF) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Russia.
The Constitutional Court of Turkey (Anayasa Mahkemesi, sometimes abbreviated as AYM) is the highest legal body for constitutional review in Turkey.
Counter-Guerrilla (Kontrgerilla) is the Turkish branch of Operation Gladio, a clandestine stay-behind anti-communist initiative backed by the United States as an expression of the Truman Doctrine.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
A referendum on the Annan Plan was held in the Republic of Cyprus and the breakaway Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus on 24 April 2004.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian, writer, and commentator.
Daniele Ganser (born 29 August 1972) is a Swiss historian.
De Standaard (meaning The Standard in English) is a Flemish daily newspaper published in Belgium by Mediahuis (formerly Corelio and VUM).
Anastasios "Tassos" Isaac (Αναστάσιος "Τάσος" Ισαάκ) (1972 – 11 August 1996), was a Greek Cypriot refugee who participated in a civilian demonstration against the Republic of Turkey's military occupation of the northern part of the Republic of Cyprus.
A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror.
The deep state (derin devlet) is alleged to be a group of influential anti-democratic coalitions within the Turkish political system, composed of high-level elements within the intelligence services (domestic and foreign), Turkish military, security, judiciary, and mafia.
The Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC, pronounced "Dee-tick") is the premier repository for research and engineering information for the United States Department of Defense.
The Democratic Regions Party (Demokratik Bölgeler Partisi, Partiya Herêman a Demokratîk, DBP) is a social democratic Kurdish political party in the Republic of Turkey.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Devlet Bahçeli (born 1 January 1948) is a Turkish politician who has been the chairman of the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) since 6 July 1997.
Die Welt ("The World") is a German national daily newspaper, published as a broadsheet by Axel Springer SE.
Die Zeit (literally "The Time") is a German national weekly newspaper published in Hamburg in north Germany.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Doğan News Agency (DHA; Doğan Haber Ajansı) is a Turkish news agency which was founded in 1999.
Echo of Moscow (Э́хо Москвы́, Ekho Moskvy) is a Russian radio station based in Moscow, broadcasting in many Russian cities, some of the former-Soviet republics (through partnerships with local radio stations), and via the Internet.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
An effigy is a representation of a specific person in the form of sculpture or some other three-dimensional medium.
Ege University (Ege Üniversitesi) is a public university in İzmir, Turkey.
Elazığ) is a city in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, and the administrative center of Elazığ Province. It is located in the uppermost Euphrates valley. The plain on which the city extends has an altitude of 1067 metres. Elazığ resembles an inland peninsula surrounded by the natural Lake Hazar and reservoirs of Keban Dam, Karakaya Dam, Kıralkızı and Özlüce.http://www.kultur.gov.tr/genel/medya/iltanitimbrosuru-eng/elazig_eng.pdf Elazığ initially developed in 1834 as an extension of the historic city of Harput, which was situated on a hill and difficult to access in winter.
Elections in Northern Cyprus, are organized to elect governments, presidents and representatives of local administrative bodies in Northern Cyprus, de facto known as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
Empire of the Wolves (French: L'Empire des loups) is a 2005 movie directed by Chris Nahon, written by Christian Clavier, Jean-Christophe Grangé, Chris Nahon and Franck Ollivier, and starring Jean Reno, Arly Jover, and Jocelyn Quivrin.
Ergenekon or Ergeneqon (Turkish: Ergenekon, Mongolian: Эргүнэ хун/Ergüne khun) is a founding myth.
Ergenekon was the name given to an alleged clandestine, secularist ultra-nationalist organization in Turkey with possible ties to members of the country's military and security forces.
The Ergenekon trials were a series of high-profile trials which took place in Turkey in which 275 people, including military officers, journalists and opposition lawmakers, all alleged members of Ergenekon, a suspected secularist clandestine organization, were accused of plotting against the Turkish government.
Erik Zürcher (13 September 1928, Utrecht – 7 February 2008, Warmond) was a Dutch Sinologist.
Europe-Asia Studies is an academic peer-reviewed journal published 10 times a year by Routledge on behalf of the Institute of Central and East European Studies, University of Glasgow, and continuing (since vol. 45, 1993) the journal Soviet Studies (vols. 1-44, 1949–1992), which was renamed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The European Stability Initiative (ESI) is an independent think tank focusing on South East Europe and EU Enlargement with offices in Berlin, Brussels and Istanbul.
Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion.
