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Group of Eight

Index Group of Eight

The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies. [1]

144 relations: Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata, Alexander Graf Lambsdorff, Angelino Alfano, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Aomori, Aomori, Ashgate Publishing, BBC, BBC News, Berlin, Big Four (Western Europe), Bill Clinton, Boris Yeltsin, Brazil, Bundestag, Canada, Central bank, China, Christian Lindner, Climate Investment Funds, D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation, David Cameron, Democracy, Developed country, District Municipality of Muskoka, Donald Trump, EastWest Institute, Economic globalization, Efficient energy use, European Commission, European Economic Community, European Union, Federation of American Scientists, Federica Mogherini, Fitch Ratings, Food security, Foreign Policy, Forum for the Future (Bahrain 2005), France, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Free Democratic Party (Germany), G20, G3 Free Trade Agreement, G7 Research Group, G8+5, Germany, Giuseppe Conte, Gleneagles (Scotland), Great power, Gross domestic product, Group of 15, ..., Group of 24, Group of Eleven, Group of Five, Group of Seven, Group of Thirty, Group of Two, Head of government, Human Development Index, India, International Energy Agency, International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation, International relations, Italy, Japan, Junior 8, L'Aquila, List of countries by credit rating, List of countries by exports, List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by military expenditures, List of country groupings, List of G8 leaders, List of G8 summit resorts, List of longest-serving G7 leaders, List of multilateral free-trade agreements, List of states with nuclear weapons, London, Mexico, Milan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan), Minsk Protocol, Moody's Investors Service, Moscow, National wealth, New Statesman, North–South divide, Nuclear sharing, Osaka, Paris, Patent, Pedophilia, Presidency, President of the European Commission, President of the European Council, President of the European Parliament, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Puebla, Reuters, Rodrigo Rato, Routledge, Royal United Services Institute, Russia, Sahra Wagenknecht, Saint Petersburg, Sergey Lavrov, Shinzō Abe, South Africa, Sovereign wealth fund, Standard & Poor's, Summit (meeting), TASS, Tōyako, Hokkaido, Terrorism, The Guardian, The Heritage Foundation, TheGuardian.com, Tony Blair, Toronto, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United States, University of Toronto, Washington, D.C., Western world, Wolfgang Ischinger, World Bank, World Social Forum, Yokohama, Young European Leadership, 1st G6 summit, 2008 G20 Washington summit, 2009 G20 Pittsburgh summit, 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, 20th G7 summit, 23rd G8 summit, 33rd G8 summit, 34th G8 summit, 39th G8 summit, 40th G7 summit, 44th G7 summit. Expand index (94 more) »

Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata

The Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA) is the leading wire service in Italy, and one of the leaders among world news agencies.

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Alexander Graf Lambsdorff

Alexander Sebastian Léonce, Baron von der Wenge, Count Lambsdorff (born 5 November 1966), commonly known as Alexander, Count Lambsdorff (Alexander Graf Lambsdorff) is a German politician of the Free Democratic Party of Germany, part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe.

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Angelino Alfano

Angelino Alfano (born 31 October 1970) is an Italian politician served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 12 December 2016 to 1 June 2018.

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Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation

The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.

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Aomori, Aomori

is the capital city of Aomori Prefecture, in the northern Tōhoku region of northern Japan.

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Ashgate Publishing

Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Big Four (Western Europe)

The Big Four, also known as G4 or EU4, refers to France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.

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Bill Clinton

William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Boris Yeltsin

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Bundestag

The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christian Lindner

Christian Wolfgang Lindner (born 7 January 1979) is a German politician, member of the Bundestag and leader of the liberal Free Democratic Party of Germany (FDP).

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Climate Investment Funds

The Climate Investment Funds (CIFs) were designed by developed and developing countries and are implemented with the multilateral development banks (MDBs) to bridge the financing and learning gap between now and the next international climate change agreement.

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D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation

The D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation, also known as Developing-8, is an organisation for development co-operation among the following countries: Bangladesh, Egypt, Nigeria, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Turkey.

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David Cameron

David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.

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Democracy

Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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District Municipality of Muskoka

The District Municipality of Muskoka, more generally referred to as the District of Muskoka or Muskoka, is a regional municipality located in Central Ontario, Canada.

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Donald Trump

Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.

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EastWest Institute

The EastWest Institute (EWI), originally known as the Institute for East-West Security Studies, is an international not-for-profit, non-partisan "think and do" tank focusing on international conflict resolution through a variety of means, including track 2 diplomacy and track 1.5 diplomacy (conducted with the direct involvement of official actors), hosting international conferences, and authoring publications on international security issues.

