127 relations: Amartya Sen, Anglo-Dutch Wars, Angus Maddison, Balassa–Samuelson effect, Barter, Biosphere, Bond (finance), Bretton Woods Conference, Capability approach, Capital Consumption Allowance, Chained volume series, Charles Davenant, Circular flow of income, Civil service, Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress, Compensation of employees, Consumer price index, Cost of living, David K. Backus, Deed, Distribution of wealth, Durable good, Economic growth, Environmentalism, European Union, Exchange rate, Externality, Factor cost, Final good, Financial market, Foreign exchange market, GDP deflator, GDP density, Government spending, Great Depression, Gross National Happiness, Gross national income, Gross national product, Gross National Well-being, Gross operating surplus, Gross output, Gross regional domestic product, Gross regional product, Gross value added, Gross world product, Herman Daly, Household final consumption expenditure, Household income, Human Development Index, Income inequality metrics, ..., Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare, Inflation, Intangible asset, Intermediate consumption, International Monetary Fund, Inventory investment, Jean Drèze, Jean-Paul Fitoussi, Jeffrey Sachs, John B. Cobb, Joseph Stiglitz, Life satisfaction, List of continents by GDP (nominal), List of countries by average wage, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, List of countries by GDP (PPP) per hour worked, List of countries by GDP (real) per capita growth rate, List of countries by GDP sector composition, List of countries by past and projected GDP (nominal), List of countries by past and projected GDP (PPP), List of countries by past and projected GDP (PPP) per capita, List of countries by real GDP growth rate, List of economic reports by U.S. government agencies, Lists of countries by GDP, Lists of countries by GDP per capita, Mahbub ul Haq, Martha Nussbaum, Measurement in economics, Measures of national income and output, Med Jones, Mining, Misery index (economics), Modified gross national income, National accounts, National average salary, National Income and Product Accounts, Natural Capital Committee, Nicolas Sarkozy, Nouriel Roubini, OECD, OECD Better Life Index, Penn effect, Potential output, Princeton University Press, Production (economics), Productivism, Profit (accounting), Purchasing power parity, Quandl, Real gross domestic product, Richard Layard, Baron Layard, Saving, Simon Kuznets, Social security, Standard of living, Stock, Stockholm University, Supply and demand, System of National Accounts, The New York Times Magazine, Time, Transfer payment, Unemployment benefits, United Nations, United States Congress, United States Department of Commerce, United States dollar, University of Groningen, University of Illinois at Chicago, Unpaid work, Weapon, William Petty, World Bank, World Happiness Report. Expand index (77 more) » « Shrink index
Amartya Kumar Sen, CH, FBA (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The Anglo-Dutch wars (Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of conflicts fought, on one side, by the Dutch States (the Dutch Republic, later the Batavian Republic) and, on the other side, first by England and later by the Kingdom of Great Britain/the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Angus Maddison (6 December 1926 – 24 April 2010) was a British economist specialising in quantitative macroeconomic history, including the measurement and analysis of economic growth and development.
The Balassa–Samuelson effect, also known as Harrod–Balassa–Samuelson effect (Kravis and Lipsey 1983), the Ricardo–Viner–Harrod–Balassa–Samuelson–Penn–Bhagwati effect (Samuelson 1994, p. 201), or productivity biased purchasing power parity (PPP) (Officer 1976) is the tendency for consumer prices to be systematically higher in more developed countries than in less developed countries.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
The Bretton Woods Conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was the gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.
The capability approach (also referred to as the capabilities approach) is an economic theory conceived in the 1980s as an alternative approach to welfare economics.
The Capital Consumption Allowance (CCA) is the portion of the gross domestic product (GDP) which is due to depreciation.
A chained volume series is a series of economic data (such as GDP, GNP or similar kinds of data) from successive years, put in real (or constant, i.e., inflation- and deflation-adjusted) terms by computing the production volume for each year in the prices of the preceding year, and then 'chain linking' the data together to obtain a time-series of production figures from which the effects of price changes (i.e., monetary inflation or deflation) have, at least in theory, been removed.
Charles Davenant (1656–1714) was an English mercantilist economist, politician, and pamphleteer.