Extremism means, literally, "the quality or state of being extreme" or the "advocacy of extreme measures or views".
A false dilemma is a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed to be an "either/or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional option.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
The Federal Agency for Civic Education, FACE (Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, bpb) is a German federal government agency responsible for promoting civic education.
A city of federal importance (r) or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.
The FSK (Federalnaya Sluzhba Kontrrazvedki (Федера́льная Слу́жба Контрразве́дки), Federal Counterintelligence Service) was a state security organization, initially of the USSR, and, after its dissolution, of the Russian Federation.
The Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community (Bundesministerium des Innern, für Bau und Heimat; Heimat also translates to "homeland"), abbreviated BMI, is cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
The Federation Council (Сове́т Федера́ции; Sovet Federatsii, common abbreviation: Совфед (Sovfed) or Senate) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation.
Fener (Φανάρι) is a quarter midway up the Golden Horn within the district of Fatih in Istanbul, Turkey.
The First Chechen War (Пе́рвая чече́нская война́), also known as the First Chechen Сampaign (Пе́рвая чече́нская кампа́ния) or First Russian-Chechen war, was a rebellion by the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria against the Russian Federation, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.
The flag of China, also known as the Five-star Red Flag, is a red field charged in the canton (upper corner nearest the flagpole) with five golden stars.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
The Freedom and Solidarity Party (Özgürlük ve Dayanışma Partisi, ÖDP) is a left-libertarian and internationalist socialist political party in Turkey.
Gazeta.ru (газета.ru) is a Russian news site based in Moscow and owned by Rambler&Co.
The 1995 Gazi Quarter riots (Gazi Mahallesi olayları) were events that occurred in March 1995 at the Gazi Quarter, a working-class neighborhood in the then Gaziosmanpaşa district, today Sultangazi district, of Istanbul, Turkey, where mostly Alevis live.
The General Directorate for Internal Security (Direction générale de la sécurité intérieure, DGSI) is a French intelligence agency.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a left-wing political movement) is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement.
The Great Unity Party (Büyük Birlik Partisi, BBP) or Great Union Party is a far-right Islamist and nationalist political party in Turkey, created on 29 January 1993.
The relations between the Greek and the Turkish states have been marked by alternating periods of mutual hostility and reconciliation ever since Greece won its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Green Left Weekly is an Australian socialist newspaper, written by progressive activists to "present the views excluded by the big business media".
The Green Party (Miljöpartiet de gröna, literally "Environment Party the Greens", commonly referred to in Swedish as "Miljöpartiet" or MP) is a political party in Sweden based upon green politics.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.
Harry Anastasiou (born 1951) is a British-born Cypriot-American social and political scientist who has engaged in peace-building initiatives in Cyprus, Greece, Turkey, the Middle East and the European Union.
Hürriyet (Liberty) is one of the major Turkish newspapers, founded in 1948.
The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.
Heydar Alirza oghlu Aliyev, also spelled Gaydar Aliev (Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev; Гейда́р Али́евич Али́ев Geydar Aliyevich Aliyev; 10 May 1923 – 12 December 2003), was the third President of Azerbaijan who served from October 1993 to October 2003.
IFEX, formerly the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, is a global network of over 119 independent non-governmental organisations working at the local, national, regional and international level to defend and promote freedom of expression as a fundamental human right.
Ilham Aliyev (İlham Heydər oğlu Əliyev; born 24 December 1961) is the fourth and current President of Azerbaijan, in office since 2003.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
Established in 1989, the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (commonly referred to as Immigration and Refugee Board or simply the IRB), is an independent administrative tribunal that is responsible for making well-rounded and fair decisions on immigration and refugee matters, efficiently and fairly, and in accordance with the law.
The index finger (also referred to as forefinger, first finger, pointer finger, trigger finger, digitus secundus, digitus II, and many other terms), is the first finger and the second digit of a human hand.
Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), New Delhi, is an Indian think tank for advanced research in international relations, especially strategic and security issues, and providing training to civilian and military officers of the Indian government.
The Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS), was founded in 1996 as an independent think-tank to develop an alternative framework for Peace and Security in South Asia through independent research and analysis.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
The International Crisis Group (ICG; also simply known as the Crisis Group) is a transnational non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1995 that carries out field research on violent conflict and advances policies to prevent, mitigate or resolve conflict.
International Press Institute (IPI) is a global organisation dedicated to the promotion and protection of press freedom and the improvement of journalism practices.