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Economic globalization

Economic globalization is one of the three main dimensions of globalization commonly found in academic literature, with the two others being political globalization and cultural globalization, as well as the general term of globalization.

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Efficient energy use

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Federation of American Scientists

The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.

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Federica Mogherini

Federica Maria Mogherini (born 16 June 1973) is an Italian politician who has served as High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy since November 2014.

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Fitch Ratings

Fitch Ratings Inc.

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Food security

Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.

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Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.

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Forum for the Future (Bahrain 2005)

The Forum for the Future in Bahrain on 11–12 November 2005 brought together, by suggestion of the prime minister of Spain, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, the leaders of states of the Middle East, industrialised countries of the Group of Eight (G8) and other partners to promote political, economic and social reform in the region.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frank-Walter Steinmeier

Frank-Walter Steinmeier (born 5 January 1956) is a German politician serving as President of Germany since 19 March 2017.

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Free Democratic Party (Germany)

The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.

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G20

The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

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G3 Free Trade Agreement

The G-3 was a free trade agreement between Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela that came into effect on January 1, 1995, which created an extended market of 149 million consumers with a combined GDP (Gross domestic product) of US$486.5 billion.

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G7 Research Group

The G7 Research Group (formerly the G8 Research Group) is an independent source of information, analysis and research on the institutions, issues and members of the Group of Seven (formerly the Group of Eight) and the G7 Summit.

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G8+5

The Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) was an international group that consisted of the leaders of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia), plus the heads of government of the five leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa).

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Giuseppe Conte

Giuseppe Conte (born 8 August 1964) is an Italian jurist and politician serving as the 58th and current Prime Minister of Italy since 1 June 2018.

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Gleneagles (Scotland)

Gleneagles (Scottish Gaelic: Gleann na h-Eaglais/Gleann Eagas) is a glen which connects with Glen Devon to form a pass through the Ochil Hills of Perth and Kinross in Scotland.

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Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Group of 15

The Group of 15 (G-15)The adopts the "G-15" orthography (with a hyphen) in order to distinguish an abbreviated reference to this group -- contrasts with other similarly named entities.

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Group of 24

The Group of 24 (G24), a chapter of the G-77, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters.

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Group of Eleven

Group of Eleven (G11) is a forum, constituted by mostly developing countries aimed at easing their debt burden (See also: government debt), narrowing the income gap with rich countries and lifting their people out of poverty.

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Group of Five

The Group of Five (G5) encompasses five nations which have joined together for an active role in the rapidly evolving international order.

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Group of Seven

The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Group of Thirty

The Group of Thirty, often abbreviated to G30, is an international body of leading financiers and academics which aims to deepen understanding of economic and financial issues and to examine consequences of decisions made in the public and private sectors related to these issues.

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Group of Two

The Group of Two (G-2 or G2) is a proposed informal special relationship between the People's Republic of China and the United States of America.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.

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International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation

The Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) is a high-level international forum which includes developed and developing countries.

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International relations

International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Junior 8

Also known as J7 Youth Summit, J7 Summit, J7, Junior 7, J8, J8 Summit The J7 ("junior 7") Global Citizenship Summit provides young people from around the world with opportunities to learn more about topical global issues, to debate and discuss these issues, and to take their solutions to world leaders at the G7 summit.

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L'Aquila

L'Aquila (meaning "The Eagle") is a city and comune in Southern Italy, both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila.

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List of countries by credit rating

This is a list of countries by credit rating, showing long-term foreign currency credit ratings for sovereign bonds as reported by the three major credit rating agencies: Standard & Poor's, Fitch, and Moody's.

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List of countries by exports

This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.

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List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)).

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita

The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).

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List of countries by military expenditures

This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.

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List of country groupings

Groups of countries or regions are often referred to by a single term (word, phrase, or abbreviation).

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List of G8 leaders

This is a list of the heads of government of the Group of 8 nations at each G6, G7, G8 summit since the organisation's inception in 1975.

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List of G8 summit resorts

List of G8 summit resorts includes past and prospective venues for the annual meetings of G8 heads of state, the President of the European Union and other invited guests.

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List of longest-serving G7 leaders

This is a list of the longest serving heads of government or heads of state in the G7.

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List of multilateral free-trade agreements

This is a list of multilateral free-trade agreements, between several countries all treated equally.

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List of states with nuclear weapons

There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Milan

Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan)

The is a cabinet-level ministry of the Japanese government responsible for the country's foreign relations.