The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
The Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress (CMEPSP), generally referred to as the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission after the surnames of its leaders, is a commission of inquiry created by the French Government in 2008.
Compensation of employees (CE) is a statistical term used in national accounts, balance of payments statistics and sometimes in corporate accounts as well.
A consumer price index (CPI) measures changes in the price level of of and purchased by households.
Cost of living is the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living.
David King "Dave" Backus (April 1953 – June 12, 2016) was an American economist, specializing in financial economics and international macroeconomics.
A deed (anciently "an evidence") is any legal instrument in writing which passes, affirms or confirms an interest, right, or property and that is signed, attested, delivered, and in some jurisdictions, sealed.
--> The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society.
In economics, a durable good or a hard good is a good that does not quickly wear out, or more specifically, one that yields utility over time rather than being completely consumed in one use.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
Factor cost has the following uses in economics.
In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.
A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
In economics, the GDP deflator (implicit price deflator) is a measure of the level of prices of all new, domestically produced, final goods and services in an economy.
GDP Density is a measure of economic activity by area.
Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Gross National Happiness (also known by the acronym: GNH) is a philosophy that guides the government of Bhutan.
The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44) (all figures in millions of US dollars).
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
Gross National Wellness (GNW) is a socioeconomic development and measurement framework.
In the national accounts, gross operating surplus (GOS) is the portion of income derived from production by incorporated enterprises that is earned by the capital factor.
In economics, gross output (GO) is the measure of total economic activity in the production of new goods and services in an accounting period.
Gross regional domestic product (GRDP) or gross domestic product of region (GDPR) is a subnational gross domestic product for measuring the size of that region's economy.
Gross regional product (GRP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a region or subdivision of a country in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
In economics, gross value added (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy.
The gross world product (GWP) is the combined gross national product of all the countries in the world.
Herman Edward Daly (born July 21, 1938) is an American ecological and Georgist economist and emeritus professor at the School of Public Policy of University of Maryland, College Park in the United States.
Household final consumption expenditure (HFCE) is a transaction of the national account's use of income account representing consumer spending.
Household income is a measure of the combined incomes of all people sharing a particular household or place of residence.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are used by social scientists to measure the distribution of income, and economic inequality among the participants in a particular economy, such as that of a specific country or of the world in general.
The Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW) is an economic indicator intended to replace the Gross Domestic Product, which is the main macroeconomic indicator of System of National Accounts (SNA).
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
An intangible asset is an asset that lacks physical substance or is out of warranty (unlike physical assets such as machinery and buildings) and usually is very hard to evaluate.
Intermediate consumption (also called "intermediate expenditure") is an economic concept used in national accounts, such as the United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA), the US National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) and the European System of Accounts (ESA).
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Inventory investment is a component of gross domestic product (GDP).
Jean Drèze (born 1959) is a Belgian-born Indian development economist and activist.
Jean-Paul Fitoussi (born 19 August 1942) is a French economist of Sephardi Jewish descent.
Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954) is an American economist and director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, where he holds the title of University Professor, the highest rank Columbia bestows on its faculty.
John B. Cobb Jr. (Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, born February 9, 1925) is an American theologian, philosopher, and environmentalist.
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
Life satisfaction is the way in which people show their emotions and feelings (moods) and how they feel about their directions and options for the future.
This article includes a list of continents of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the market value of all final goods and services from a continent in a given year.
The average wage is a measure of total income after taxes divided by total number of employees employed.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
The GDP (PPP) per hour worked is a measure of the productivity of a country when not taking into account unemployment or hours worked per week.
This is a list of countries by GDP (real) per capita growth rate, i.e., the growth rate of GDP per capita.
This is a list of countries by gross domestic product (GDP) sector composition.
This is an alphabetical list of countries by past and projected gross domestic product (nominal) as ranked by the IMF.
This is an alphabetical list of countries by past and projected Gross Domestic Product, based on the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) methodology, not on market exchange rates.
This is an alphabetical list of countries by past and future Gross Domestic Product per capita, based on the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) methodology, not on official exchange rates.