The International Strategic Studies Association (ISSA) describes itself as Washington DC based non-governmental organization (NGO) with a worldwide membership of professionals involved in national management, particularly in national and international security and strategic policy.
International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day or Workers' Day in some countries and often referred to as May Day, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.
An insurgency began in Iraq after the 2003 US-led invasion, and lasted throughout the ensuing Iraq War (2003–2011).
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
The Iraqi Turkmens (also spelled Turcomans, Turkomens, and Turkmans; Irak Türkmenleri), also referred to as Iraqi Turks, or Turks of Iraq (تركمان العراق, Irak Türkleri), are Iraqi citizens of Turkic origin who mostly adhere to a Turkish heritage and identity.
İsgender Hamidov (İsgəndər Məcid oğlu Həmidov) (also transliterated as Iskender Majid oglu Hamidov or Iskander Medjid oglu Hamidov) (born April 10, 1948 in Bağlıpəyə village, Kalbajar rayon) is a former Minister of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan who served in the Popular Front government of 1992-1993.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Istanbul pogrom, also known as the Istanbul riots or September events (Septemvriana, "Events of September";, "Events of September 6–7"), were organized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority on 6–7 September 1955.
Istanbul University (İstanbul Üniversitesi) is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul.
Jacob M. Landau is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Political Science (in the field of Middle Eastern Studies) at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Jean-Baptiste Kléber (9 March 1753 – 14 June 1800) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Jean-Christophe Grangé (born 15 July 1961) is a French mystery writer, journalist, and screenwriter.
The Journal of Conflict Resolution is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on international conflict and conflict resolution.
The July 2009 Ürümqi riots were a series of violent riots over several days that broke out on 5 July 2009 in Ürümqi, the capital city of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), in northwestern People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi), abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey.
Kahramanmaraş is a city in the Mediterranean Region, Turkey and the administrative center of Kahramanmaraş Province.
Historically, were one of the traditionally made that were used by the samurai of ancient and feudal Japan.
Köşklüçiftlik is a quarter of North Nicosia in Northern Cyprus.
Kütahya Dumlupınar University is one of the newest universities in Turkey.
Ahmet Kenan Evren (17 July 1917 – 9 May 2015) was a Turkish military officer who was the seventh President of Turkey from 1980 to 1989.
Khalid Durán (خالد دوران) (4 April 1939 – 17 April 2010) was a specialist in the history, sociology and politics of the Islamic world.
Kherson Oblast (Херсонська область, translit. Khersons’ka oblast’; also referred to as Khersonshchyna – Херсонщина) is an oblast (province) in southern Ukraine, just north of Crimea.
Kirkuk Governorate (محافظة كركوك, پارێزگای کەرکووک Parêzgay Kerkûk, ܟܪܟ ܣܠܘܟ, Kerkük ili) or Kirkuk Province is a governorate in northern Iraq.
Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.
The Kurdish–Turkish conflict is an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and various Kurdish insurgent groups, which have demanded separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan, or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside the Republic of Turkey.
In late July 2015, the third phase of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict between various Kurdish insurgent groups and the Turkish government erupted following a failed two and a half year-long peace process, aimed at resolving the long-running conflict.
The Kurdistan Democratic Party (Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê), usually abbreviated as KDP or PDK, is one of the main Kurdish parties in Iraqi Kurdistan.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is an organization based in Turkey and Iraq.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Kurds in Germany refers to people born in or residing in Germany of full or partial Kurdish origin.
Kutlu Adalı (1935 in Nicosia – July 6, 1996), was a Turkish Cypriot journalist, poet and socio-political researcher, and peace advocate.
The Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia is the state parliament (Landtag) of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia that convenes in the state capital of Düsseldorf, in the eastern part of the district of Hafen.
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.
Le Point is a French weekly political and news magazine published in Paris, France.
Le Soir ("The Evening") is a French language daily Belgian newspaper.
The little finger or pinky finger, also known as the fourth digit or just pinky, is the most ulnar and smallest finger of the human hand, opposite the thumb, and next to the ring finger.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.
Mahir Ünal (born 1 July 1966) is a Turkish politician and academic from the Justice and Development Party (AKP) who served as the Minister of Culture and Tourism from 24 November 2015 to 24 May 2016.
