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Groundwater pollution

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Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater. [1]

180 relations: Acid mine drainage, Adsorption, Agriculture, Air pollution, Air sparging, Ammonia, Anniston Army Depot, Aquifer, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Arsenic, Arsenic contamination of groundwater, Arsenite, Bacteria, Bangladesh, Benzene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Bioaugmentation, Birth defect, Blue baby syndrome, British Columbia, Cadmium, Canada, Cancer, Capillary action, Carcinogen, Cave, Chile, Cholera, Chromium, Clay, Contamination, Cosmetics, Creosote, Decomposition, Deicing, Dense non-aqueous phase liquid, Dental fluorosis, Diarrhea, Dichloroethene, Diesel fuel, Diffusion, Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, Drinking water, Drinking water quality standards, Dry cleaning, East African Rift, Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutant, Erin Brockovich (film), Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, ..., Ethane, Ethylbenzene, European Commission, European Union, Fecal–oral route, Feces, Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Fertilizer, Filling station, Fluoride, Fluorite, Fracture (geology), Gasoline, Groundwater, Groundwater model, Groundwater remediation, Halocarbon, Hard water, Helium, Helminths, Herbicide, Hexavalent chromium, Hinkley groundwater contamination, Hormone, Human impact on the environment, Hydraulic conductivity, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydraulic fracturing proppants, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogeology, Hydrological transport model, Hydrology, Hypoxia (environmental), Illegal dumping, Indo-Gangetic Plain, Insecticide, Ion exchange, Iron oxide, Karst, Landfill, Leachate, Leaching (agriculture), Lead, Light non-aqueous phase liquid, Love Canal, Manure, Marcellus natural gas trend, Medication, Membrane technology, Metalloid, Metallurgy, Methane, Methemoglobinemia, Mexico, Mining, Monocrotophos, Municipal solid waste, Nanoremediation, Naphthalene, National Priorities List, New York (state), North India, Organochloride, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pakistan, Pampas, Pathogen, Pentachlorophenol, Pesticide, Petroleum, PH, Phosphate, Phytoremediation, Pit latrine, Plume (fluid dynamics), Pollution, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Precautionary principle, Precipitation, Precipitation (chemistry), Produced water, Propane, Protozoa, Radionuclide, Radon, Redox, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Saltwater intrusion, Sanitation, Septic tank, Sewage treatment, Shale, Shale oil, Sinkhole, Skeletal fluorosis, Sodium chloride, Soil, Soil contamination, Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Superfund, Surface water, Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Tailings, Tenerife, Tetrachloroethylene, Toluene, Trichloroethylene, Trihalomethane, Underground storage tank, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Uranium, Urban runoff, Urine, Vadose zone, Vinyl chloride, Virus, VOC contamination of groundwater, Volatile organic compound, Walkerton E. coli outbreak, Wastewater, Wastewater treatment, Water cycle, Water pollution, Water resources, Water table, Water well, World Health Organization, Xylene. Expand index (130 more) »

Acid mine drainage

Acid mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines.

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Adsorption

Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Air sparging

Air sparging, also known as in situ air stripping and in situ volatilization is an in situ remediation technique, used for the treatment of saturated soils and groundwater contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) like petroleum hydrocarbons which is a widespread problem for the ground water and soil health.

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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Anniston Army Depot

Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) is a major United States Army facility for the production and repair of ground combat vehicles, overhaul of Small Arms Weapon Systems and the storage of chemical weapons, a.k.a. the Anniston Chemical Activity.

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Aquifer

An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).

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Aromatic hydrocarbon

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.

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Arsenic

Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Arsenic contamination of groundwater

Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a form of groundwater pollution which is often due to naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in deeper levels of groundwater.

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Arsenite

In chemistry, an arsenite is a chemical compound containing an arsenic oxoanion where arsenic has oxidation state +3.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Benzene

Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Benzo(a)pyrene

Benzopyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures between and.

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Bioaugmentation

Biological augmentation is the addition of archaea or bacterial cultures required to speed up the rate of degradation of a contaminant.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Blue baby syndrome

Blue baby syndrome refers to at least two situations that lead to cyanosis in infants: cyanotic heart disease and methemoglobinemia.

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British Columbia

British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.

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Cadmium

Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Capillary action

Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.

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Carcinogen

A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

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Cave

A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural space large enough for a human to enter.

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Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Clay

Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Contamination

Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.

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Cosmetics

Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.

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Creosote

Creosote is a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel.