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Minsk Protocol

Representatives of Ukraine, the Russian Federation, the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR), and the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR) signed the Minsk Protocol, an agreement to halt the war in the Donbass region of Ukraine, on 5 September 2014.

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Moody's Investors Service

Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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National wealth

National net wealth, also known as national net worth, is the total sum of the value of a nation's assets minus its liabilities.

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New Statesman

The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.

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North–South divide

The North–South divide is broadly considered a socio-economic and political divide.

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Nuclear sharing

Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATO's policy of nuclear deterrence, which involves member countries without nuclear weapons of their own in the planning for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO.

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Osaka

() is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Patent

A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Pedophilia

Pedophilia, or paedophilia, is a psychiatric disorder in which an adult or older adolescent experiences a primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children.

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Presidency

A presidency is an administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation.

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President of the European Commission

The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.

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President of the European Council

The President of the European Council is a principal representative of the European Union (EU) on the world stage, and the person presiding over and driving forward the work of the European Council.

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President of the European Parliament

The President of the European Parliament presides over the debates and activities of the European Parliament.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.

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Puebla

Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Rodrigo Rato

Rodrigo de Rato y Figaredo (born 18 March 1949) is a Spanish political figure who served in the government of Spain as Minister of the Economy from 1996 to 2004; a member of the conservative People's Party (PP), he was also First Deputy Prime Minister from 2003 to 2004.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal United Services Institute

The Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies (RUSI), sometimes still referred to by its pre-2004 name, the Royal United Services Institution, is a British defence and security think tank.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sahra Wagenknecht

Sahra Wagenknecht (born 16 July 1969) is a German left-wing politician, economist, author and publicist.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Sergey Lavrov

Sergey Viktorovich Lavrov (Серге́й Ви́кторович Лавро́в,; born 21 March 1950) is a Russian diplomat and politician; he is currently the Foreign Minister of Russia, in office since 2004.

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Shinzō Abe

is a Japanese politician serving as the 63rd and current Prime Minister of Japan and Leader of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) since 2012, previously being the 57th officeholder from 2006 to 2007.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Sovereign wealth fund

A sovereign wealth fund (SWF) or sovereign investment fund is a state-owned investment fund that invests in real and financial assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, precious metals, or in alternative investments such as private equity fund or hedge funds.

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Standard & Poor's

Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.

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Summit (meeting)

A summit meeting (or just summit) is an international meeting of heads of state or government, usually with considerable media exposure, tight security, and a prearranged agenda.

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TASS

Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.

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Tōyako, Hokkaido

is a town in Iburi Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.

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Terrorism

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Heritage Foundation

The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.

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TheGuardian.com

TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.

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Tony Blair

Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.

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Toronto

Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted on 9 May 1992 and opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Toronto

The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Wolfgang Ischinger

Wolfgang Friedrich Ischinger (born April 6, 1946) is a German diplomat.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Social Forum

The World Social Forum (WSF, Fórum Social Mundial) is an annual meeting of civil society organizations, first held in Brazil, which offers a self-conscious effort to develop an alternative future through the championing of counter-hegemonic globalization.

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Yokohama

, literally "Port to the side" or "Beside the port", is the second largest city in Japan by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of Japan.

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Young European Leadership

Young European Leadership (YEL) is an international non-profit and nonpartisan organization composed of and founded by young Europeans.

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1st G6 summit

The 1st G6 summit took place on 15–17 November 1975, in Rambouillet, France.

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2008 G20 Washington summit

The 2008 G20 Washington Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy took place on November 14–15, 2008, in Washington, D.C., United States.

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2009 G20 Pittsburgh summit

The 2009 G20 Pittsburgh Summit was the third meeting of the G20 heads of state/heads of government to discuss financial markets and the world economy.

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2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

The was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately.

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20th G7 summit

The 20th G7 Summit was held in Naples, Italy, on July 8–10, 1994.

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23rd G8 summit

The 23rd G8 summit was held on June 20–22, 1997 in Denver, Colorado, United States.

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33rd G8 summit

The 33rd G8 summit was held at Kempinski Grand Hotel, 6–8 June 2007.

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34th G8 summit

The 34th G8 summit was held in the town of Tōyako, Hokkaido, Japan, on July 7–9, 2008.

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39th G8 summit

The 39th G8 summit was held on 17–18 June 2013, at the Lough Erne Resort, a five-star hotel and golf resort on the shore of Lough Erne in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

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40th G7 summit

The 40th G8 summit was due to be held in Russia in 2014.

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44th G7 summit

The 44th G7 summit was held on 8–9 June 2018, in La Malbaie, Quebec, Canada.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_of_Eight

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