The Maraş massacre (Maraş katliamı) was the massacre of more than one hundred Alevi civilians in the city of Kahramanmaraş, Turkey, in December 1978 by the neo-fascist Grey Wolves.
Marmara University (Turkish: Marmara Üniversitesi) is a public university in the Fatih district of Istanbul, in Turkey.
Masoud Barzani (Mesûd Barzanî; born 16 August 1946) is a Kurdish politician who had been President of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region from 2005 to 2017.
A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.
Mehmet Ali Ağca (born 9 January 1958) is a Turkish assassin and Grey Wolves member who murdered left-wing journalist Abdi İpekçi on 1 February 1979, and later shot and wounded Pope John Paul II on 13 May 1981, after escaping from a Turkish prison.
Mehmet Ali Birand (9 December 1941 – 17 January 2013) was a Turkish journalist, political commentator and writer.
Mehmet Güner Kaplan (born 18 July 1971) is a Swedish politician of Turkish origin who served as Minister for Housing and Urban Development from 2014 to 2016.
Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
The Middle East Eye (MEE) is an online news portal covering events in the Middle East.
The Middle East Institute (MEI) is a non-profit, non-partisan think tank and cultural center in Washington, D.C., founded in 1946.
The Middle East Report is a magazine published by the Middle East Research and Information Project (MERIP).
The Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (MIIS), formerly known as the Monterey Institute of International Studies, is an American graduate school within Middlebury College, a private university located in Middlebury, Vermont.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Milliyet (Turkish for "nationality") is a major Turkish daily newspaper published in Istanbul, Turkey.
Minorities At Risk (MAR) is a university-based research project that monitors and analyzes the status and conflicts of 283 politically-active communal groups in many countries throughout the world from 1945 to 2006.
Monoethnicity is the existence of a single ethnic group in a given region or country.
The Motherland Party, (Anavatan Partisi, abbreviated as ANAVATAN, formerly ANAP) is a political party in Turkey.
Sevag Şahin Balıkçı (April 1, 1986 – April 24, 2011) was a Turkish soldier of Armenian descent who was shot to death during compulsory military service.
The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an ethnic and territorial conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is a federally sponsored program that shares publications and other information including grants and funding opportunities and upcoming trainings and conferences from the United States Department of Justice's Office of Justice Programs (OJP) agencies and National Institute of Corrections (NIC).
The National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) is a far-right and ultranationalist political party in Germany.
The National Intelligence Organization (Millî İstihbarat Teşkilatı, MİT) is the governmental intelligence organization of Turkey.
The Nationalist Movement Party (alternatively translated as Nationalist Action Party; Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi, MHP) is a Turkish far-right conservative political party that adheres to Turkish ultranationalism and Euroscepticism.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Near East University (NEU; Yakın Doğu Üniversitesi, commonly referred to as YDÜ) is a private university located in North Cyprus.
Neo-fascism is a post–World War II ideology that includes significant elements of fascism.
Neues Deutschland (ND) (New Germany) is a German daily newspaper, currently headquartered in Berlin.
New America Media is a multimedia ethnic news agency and a coalition of ethnic media.
Nineveh Governorate (محافظة نينوى) (ܗܘܦܲܪܟܝܵܐ ܕܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ) is a governorate in northern Iraq that contains the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh.
North Nicosia or Northern Nicosia (Lefkoşa) is the capital and largest city of the de facto state of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.
NTV (Cyrillic: НТВ) is a Russian television channel that was launched as a subsidiary of Vladimir Gusinsky's company.
Open Society Foundations (OSF), formerly the Open Society Institute, is an international grantmaking network founded by business magnate George Soros.
Operation Gladio is the codename for a clandestine North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) "stay-behind" operation in Europe during the Cold War.
Orhan Kemal Cengiz is a Turkish lawyer, journalist and human rights activist.
Pan-Turkism is a movement which emerged during the 1880s among Turkic intellectuals of Azerbaijan (part of the Russian Empire at the time) and the Ottoman Empire (modern day Turkey), with its aim being the cultural and political unification of all Turkic peoples.
PanARMENIAN.Net is the first Armenian online news agency, an internet portal based in Yerevan, Armenia.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic French-speaking political party in Belgium.
Paul Beliën (born 1959), is a Flemish journalist, author and founder of the conservative blog The Brussels Journal.
People smuggling (also called human smuggling), under US law, is "the facilitation, transportation, attempted transportation or illegal entry of a person or persons across an international border, in violation of one or more countries' laws, either clandestinely or through deception, such as the use of fraudulent documents".