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Decomposition

Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.

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Deicing

De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface.

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Dense non-aqueous phase liquid

A dense non-aqueous phase liquid or DNAPL is a denser-than-water NAPL, i.e. a liquid that is both denser than water and is immiscible in or does not dissolve in water.

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Dental fluorosis

Dental fluorosis (also termed mottled enamel) is an extremely common disorder, characterized by hypomineralization of tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excessive fluoride during enamel formation.

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Diarrhea

Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Dichloroethene

Dichloroethene or dichloroethylene, often abbreviated as DCE, can refer to any one of several isomeric forms of the organochloride with the molecular formula C2H2Cl2: There are three isomers.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds

Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

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Drinking water

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.

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Drinking water quality standards

Drinking water quality standards describes the quality parameters set for drinking water.

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Dry cleaning

Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using a chemical solvent other than water.

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East African Rift

The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.

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Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutant

The term Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (EPPP) was first suggested in the nomination in 2010 of pharmaceuticals and environment as an emerging issue in a Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) by the International Society of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE).

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Erin Brockovich (film)

Erin Brockovich is a 2000 American biographical film directed by Steven Soderbergh and written by Susannah Grant.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Escherichia coli O157:H7

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli.

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Ethane

Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.

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Ethylbenzene

Ethylbenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2CH3.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Fecal–oral route

The fecal–oral route (or oral–fecal route or fecal oral route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease.

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Feces

Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources

The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe or BGR) is a German agency within the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

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Fertilizer

A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Filling station

A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles.

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Fluoride

Fluoride.

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Fluorite

Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.

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Fracture (geology)

A fracture is any separation in a geologic formation, such as a joint or a fault that divides the rock into two or more pieces.

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Gasoline

Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Groundwater

Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Groundwater model

Groundwater models are computer models of groundwater flow systems, and are used by hydrogeologists.

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Groundwater remediation

Groundwater remediation is the process that is used to treat polluted groundwater by removing the pollutants or converting them into harmless products.

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Halocarbon

Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine –) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds.

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Hard water

Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").

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Helium

Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Helminths

Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.

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Herbicide

Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.

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Hexavalent chromium

Hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6) is any chemical compound that contains the element chromium in the +6 oxidation state (thus hexavalent).

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Hinkley groundwater contamination

Hinkley groundwater contamination refers to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) dumping "roughly 370 million gallons" of chromium-tainted wastewater" into unlined wastewater spreading ponds around the town of Hinkley, California, located in the Mojave Desert (about 121 miles driving distance north-northeast of Los Angeles), from 1952 to 1966 and the ongoing process of restitution and clean-up.

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Hormone

A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human impact on the environment

Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.

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Hydraulic conductivity

Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as K, is a property of vascular plants, soils and rocks, that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures.

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Hydraulic fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.

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Hydraulic fracturing proppants

A proppant is a solid material, typically sand, treated sand or man-made ceramic materials, designed to keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment.

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Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrogeology

Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).

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Hydrological transport model

An hydrological transport model is a mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters.

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Hydrology

Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.

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Hypoxia (environmental)

Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.

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Illegal dumping

Illegal dumping, also called fly dumping or fly tipping, is the dumping of waste illegally instead of using an authorised method such as kerbside collection or using an authorised rubbish dump.

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Indo-Gangetic Plain

The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as the Indus-Ganga Plain and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million-hectare (630 million-acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.

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Insecticide

Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.

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Ion exchange

Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.

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Iron oxide

Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.

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Karst

Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.

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Landfill

A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.

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Leachate

A leachate is any liquid that, in the course of passing through matter, extracts soluble or suspended solids, or any other component of the material through which it has passed.

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Leaching (agriculture)

In agriculture, leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Light non-aqueous phase liquid

A Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL) is a groundwater contaminant that is not soluble in water and has lower density than water, in contrast to a DNAPL which has higher density than water.

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Love Canal

Love Canal is a neighborhood within Niagara Falls, New York.

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Manure

Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.

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Marcellus natural gas trend

The Marcellus is a large and prolific area of shale gas extraction from the Marcellus Formation of Devonian age in the eastern United States.

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Medication

A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Membrane technology

Membrane technology covers all engineering approaches for the transport of substances between two fractions with the help of permeable membranes.

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Metalloid

A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.

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Metallurgy

Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia is a condition caused by elevated levels of methemoglobin in the blood.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Mining

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.

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Monocrotophos

Monocrotophos is an organophosphate insecticide.

