233 relations: Adelaide, Americas, Amsterdam, Ancient Chinese urban planning, Ancient Roman units of measurement, Ancient Rome, Anniston, Alabama, Arabs, Arterial road, Asphalt, Auburn, New South Wales, Auction, Austin, Texas, Austral, New South Wales, Australia, Babylon, Babylonia, Back Bay, Boston, Balhae, Ballarat, Ballina, New South Wales, Barcelona, Baroque, Bastide, Beijing, Berkeley, California, Bolshaya Neva River, Boston, British North America, Cairns, Canada, Canley Heights, New South Wales, Car, Cardo, Cart, Castra, Centuriation, Chandigarh, Chang'an, Chicago, China, City, City block, Colorado River (Texas), Commissioners' Plan of 1811, Company (military unit), Dangar Grid, Datong, Dead end (street), Decumanus Maximus, ..., Defensible space theory, Delaware River, Derry, Dodge City, Kansas, Domenico Trezzini, Dorchester Heights, Dupont Circle, Edinburgh, Edo Castle, Edwin Waller, Egypt, Eixample, Emergency medical services, Etruscan civilization, Europe, Exhaust gas, Florence, Fractal, France, French Americans, Fujiwara-kyō, Fused grid, Gandhara, Gated community, Germany, Giza, Glasgow, Grand Embassy of Peter the Great, Gyeongju, Hamilton, Ontario, Hammurabi, Harappa, Hippodamus of Miletus, Hobart, Hoddle Grid, Holyoke, Massachusetts, Home zone, Houston Street, Ildefons Cerdà, Impervious surface, Indianapolis, Indus Valley Civilisation, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Ireland, Islamabad, Izmaylovsky Regiment, James McMillan (politician), Japan, Japanese addressing system, Kao Gong Ji, Korean Peninsula, Kyoto, L'Enfant Plan, Land Ordinance of 1785, Later Silla, Legislature, Leimert Park, Los Angeles, Lewis Mumford, Light's Vision, Lines of Vasilyevsky Island, Living street, Los Angeles, Malta, Manhattan, Mannheim, Marzabotto, McMillan Plan, Melbourne, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Mexico City, Miami, Middle Ages, Miletus, Milton Keynes, Milton Keynes grid road system, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Mohenjo-daro, Montreal, Moors, Muslim, Nara, Nara, National Mall, Natural environment, Neva River, New Haven Colony, New Haven, Connecticut, New York (state), New York City, Newcastle, New South Wales, Noise barrier, Oglethorpe Plan, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Nebraska, Orlando, Florida, Ottawa, Packing problems, Panorama City, Los Angeles, Pedestrian, Pennsylvania Avenue, Permeability (spatial and transport planning), Perth, Peter the Great, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Arizona, Pierre Charles L'Enfant, Planned community, Pollutant, Portland, Oregon, Priene, Prospekt (street), Rain, Raleigh, North Carolina, Reconquista, Reductionism, Renaissance, Republic of Texas, Ribbon development, Richmond, Virginia, Roundabout, Russia, Sacramento, California, Saint John, New Brunswick, Saint Petersburg, Salt Lake City, San Cristóbal de La Laguna, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, California, Sapporo, Savannah, Georgia, Schuylkill River, Seattle, Shangjing Longquanfu, Shared space, Sidewalk, Sirkap, Smithfield, New South Wales, Smolenka River, South Boston, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spiro Kostof, Spring and Autumn period, Stream, Street, Street hierarchy, Subdivision (land), Suburb, Sydney, Tang dynasty, Taxila, Teotihuacan, Thomas Holme, Tokyo, Topography, Toronto, Traffic calming, Traffic circle, Traffic collision, Traffic engineering (transportation), Traverse City, Michigan, Tucson, Arizona, Turin, United States, University College London, University of California, Davis, Urban design, Urban planning, Urban structure, Valletta, Vancouver, Vasilyevsky Island, Vauban, Freiburg, Village Homes, Wales, Washington Circle, Washington, D.C., Wayfinding, William Penn, Windermere, Florida, Winnipeg, Winter Park, Florida, Xi'an. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Ancient Chinese encompasses the diverse set of cultural beliefs, social and economic structures, and technological capacities that historically influenced urban design in the early period of Chinese civilization.
The ancient Roman units of measurement were largely built on the Hellenic system, which in turn was built upon Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anniston is a city in Calhoun County in the state of Alabama.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
An arterial road or arterial thoroughfare is a high-capacity urban road.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Auburn is a suburb in western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the highest bidder.
Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties.
Austral is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Back Bay is an officially recognized neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
Balhae (698–926), also known as Parhae or Bohai was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.