People’s Democracy Party (Halkın Demokrasi Partisi, HADEP) was a Kurdish nationalist political party in Turkey.
The Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkish: Halkların Demokratik Partisi (HDP), Kurdish: Partiya Demokratîk a Gelan), or Democratic Party of the Peoples, is a pro-minority political party in Turkey.
Pluto Press is a British independent book publisher based in London.
Political violence in Turkey became a challenging problem in late 1970s.
Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
The first attempted assassination of Pope John Paul II took place on Wednesday, 13 May 1981, in St. Peter's Square in Vatican City.
Pravda.ru (lit) formerly Pravda Online, is a Russian internet news website established in 1999 and owned by Pravda.ru Holding headed by Vadim Gorshenin.
Raymond Walter Apple Jr. (November 20, 1934 – October 4, 2006), known to all as Johnny Apple but bylined as R.W. Apple Jr., was an associate editor at The New York Times, where he wrote on a variety of subjects, most notably politics, travel, and food.
Radikal ("Radical") was a daily liberal Turkish language newspaper, published in Istanbul.
Radio France Internationale generally referred to by its acronym RFI, is a French public radio service that broadcasts in Paris and all over the world.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
Rauf Denktaş; sometimes Rauf Denktash in English; (27 January 192413 January 2012) was a Turkish Cypriot politician, barrister and jurist who served as the founding President of Northern Cyprus.
The RBK Group or RosBiznesKonsalting (Группа компаний «РБК» РБК, РосБизнесКонсалтинг) is a large Russian media group headquartered in Moscow.
Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP), a coordination platform including neighboring countries (with the exception of Israel) and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted almost 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned largely through the UNHCR. By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
The Republican People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi, CHP) is a Kemalist and social-democratic political party in Turkey.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rovshan Javadov (Rövşən Cavadov, 19 October 1951, Lachin – March 17, 1995, Baku) was an officer in the Azerbaijani Armed Forces and the chief of the Special Purpose Police Detachment of Azerbaijan (OPON).
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies (RUSI), sometimes still referred to by its pre-2004 name, the Royal United Services Institution, is a British defence and security think tank.
Ruben Safrastyan (born 5 October 1955), is a professor, director of the Institute of Oriental Studies, full member of the Armenian National Academy of Sciences, and professor of history and Turkish studies at the Yerevan State University.
Russia has supported the internationally recognised government of Syria since the beginning of the Syrian conflict in 2011: politically, with military aid, and since 30 September 2015 also through direct military involvement.
Sabah is a Turkish daily newspaper, with a circulation of around 330,000 as of 2011.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Sancaktepe is a district in the suburbs of Istanbul, Turkey.
Sözcü (English: Spokesperson) is a popular Turkish daily newspaper.
Schaerbeek (obsolete Dutch spelling, retained in French, pronounced) or Schaarbeek (Dutch) is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Scientific Council for Government Policy (in Dutch: Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid, WRR) is an independent think tank of the Dutch government based in The Hague, Netherlands, whose members include prominent social scientists, economists, and legal scholars.
Second Chechen War (Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.
Security Dialogue is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes scholarly articles which combine contemporary theoretical analysis with challenges to public policy across a wide-ranging field of security studies.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
The Siege of Kobanî was launched by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (also known as ISIL, ISIS, or Daesh) militants on 13 September 2014, in order to capture the Kobanî Canton and its main city of Kobanî (also known as Kobanê or Ayn al-Arab) in northern Syria, in the de facto autonomous region of Rojava. By 2 October 2014, ISIL succeeded in capturing 350 Kurdish villages and towns within the vicinity of Kobanê, generating a wave of some 300,000 displaced Kurds, who fled across the border into Turkey's Şanlıurfa Province. By January 2015, this had risen to 400,000. The Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) backed by Euphrates Volcano joint operations room, some Free Syrian Army (FSA) reinforcements, heavily armed Peshmerga of the Kurdistan Regional Government, and American and US-allied Arab militaries' airstrikes began to recapture Kobane. On 26 January 2015, the YPG and its allies, along with the continued US-led airstrikes, began to retake the city, driving ISIL into a steady retreat. The city of Kobanê was fully recaptured on 27 January; however, most of the remaining villages in the Kobanî Canton remained under ISIL control. Kurdish militia along with allied Arab armed groups backed by further airstrikes, then made rapid advances in rural Kobanî, with ISIL withdrawing 25 km from the city of Kobanî by 2 February. By late April 2015, ISIL had lost almost all of the villages it had captured in the Canton, but maintained control of a few dozen villages it seized in the northwestern part of the Raqqa Governorate. In late June 2015, ISIL launched a new offensive against the city, killing at least 233 civilians. The militants were quickly driven back. The battle for Kobanî was considered a turning point in the war against ISIL.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Socialist Party Differently (sp.a) is a social-democratic Flemish political party in Belgium.
soL ("Left" in Turkish) is a left-leaning newspaper in Turkey.
