240 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Active site, Alchemical symbol, Alchemy, Alessandro Volta, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Alloy, Aluminium, Aluminium amalgam, Amalgam (chemistry), Amalgam (dentistry), American Chemical Society, Amine, Amphoterism, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, Angewandte Chemie, Anode, Anti-corrosion, Antimony, Aqueous solution, Argon, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Atomic radius, Base (chemistry), Beryllium, Binary phase, Bioaccumulation, Bismuth, Block (periodic table), Boiling point, Brass, Bronze, Cadmium, Cadmium pigments, Cadmium poisoning, Cadmium sulfide, Cadmus, Calamine, Calomel, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Carbonic anhydrase, Carbonyl group, Castner–Kellner process, Cathodic protection, Celsius, Chemical element, Chlorine, ..., Chromate and dichromate, Cinnabar, Cobalt, Combustibility and flammability, Coordination complex, Coordination number, Copernicium, Copper, Corderoite, Corrosion, Coulomb's law, Covalent bond, Crust (geology), Crystal structure, Cyanide, D-block contraction, Darmstadt, Density, Diamagnetism, Die casting, Dietary Reference Intake, Divalent, Ductility, Electric battery, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrochemistry, Electrolysis, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron configuration, Electron shell, Electronegativity, Electronvolt, Electroplating, Electrowinning, Environment and Climate Change Canada, European Union, Extractive metallurgy, Ferromagnetism, Flame test, Fluorescent lamp, Friction, Friedrich Stromeyer, Galinstan, Gallium, Gallium arsenide, Galvanic anode, Galvanization, General Conference on Weights and Measures, Geochemistry, Germanium, Gold, Greek language, Greenockite, Group (periodic table), Group 11 element, GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Half-life, Hardness, Helium, History of the metre, Homology (chemistry), Hot-dip galvanization, Hydride, Hydroxide, International Bureau of Weights and Measures, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ionic radius, Iran, Iron, Iron(II) sulfide, Irving–Williams series, Island of stability, Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, Kelvin, Krypton, Kyrgyzstan, Lanthanide contraction, Latin, Lead, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Linear molecular geometry, List of oxidation states of the elements, Livingstonite, Luigi Galvani, Magnesium, Main-group element, Melting point, Mercury (element), Mercury (mythology), Mercury (planet), Mercury poisoning, Mercury(IV) fluoride, Metal, Metal ions in aqueous solution, Metallic bonding, Metalloid, Microorganism, Mineral, Molybdenum, National Academy of Medicine, Nature (journal), Neon, Neutron, Nickel, Nickel silver, Nickel–cadmium battery, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Nuclear fusion, Oganesson, Orbital hybridisation, Organic synthesis, Organometallic chemistry, Osmium, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, Particle accelerator, Parts-per notation, Passivation (chemistry), Paul Scherrer Institute, Periodic table, Periodic trends, Phosphorus trifluoride, Picometre, Precipitation (chemistry), Prima materia, Proton, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Pyrometallurgy, Quantum mechanics, Radium, Radon, Rechargeable battery, Redox, Relativistic quantum chemistry, Roasting (metallurgy), Roman numerals, Royal Society of Chemistry, Semiconductor, Siberia, Silver, Smithsonite, Sodium, Sodium amalgam, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium-vapor lamp, Solder, Spectral line, Sphalerite, Spin casting, Springer Science+Business Media, Stability constants of complexes, Standard hydrogen electrode, Stoichiometry, Sulfide, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Symbol (chemistry), Tellurium, Tetrahedral molecular geometry, Thebes, Greece, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Tin, Tonne, Trace element, Transactinide element, Transition metal, Trivial name, Unified atomic mass unit, United States Geological Survey, Vacuum, Vacuum distillation, Valence and conduction bands, Valence electron, Victor Ninov, Vilyuy River, Volatility (chemistry), Voltaic pile, Wood's metal, Xenon, Zamak, Zeitschrift für Physik, Zinc, Zinc sulfide, Zinc–air battery, Zinc–carbon battery, Zirconium. Expand index (190 more) » « Shrink index
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium can form an amalgam in solution with mercury.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
Dental amalgam is a liquid mercury and metal alloy mixture used in dentistry to fill cavities caused by tooth decay.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (3 March 1709 – 7 August 1782) was a German chemist from Berlin, then capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and a pioneer of analytical chemistry.
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Anti-corrosion refers to the protection of metal surfaces from corroding in high-risk (corrosive) environments.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In materials chemistry, a binary phase is chemical compound containing two different elements.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Cadmium pigments are a class of pigments that have cadmium as one of the chemical components.
Cadmium is a naturally occurring toxic heavy metal with common exposure in industrial workplaces, plant soils, and from smoking.
Cadmium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula CdS.
In Greek mythology, Cadmus (Κάδμος Kadmos), was the founder and first king of Thebes.
Calamine, also known as calamine lotion, is a medication used to treat mild itchiness.
Calomel is a mercury chloride mineral with formula (Hg2)2+Cl2 (see mercury(I) chloride).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Definition: The Castner–Kellner process is a method of electrolysis on an aqueous alkali chloride solution (usually sodium chloride solution) to produce the corresponding alkali hydroxide,Pauling, Linus; General Chemistry 1970 ed.
Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.
Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it.
Copernicium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Cn and atomic number 112.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corderoite is an extremely rare mercury sulfide chloride mineral with formula Hg3S2Cl2.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
The d-block contraction (sometimes called scandide contraction) is a term used in chemistry to describe the effect of having full d orbitals on the period 4 elements.
Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region).