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Municipal solid waste

Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public.

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Nanoremediation

Nanoremediation is the use of nanoparticles for environmental remediation.

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Naphthalene

Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.

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National Priorities List

The National Priorities List (NPL) is the list of hazardous waste sites in the United States eligible for long-term remedial action (cleanup) financed under the federal Superfund program.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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North India

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

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Organochloride

An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.

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Pacific Gas and Electric Company

The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is an investor-owned utility (IOU) with publicly traded stock that is headquartered in the Pacific Gas & Electric Building in San Francisco.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pampas

The Pampas (from the pampa, meaning "plain") are fertile South American lowlands that cover more than and include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Córdoba; all of Uruguay; and the southernmost Brazilian State, Rio Grande do Sul.

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Pathogen

In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Pentachlorophenol

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound used as a pesticide and a disinfectant.

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Pesticide

Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phosphate

A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Phytoremediation

Phytoremediation /ˌfaɪtəʊrɪˌmiːdɪˈeɪʃən/ refers to the technologies that use living plants to clean up soil, air, and water contaminated with hazardous contaminants.

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Pit latrine

A pit latrine or pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground.

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Plume (fluid dynamics)

In hydrodynamics, a plume is a column of one fluid moving through another.

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Pollution

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

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Polychlorinated biphenyl

A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).

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Precautionary principle

The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.

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Precipitation

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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Precipitation (chemistry)

Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.

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Produced water

Produced water is a term used in the oil industry to describe water that is produced as a byproduct along with the oil and gas.

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Propane

Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

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Protozoa

Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

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Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Radon

Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, often shortened to Rio Declaration, was a short document produced at the 1992 United Nations "Conference on Environment and Development" (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit.

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Saltwater intrusion

Saltwater intrusion is the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, which can lead to contamination of drinking water sources and other consequences.

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Sanitation

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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Septic tank

A septic tank is a chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, PVC or plastic, through which domestic wastewater (sewage) flows for primary treatment.

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Sewage treatment

Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

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Shale

Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

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Shale oil

Shale oil is an unconventional oil produced from oil shale rock fragments by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution.

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Sinkhole

A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.

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Skeletal fluorosis

Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease caused by excessive accumulation of fluoride in the bones.

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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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Soil

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Soil contamination

Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.

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Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

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Superfund

Superfund is a United States federal government program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants.

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Surface water

Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.

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Sustainable Sanitation Alliance

The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is a loose network of organizations who are "working along the same lines towards achieving sustainable sanitation".

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Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology

The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag, German acronym for Eidgenössische Anstalt für Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewässerschutz) is a Swiss water research institute and an internationally networked institution.

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Tailings

Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens, terra-cone (terrikon), are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.

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Tenerife

Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands.

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Tetrachloroethylene

Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ("perc" or "PERC"), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C.

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Toluene

Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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Trichloroethylene

The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent.

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Trihalomethane

Trihalomethanes (THMs) are chemical compounds in which three of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms.

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Underground storage tank

An Underground storage tank (UST) is, according to United States federal regulations, a storage tank, not including any underground piping connected to the tank, that has at least 10 percent of its volume underground.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Urban runoff

Urban runoff is surface runoff of rainwater created by urbanization.

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Urine

Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Vadose zone

The vadose zone, also termed the unsaturated zone, is the part of Earth between the land surface and the top of the phreatic zone, the position at which the groundwater (the water in the soil's pores) is at atmospheric pressure ("vadose" is from the Latin for "shallow").

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Vinyl chloride

Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C.

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Virus

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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VOC contamination of groundwater

VOCs (volatile organic compounds) are a dangerous contaminant of groundwater, leading to groundwater pollution.

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Volatile organic compound

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.

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Walkerton E. coli outbreak

The 2000 Walkerton outbreak of waterborne gastroenteritis was the result of a contamination of the water supply of Walkerton, Ontario, Canada with E. coli and Campylobacter jejuni bacteria.

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Wastewater

Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.

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Wastewater treatment

Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater into an effluent (outflowing of water to a receiving body of water) that can be returned to the water cycle with minimal impact on the environment or directly reused.

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Water cycle

The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

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Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.

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Water resources

Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.

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Water table

The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.

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Water well

A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Xylene

Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.

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Causes of groundwater pollution, Contaminated groundwater, Contamination of ground water, Contamination of groundwater, Ground water pollution, Groundwater contamination, Groundwater protection, Pollution of groundwater, Toxic groundwater.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groundwater_pollution

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