Solution process (Çözüm süreci), also known as the Kurdish–Turkish peace process, was a peace process which aimed to resolve the long-running Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present).
South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG) is a non-profit think tank based in India which conducts public interest and advocacy work.
The South China Morning Post (also known as SCMP or The Post), with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper and Hong Kong's newspaper of record.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Special Warfare Department (SWD, Özel Harp Dairesi (ÖHD)) was the special operations unit of the Turkish Army.
Sputnik (formerly The Voice of Russia and RIA Novosti) is a news agency, news website platform and radio broadcast service established by the Russian government-controlled news agency Rossiya Segodnya.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
Status quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.
In a stay-behind operation, a country places secret operatives or organisations in its own territory, for use in the event that an enemy occupies that territory.
Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American historian and biographer of U.S. Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon.
Steven Emerson (born June 6, 1954) is an American journalist, author, and pundit on national security, terrorism, and Islamic extremism.
The Sukhoi Su-24 (NATO reporting name: Fencer) is a supersonic, all-weather attack aircraft developed in the Soviet Union.
Suleiman al-Halabi (سليمان الحلبي), also spelled Soleyman El-Halaby (1777–1800), was a Syrian theology student in Cairo who assassinated French general Jean-Baptiste Kléber, leader of the French occupation forces in Egypt.
The Susurluk car crash took place on 3 November 1996 in the small town of Susurluk, in Turkey's Balıkesir Province.
The Susurluk scandal was a scandal involving the close relationship between the Turkish government, the armed forces, and organized crime.
Svante E. Cornell (born 1975) is a Swedish scholar specializing on politics and security issues in Eurasia, especially the South Caucasus, Turkey, and Central Asia.
Svenska Dagbladet ("The Swedish Daily News"), abbreviated SvD, is a daily newspaper published in Stockholm, Sweden.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Syrian Turkmen (also referred to as Syrian Turkomans or simply Syrian Turks or Turks of Syria) (تركمان سوريا, Suriye Türkmenleri or Suriye Türkleri), are Syrian citizens of mainly Turkish origin whose families had migrated to Syria from Anatolia during the centuries of Ottoman rule (1516-1918).
The Syrian Turkmen Assembly (Suriye Türkmen Meclisi, المجلس السوري التركماني) is a coalition of Syrian Turkmen political parties and groups representing Syrian Turkmens in the Syrian National Council and the Syrian National Coalition.
Syrian Turkmen Brigades (Suriye Türkmen Tugayları), also called the United Turkmen Army (Birleşik Türkmen Ordusu), are an informal armed opposition structure composed of Syrian Turkmen and Turks that form the military wing of the Syrian Turkmen Assembly, primarily fighting against the Syrian Armed Forces, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the Syrian Democratic Forces.
Taksim Square (Taksim Meydanı), situated in Beyoğlu in the European part of Istanbul, Turkey, is a major tourist and leisure district famed for its restaurants, shops, and hotels.
The Taksim Square massacre (Kanlı 1 Mayıs) relates to the incidents on 1 May 1977, the international Labour Day on Taksim Square in Istanbul, Turkey.
Taraf ("Side" in Turkish) was a liberal newspaper in Turkey.
A Taser is a brand of electroshock weapon sold by Axon.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი Ivane Javaxishvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmts'ipo universit'et'i, often shortened to its historical name, Tbilisi State University or TSU), is a public research university established on 8 February 1918 in Tbilisi, Georgia.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Beast Reawakens (later prints carried the subtitle Fascism's Resurgence from Hitler's Spymasters to Today's Neo-Nazi Groups and Right-Wing Extremists) is a 1997 book by investigative journalist Martin A. Lee, in which the author tells the story of old-guard fascists' strategy for survival and the revival of fascism since 1944.