Ballarat is a city located on the Yarrowee River in the Central Highlands of Victoria, Australia.
Ballina is a town in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia, and the seat of the Ballina Shire local government area.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Bastides are fortified new towns built in medieval Languedoc, Gascony and Aquitaine during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, although some authorities count Mont-de-Marsan and Montauban, which was founded in 1144, as the first bastides.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.
Bolshaya Neva is the largest armlet of Neva River.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
Cairns is a city in the Cairns Region, Queensland, Australia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canley Heights is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia 31 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Fairfield and is part of the South-western Sydney region.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
A cardo was the Latin name given to a north-south street in Ancient Roman cities and military camps as an integral component of city planning.
A cart is a vehicle designed for transport, using two wheels and normally pulled by one or a pair of draught animals.
In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.
Centuriation (in Latin centuriatio or, more usually, limitatio) was a method of land measurement used by the Romans.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A city is a large human settlement.
A city block, urban block or simply block is a central element of urban planning and urban design.
The Colorado River is an long river in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 was the original design for the streets of Manhattan above Houston Street and below 155th Street, which put in place the rectangular grid plan of streets and lots that has defined Manhattan to this day.
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.
The Dangar Grid is the layout of the streets in the centre of the central business district of Newcastle, Australia.
Datong is a prefecture-level city in northern Shanxi Province in the People's Republic of China.
A dead end is a street with only one inlet/outlet.
In Roman city planning, a decumanus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, castrum (military camp), or colonia.
The defensible space theory of architect and city planner Oscar Newman encompasses ideas about crime prevention and neighborhood safety.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland.
Dodge City is the county seat of Ford County, Kansas, United States, named after nearby Fort Dodge.
Domenico Trezzini (c. 1670 – 1734) was a Swiss Italian architect who elaborated the Petrine Baroque style of Russian architecture.
Dorchester Heights is the central area of South Boston.
Dupont Circle is a traffic circle, park, neighborhood, and historic district in Northwest Washington, D.C. The traffic circle is located at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue NW, Connecticut Avenue NW, New Hampshire Avenue NW, P Street NW, and 19th Street NW.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
, also known as, is a flatland castle that was built in 1457 by Ōta Dōkan.
Edwin Waller (November 4, 1800 – January 3, 1881) was an entrepreneur, signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, the first mayor of Austin, Texas, and the designer of its downtown grid plan.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Eixample (Catalan for 'expansion' or 'Expansion District') is a district of Barcelona between the old city (Ciutat Vella) and what were once surrounding small towns (Sants, Gràcia, Sant Andreu etc.), constructed in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Emergency medical services, also known as ambulance services or paramedic services (abbreviated to the initialism EMS, EMAS, EMARS or SAMU in some countries), are a type of emergency service dedicated to providing out-of-hospital acute medical care, transport to definitive care, and other medical transport to patients with illnesses and injuries which prevent the patient from transporting themselves.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French Americans (French: Franco-Américains) are citizens or nationals of the United States who identify themselves with having full or partial French or French Canadian heritage, ethnicity, and/or ancestral ties.
was the Imperial capital of Japan for sixteen years, between 694 and 710.
The fused grid is a street network pattern first proposed in 2002 and subsequently applied in Calgary, Alberta (2006) and Stratford, Ontario (2004).
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
In its modern form, a gated community (or walled community) is a form of residential community or housing estate containing strictly controlled entrances for pedestrians, bicycles, and automobiles, and often characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giza (sometimes spelled Gizah or Jizah; الجيزة; ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ, ⲅⲓⲍⲁ) is the third-largest city in Egypt and the capital of the Giza Governorate.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
The Grand Embassy (translit) was a Russian diplomatic mission to Western Europe in 1697–98 led by Peter the Great.
Gyeongju (경주), historically known as Seorabeol (서라벌), is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea.
Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario.
Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology).
Harappa (Urdu/ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.
Hippodamus of Miletus (Greek: Ἱππόδαμος ὁ Μιλήσιος, Hippodamos ho Milesios; 498 – 408 BC), was an ancient Greek architect, urban planner, physician, mathematician, meteorologist and philosopher, who is considered to be "the father of European urban planning", the namesake of the "Hippodamian Plan" (grid plan) of city layout.
Hobart is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania.
The Hoddle Grid is the contemporary name given to the approximately grid of streets that form the commonly understood central business district of Melbourne Australia.
Holyoke is a city in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States, that lies between the western bank of the Connecticut River and the Mount Tom Range.