This article includes a list of countries and dependent territories sorted by their real gross domestic product growth rate; the rate of growth of the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.
The following reports on economic indicators are reported by United States government agencies.
List of countries by GDP (Gross domestic product) may refer to.
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
Mahbub ul Haq (محبوب الحق; 24 February 1934 – 16 July 1998) was a Pakistani game theorist, economist and an international development theorist who served as the 13th Finance Minister of Pakistan from 10 April 1985 until 28 January 1988.
Martha Craven Nussbaum (born May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher and the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, where she is jointly appointed in the Law School and the Philosophy department.
The measures used in economics are physical measures, nominal price value measures and fixed price value measures.
A variety of measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate total economic activity in a country or region, including gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), net national income (NNI), and adjusted national income also called as NNI at factor cost (NNI* adjusted for natural resource depletion).
Med Jones is an American economist.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The misery index is an economic indicator, created by economist Arthur Okun.
Modified GNI (or GNI*) was created by the Central Bank of Ireland in February 2017 as a way to measure the Irish economy, and Irish indebtedness, due to the increasing distortions that Irish multinational tax schemes, also known as Irish IP-based BEPS tools, were having on Irish GNI, Irish GNP and Irish GDP.
National accounts or national account systems (NAS) are the implementation of complete and consistent accounting techniques for measuring the economic activity of a nation.
The National Average Salary (or the National Average Wage) is the mean salary for the working population of a nation.
The national income and product accounts (NIPA) are part of the national accounts of the United States.
The Natural Capital Committee (NCC) is an independent body set up in 2012, initially for a three-year period, to report to the UK Government and advise on how to value nature and to ensure England’s ‘natural wealth’ is managed efficiently and sustainably.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
Nouriel Roubini (born March 29, 1958) is an American economist.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The OECD Better Life Index, in May 2011 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development following a decade of work on this issue, is a first attempt to bring together internationally comparable measures of well-being in line with the recommendations of the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress also known as the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission.
The Penn effect is the economic finding that real income ratios between high and low income countries are systematically exaggerated by gross domestic product (GDP) conversion at market exchange rates.
In economics, potential output (also referred to as "natural gross domestic product") refers to the highest level of real gross domestic product (potential output) that can be sustained over the long term.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output).
Productivism or growthism is the belief that measurable economic productivity and growth are the purpose of human organization (e.g., work), and that "more production is necessarily good".
Profit, in accounting, is an income distributed to the owner in a profitable market production process (business).
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Quandl is a platform for financial, economic, and alternative data that serves investment professionals.
Real Gross Domestic Product (real GDP) is a macroeconomic measure of the value of economic output adjusted for price changes (i.e., inflation or deflation).
Peter Richard Grenville Layard, Baron Layard FBA (born 15 March 1934) is a British labour economist, currently working as programme director of the Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of Economics.
Saving is income not spent, or deferred consumption.
Simon Smith Kuznets (p; April 30, 1901 – July 8, 1985) was a Russo-American economist and statistician who received the 1971 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development." Kuznets made a decisive contribution to the transformation of economics into an empirical science and to the formation of quantitative economic history.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.
Stockholm University (Stockholms universitet) is a public university in Stockholm, Sweden, founded as a college in 1878, with university status since 1960.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
The System of National Accounts (often abbreviated as SNA; formerly the United Nations System of National Accounts or UNSNA) is an international standard system of national accounts, the first international standard being published in 1953.
The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
In economics, a transfer payment (or government transfer or simply transfer) is a redistribution of income and wealth (payment) made without goods or services being received in return.
Unemployment benefits (depending on the jurisdiction also called unemployment insurance or unemployment compensation) are payments made by the state or other authorized bodies to unemployed people.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Groningen (abbreviated as UG; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, abbreviated as RUG) is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands.
The University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is a public research university located in Chicago, Illinois, United States.
Unpaid labor is defined as labor that does not receive any direct remuneration.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Sir William Petty FRS (Romsey, 26 May 1623 – 16 December 1687) was an English economist, physician, scientist and philosopher.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Happiness Report is an annual publication of the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network which contains rankings of national happiness and analysis of the data from various perspectives.
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