The Brussels Journal is a conservative blog, founded by the Flemish journalist Paul Beliën.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Daily Beast is an American news and opinion website focused on politics and pop culture.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.
The Local is an English-language digital news publisher with local editions in Sweden, Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Austria and Italy.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Протоколы сионских мудрецов) or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is an antisemitic fabricated text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
Thomas Patrick Lowndes de Waal (born 1966) is a British journalist and writer on the Caucasus.
Tigran Hamasyan (Տիգրան Համասյան; born July 17, 1987) is an Armenian jazz pianist.
Today's Zaman (Zaman is Turkish for 'time' or 'age') was an English-language daily newspaper based in Turkey.
Turanism, Pan-Turanianism, Pan-Turanism is a nationalist cultural and political movement born in the 19th century, to counter the effects of pan-nationalist ideologies Pan-Germanism and Pan-Slavism.
Halil Turgut Özal (13 October 192717 April 1993) was a Turkish politician who served as the 8th President of Turkey from 1989 to 1993.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkic mythology embraces Tengriist and Shamanist and as well as all cultural and social subjects being a nomad folk.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkey's 14th general election was held on Sunday April 18, 1999 and was the first election in Turkish history to combine local, council and parliamentary elections on the same day.
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus (lit and Τουρκική εισβολή στην Κύπρο), code-named by Turkey as Operation Attila, (Atilla Harekâtı) was a Turkish military invasion of the island country of Cyprus.
Turkish nationalism is a political ideology that promotes and glorifies the Turkish people, as either a national, ethnic, or linguistic group.
The Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP, الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني) or Turkistan Islamic Movement (TIM), formerly known as the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) and other names, is an Islamic extremist terrorist organization founded by Uyghur jihadists in western China.
Turks in Belgium or Belgian Turks refers to Turkish people who have immigrated to Belgium.
Turks in Germany, also referred to as German Turks and Turkish Germans, (Türken in Deutschland or Deutsch-Türken; Almanya'da yaşayan Türkler or Almanya Türkleri) refers to ethnic Turkish people living in Germany.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ultranationalism is an "extreme nationalism that promotes the interest of one state or people above all others", or simply "extreme devotion to one's own nation".
The United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus is a demilitarized zone, patrolled by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), that was established in 1964 and extended in 1974 after the cease fire of, following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, and de facto partition of the island into the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus (southern Cyprus save for the British Sovereign Base Areas) and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in the North.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) is an American non-partisan, independent, federal institution that provides analysis of and is involved in conflicts around the world.
The University of Southern California (USC or SC) is a private research university in Los Angeles, California.
The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
An urban guerrilla is someone who fights a government using unconventional warfare or domestic terrorism in an urban environment.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
Uyghur nationalism, or the East Turkestan independence movement, is the notion that the Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group who primarily inhabit China's Xinjiang region (or "East Turkestan"), should form an independent state.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Vatansever Kuvvetler Güç Birliği Hareketi (VKGB, variously translated as Union of Patriotic Forces, Association for the Union of Patriotic Forces, Power Union of Patriotic Forces etc.) is a Turkish ultranationalist group, various members of which are charged in the Ergenekon trials, after the VKGB trial was merged with the Ergenekon trials in 2009.
Vox is an American news and opinion website owned by Vox Media.
The Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (WAZ) is a leading commercial newspaper from Essen, Germany, published by Funke Mediengruppe.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Youm7 (اليوم السابع,, meaning The Seventh Day) is an Egyptian privately owned daily newspaper.
Zaman (literally "time" or "era"), sometimes stylized as ZAMAN, was a daily newspaper in Turkey.
The 12 September 1980 Turkish coup d'état (12 Eylül Darbesi), headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic, the previous having been the 1960 coup and the 1971 "Coup by Memorandum".
The Solingen arson attack was one of the most severe instances of xenophobic violence in modern Germany.
The 1995 Azerbaijani coup d'état attempt, also known as the Turkish coup in Baku, was a coup d'état attempt by members of the Azerbaijani military, led by Colonel Rovshan Javadov at the head of a unit of Special Purpose Police Unit ("OPON").
On 17 August 2015, a bombing took place inside the Erawan Shrine at the Ratchaprasong intersection in Pathum Wan District, Bangkok, Thailand, killing 20 people and injuring 125.
A Turkish Air Force F-16 fighter jet shot down a Russian Sukhoi Su-24M attack aircraft near the Syria–Turkey border on 24 November 2015.