A home zone is a living street (or group of streets) as implemented in the United Kingdom, which are designed primarily to meet the needs of pedestrians, cyclists, children and residents and where the speeds and dominance of the cars is reduced.
Houston Street is a major east-west thoroughfare in downtown Manhattan, running crosstown across the full width of the island of Manhattan, from Franklin D. Roosevelt East River Drive (FDR Drive) and East River Park on the East River to Pier 40 and West Street on the Hudson River.
Ildefons Cerdà i Sunyer, (Centelles, December 23, 1815 – Caldas de Besaya, August 21, 1876), also known as Ildefonso Cerdá y Suñer in Spanish, was the progressive Catalan Spanish urban planner who designed the 19th-century "extension" of Barcelona called the Eixample.
Impervious surfaces are mainly artificial structures—such as pavements (roads, sidewalks, driveways and parking lots, as well as industrial areas such as airports, ports and logistics and distribution centres, all of which use considerable paved areas) that are covered by impenetrable materials such as asphalt, concrete, brick, stone—and rooftops.
Indianapolis is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) is an international educational and scientific association of transportation professionals who are responsible for meeting mobility and safety needs.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
The Izmaylovsky Regiment (Izmáylovskiy leyb-gvárdii polk) was one of the oldest regiments of the Russian army, a subdivision of the 1st Guards Infantry Division of the Imperial Russian Guard.
James McMillan (May 12, 1838August 10, 1902) was a businessman and a Republican U.S. Senator from Michigan.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Japanese addressing system is used to identify a specific location in Japan.
The Kaogong ji (考工记), translated as the Record of Trades, Records of Examination of Craftsman, or Book of Diverse Crafts, is a classic work on science and technology in Ancient China, compiled towards the end of the Spring and Autumn period.
The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
The L'Enfant Plan for the city of Washington is the urban plan developed in 1791 by Major Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant for George Washington, the first President of the United States.
The Land Ordinance of 1785 was adopted by the United States Congress of the Confederation on May 20, 1785.
Later Silla (668–935) or Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after it conquered Baekje and Goguryeo in the 7th century, unifying the central and southern regions of the Korean peninsula.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leimert Park is a residential neighborhood in the South Los Angeles region of Los Angeles, California.
Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian, sociologist, philosopher of technology, and literary critic.
The first surveyor-general of Adelaide, South Australia, Colonel William Light designed a layout and development programme for the city.
Lines of Vasilyevsky Island (Rus. plural linii линии, singular liniya (also linia) линия "a line") is a group of streets in a part (called Vasilyevsky Island) of downtown Saint Petersburg, Russia, and their mostly numeric names atypical for the rest of the modern Saint Petersburg.
A living street is a street designed primarily with the interests of pedestrians and cyclists in mind and as a social space where people can meet and where children may also be able to play legally and safely.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.
Marzabotto (Medial Mountain Bolognese: Marzabòt) is a small town and comune in Italian region Emilia-Romagna, part of the Metropolitan City of Bologna.
The McMillan Plan (formally titled The Report of the Senate Park Commission. The Improvement of the Park System of the District of Columbia) is a comprehensive planning document for the development of the monumental core and the park system of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Memorial University of Newfoundland, colloquially known as Memorial University or MUN, is a comprehensive university based in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Miletus (Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Miletus; Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria.
Milton Keynes, locally abbreviated to MK, is a large townAlthough Milton Keynes was specified to be a city in scale and the term "city" is used locally (inter alia to avoid confusion with its constituent towns), formally this title cannot be used.
The Milton Keynes grid road system is a network of predominantly national speed limit, fully landscaped routes that form the top layer of the street hierarchy for both private and public transport in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire.
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States.
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
is the capital city of Nara Prefecture located in the Kansai region of Japan.
The National Mall is a landscaped park within the National Mall and Memorial Parks, an official unit of the United States National Park System.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
The Neva (Нева́) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast (historical region of Ingria) to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland.
The New Haven Colony was a small English colony in North America from 1637 to 1664 in what is now the state of Connecticut.
New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The Newcastle metropolitan area is the second most populated area in the Australian state of New South Wales and includes most of the Newcastle and Lake Macquarie local government areas.
A noise barrier (also called a soundwall, noise wall, sound berm, sound barrier, or acoustical barrier) is an exterior structure designed to protect inhabitants of sensitive land use areas from noise pollution.
James Edward Oglethorpe founded the Georgia Colony, and the town of Savannah, on February 12, 1733 (February 1, 1732 by the Julian calendar used in the British colonies until September 2, 1752).
Oklahoma City, often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County.
Orlando is a city in the U.S. state of Florida and the county seat of Orange County.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
Packing problems are a class of optimization problems in mathematics that involve attempting to pack objects together into containers.
