51 relations: Allophone, Armenian language, Baltic languages, Boukólos rule, Brothers Grimm, Celtic languages, Centum and satem languages, Chain shift, Digraph (orthography), Dutch language, Ejective consonant, English language, Finnish language, Five Ws, Fricative consonant, German language, Germanic languages, Germanic spirant law, Glottalic theory, Glottalization, Greek language, High German consonant shift, Historical linguistics, Hungarian language, Indo-European languages, Interrogative word, Italian language, Jacob Grimm, Julius Pokorny, Karl Verner, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, Latin, List of Latin-script digraphs, Middle Dutch, Philology, Phonological history of English consonant clusters, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Italic language, Rasmus Rask, Sanskrit, Slavic languages, Sound change, Standard German, Stop consonant, Surface filter, Tuscan dialect, Tuscan gorgia, Uralic languages, Verner's law, ..., West Germanic languages. Expand index (1 more) » « Shrink index
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
The boukólos rule is a phonological rule of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE).
The Brothers Grimm (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Languages of the Indo-European family are classified as either centum languages or satem languages according to how the dorsal consonants (sounds of "K" and "G" type) of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) developed.
In historical linguistics, a chain shift is a set of sound changes in which the change in pronunciation of one speech sound (typically, a phoneme) is linked to, and presumably causes, the change in pronunciation of other sounds as well.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The Five Ws (sometimes referred to as Five Ws and How, 5W1H, or Six Ws) are questions whose answers are considered basic in information gathering or problem solving.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic spirant law, or Primärberührung, is a specific historical instance in linguistics of dissimilation that occurred as part of an exception of Grimm's law in Proto-Germanic, the ancestor of Germanic languages.
The glottalic theory is that Proto-Indo-European had ejective stops,, instead of the plain voiced ones,, hypothesized by the usual Proto-Indo-European phonological reconstructions.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In historical linguistics, the High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift is a phonological development (sound change) that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.
Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism.
Karl Adolph Verner (7 March 1846 in Århus – 5 November 1896 in Copenhagen) was a Danish linguist.
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829), usually cited as Friedrich Schlegel, was a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and Indologist.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
The phonological history of the English language includes various changes in the phonology of consonant clusters.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
The Proto-Italic language is the ancestor of the Italic languages, including notably Latin and thus its descendants, the Romance languages.
Rasmus Kristian Rask (born Rasmus Christian Nielsen Rasch; 22 November 1787 – 14 November 1832) was a Danish linguist and philologist.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, a surface filter is type of sound change that operates not at a particular point in time but over a longer period.
Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
The Tuscan gorgia (Gorgia toscana, "Tuscan throat") is a phonetic phenomenon governed by a complex of allophonic rules characteristic of the Tuscan dialects, in Tuscany, Italy, especially the central ones, with Florence traditionally viewed as the center.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s, *h, *hʷ, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became the fricatives *β, *ð, *z, *ɣ, *ɣʷ respectively.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
First Germanic Sound Shift, First Germanic consonant shift, First Germanic sound shift, First sound shift, Germanic sound shift, Great consonant shift, Grim's Law, Grimm's Law, Grimms Law, Rask's rule, Rask's-Grimm's rule.