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
In chemistry, a divalent (sometimes bivalent) element, ion, functional group, or molecule has a valence of two.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Electrowinning, also called electroextraction, is the electrodeposition of metals from their ores that have been put in solution via a process commonly referred to as leaching.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Extractive metallurgy is a branch of metallurgical engineering wherein process and methods of extraction of metals from their natural mineral deposits are studied.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
A flame test is an analytic procedure used in chemistry to detect the presence of certain elements, primarily metal ions, based on each element's characteristic emission spectrum.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Friedrich Stromeyer (2 August 1776 – 18 August 1835) was a German chemist.
Galinstan is a brand-name and a common name for a liquid metal alloy whose composition is part of a family of eutectic alloys mainly consisting of gallium, indium, and tin.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
A galvanic anode is the main component of a galvanic cathodic protection (CP) system used to protect buried or submerged metal structures from corrosion.
Galvanization or galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.
The General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférence générale des poids et mesures – CGPM) is the supreme authority of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures – BIPM), the inter-governmental organization established in 1875 under the terms of the Metre Convention (Convention du Mètre) through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greenockite is a rare cadmium bearing metal sulfide mineral consisting of cadmium sulfide (CdS) in crystalline form.
In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).
The GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung) is a federally and state co-funded heavy ion research center in the Wixhausen suburb of Darmstadt, Germany.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
In the aftermath of the French Revolution (1789), the traditional units of measure used in the Ancien Régime were replaced.
In chemistry, homology is the appearance of homologues.
Hot-dip galvanization is a form of galvanization.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures) is an intergovernmental organization established by the Metre Convention, through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(II) sulfide or ferrous sulfide (Br.E. sulphide) is one of a family chemical compounds and minerals with the approximate formula.
The Irving-Williams Series refers to the relative stabilities of complexes formed by transition metals.
In nuclear physics, the island of stability is the prediction that a set of heavy nuclides with a near magic number of protons and neutrons will temporarily reverse the trend of decreasing stability in elements heavier than uranium.
Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann (20 January 1765 – 1 September 1846) was a German chemist who helped discover cadmium in 1817.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In chemistry, the linear molecular geometry describes the geometry around a central atom bonded to two other atoms (or ligands) placed at a bond-angle of 180°.
This is a list of known oxidation states of the chemical elements, excluding nonintegral values.
Livingstonite is a mercury antimony sulfosalt mineral.
Luigi Aloisio Galvani (Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 – 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who discovered animal electricity.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the main group is the group of elements whose lightest members are represented by helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine as arranged in the periodic table of the elements.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Mercury (Latin: Mercurius) is a major god in Roman religion and mythology, being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to mercury exposure.
Mercury(IV) fluoride, HgF4, is the first mercury compound to be reported with mercury in the oxidation state IV.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metal ion in aqueous solution (aqua ion) is a cation, dissolved in water, of chemical formula z+.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nickel silver, Maillechort, German silver, Argentan, new silver, nickel brass, albata, alpacca, or electrum is a copper alloy with nickel and often zinc.
The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Oganesson is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Og and atomic number 118.
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a multi-disciplinary research institute which belongs to the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain covering also ETH Zurich and EPFL.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.
Phosphorus trifluoride (formula PF3), is a colorless and odorless gas.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
In alchemy, Prima materia, materia prima or first matter, is the ubiquitous starting material required for the alchemical magnum opus and the creation of the philosopher's stone.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Pyrometallurgy is a branch of extractive metallurgy.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
A rechargeable battery, storage battery, secondary cell, or accumulator is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
Roasting is a process of heating of sulfide ore to a high temperature in presence of air.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Smithsonite, or zinc spar, is zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), a mineral ore of zinc.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium amalgam, commonly denoted Na(Hg), is an alloy of mercury and sodium.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
Spin casting, also known as centrifugal rubber mold casting (CRMC), is a method of utilizing centrifugal force to produce castings from a rubber mold.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A stability constant (formation constant, binding constant) is an equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex in solution.
The Standard hydrogen electrode (abbreviated SHE), is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
In relation to the chemical elements, a symbol is a code for a chemical element.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A trace element is a chemical element whose concentration (or other measure of amount) is very low (a "trace amount").
In chemistry, transactinide elements (also, transactinides, or super-heavy elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers from 104 to 120.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
In chemistry, a trivial name is a nonsystematic name for a chemical substance.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Vacuum distillation is a method of distillation performed under reduced pressure.
In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Victor Ninov (Виктор Нинов, born 1959) is a former researcher in the nuclear chemistry group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) who was alleged to have fabricated the evidence used to claim the creation of elements 118 and 116.
The Vilyuy River (also Vilyui, p; Бүлүү, Bülüü) is a river of the Central Siberian Plateau, longest tributary of the Lena River.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.
Wood's metal, also known as Lipowitz's alloy or by the commercial names Cerrobend, Bendalloy, Pewtalloy and MCP 158, is a eutectic, fusible alloy with a melting point of approximately.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Zamak (formerly trademarked as ZAMAK and also known as Zamac) is a family of alloys with a base metal of zinc and alloying elements of aluminium, magnesium, and copper.
Zeitschrift für Physik (English: Journal for physics) is a defunct series of German peer-reviewed German scientific journal of physics established in 1920 by Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS.
Zinc–air batteries (non-rechargeable; IEC codes: A, P), and zinc–air fuel cells (mechanically rechargeable) are metal-air batteries powered by oxidizing zinc with oxygen from the air.
A zinc–carbon battery is a dry cell primary battery that delivers about 1.5 volts of direct current from the electrochemical reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.