Panorama City is a neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California, in the San Fernando Valley.
A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot, whether walking or running.
Pennsylvania Avenue is a street in Washington, D.C. that connects the White House and the United States Capitol.
Permeability or connectivity describes the extent to which urban forms permit (or restrict) movement of people or vehicles in different directions.
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arizona.
Pierre Charles L'Enfant (August 2, 1754June 14, 1825), self-identified as Peter Charles L'Enfant while living in the United States, was a French-American military engineer who designed the basic plan for Washington, D.C. (capital city of the U.S.) known today as the L'Enfant Plan (1791).
A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped greenfield land.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County.
Priene (Priēnē; Prien) was an ancient Greek city of Ionia (and member of the Ionian League) at the base of an escarpment of Mycale, about north of the then course of the Maeander (now called the Büyük Menderes or "Big Maeander") River, from ancient Anthea, from ancient Aneon and from ancient Miletus.
A prospekt (a) is a broad, multi-lane and very long straight street in urban areas.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Republic of Texas (República de Tejas) was an independent sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846.
Ribbon development is building houses along the routes of communications radiating from a human settlement.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
A roundabout, also called a traffic circle, road circle, rotary, rotunda or island, is a type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic flows almost continuously in one direction around a central island.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County.
Saint John is the port city of the Bay of Fundy in the Canadian province of New Brunswick.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Utah.
San Cristóbal de La Laguna (commonly known as La Laguna) is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the Canary Islands (Spain).
San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
San Jose (Spanish for 'Saint Joseph'), officially the City of San José, is an economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California.
is the fifth largest city of Japan by population, and the largest city on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido.
Savannah is the oldest city in the U.S. state of Georgia and is the county seat of Chatham County.
The Schuylkill River is an important river running northwest to southeast in eastern Pennsylvania, which was improved by navigations into the Schuylkill Canal.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Shangjing Longquanfu or Sanggyeong Yongcheonbu, also known as Shangjing (上京) or Sanggyeong (상경, 上京), Huhan/Holhan Fortress (홀한성, 忽汗城), is an archaeological site in Ning'an, Heilongjiang, China.
Shared space is an urban design approach that minimises the segregation between modes of road user.
A sidewalk (American English) or pavement (British English), also known as a footpath or footway, is a path along the side of a road.
Sirkap (Urdu and سر کپ) is the name of an archaeological site on the bank opposite to the city of Taxila, Punjab, Pakistan.
Smithfield is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
Smolenka (Смоленка) is a minor river in the city of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
South Boston is a densely populated neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, located south and east of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
Spiro Konstantine Kostof (7 May 1936, Istanbul – 7 December 1991, Berkeley) was a leading architectural historian, and professor at the University of California, Berkeley.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel.
A street is a public thoroughfare (usually paved) in a built environment.
The street hierarchy is an urban planning technique for laying out road networks that exclude automobile through-traffic from developed areas.
Subdivision is the act of dividing land into pieces that are easier to sell or otherwise develop, usually via a plat.
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.
Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
Thomas Holme (1624–1695) was the first Surveyor General of Pennsylvania to serve, in which capacity he laid out the original plan for the city of Philadelphia.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Traffic calming uses physical design and other measures to improve safety for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists.
A traffic circle is a type of intersection that directs both turning and through traffic onto a one-way circular roadway, usually built for the purposes of traffic calming or aesthetics.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways.
Traverse City is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The University of California, Davis (also referred to as UCD, UC Davis, or Davis), is a public research university and land-grant university as well as one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (UC) system.
Urban design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities, towns and villages.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Urban structure is the arrangement of land use in urban areas, in other words, how the land use of a city is set out.
Valletta is the capital city of Malta, colloquially known as "Il-Belt" (lit. "The City") in Maltese.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
Vasilyevsky Island (Васи́льевский о́стров, Vasilyevsky Ostrov, V.O.) is an island in St. Petersburg, Russia, bordered by the Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva Rivers (in the delta of the Neva River) in the south and northeast, and by the Gulf of Finland in the west.
Vauban is a neighbourhood to the south of the town centre in Freiburg, Germany.
Village Homes is a planned community in Davis, Yolo County, California.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Washington Circle is a traffic circle in the northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C., United States.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wayfinding encompasses all of the ways in which people (and animals) orient themselves in physical space and navigate from place to place.
William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was the son of Sir William Penn, and was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania.
Windermere is a town in Orange County, Florida, United States.
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada.
Winter Park is a suburban city in Orange County, Florida, United States.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.