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Groupthink

Index Groupthink

Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. [1]

123 relations: Abilene paradox, Abraham Maslow, Amity-enmity complex, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., Asch conformity experiments, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Bandwagon effect, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Blue chip (stock market), British Airways, Central Intelligence Agency, Collective intelligence, Collective narcissism, Communication studies, Confirmation bias, Conformity, Connotation, Conservatism, Construals, Controversy, Critical thinking, Crowd psychology, Cuban Missile Crisis, Cuban Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Force, Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, Cult, Cultural diversity, Decision-making, Deindividuation, Devil's advocate, Dilemma, Dissent, Donald Trump, Doublethink, Dunning–Kruger effect, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Emotional contagion, Empire of Japan, Episodic memory, Ethical dilemma, Everett Dean Martin, Failure of imagination, False consensus effect, Fidel Castro, Filter bubble, Foreign policy of the United States, Fortune (magazine), Gatekeeping (communication), General Group Problem Solving (GGPS) Model, George Orwell, ..., Greenwood Publishing Group, Group cohesiveness, Group conflict, Group dynamics, Group polarization, Groupshift, Herd behavior, Hillary Clinton presidential campaign, 2016, Homophily, HuffPost, Identity (social science), In-group favoritism, Ingroups and outgroups, Irving Janis, J. William Fulbright, Jean Piaget, John F. Kennedy, Liberalism, London Stock Exchange, Lyndon B. Johnson, Major League Baseball, Major League Umpires Association, Management, Marks & Spencer, Milieu control, Moral Man and Immoral Society, Morale, Multiculturalism, Nazi Germany, Nineteen Eighty-Four, No soap radio, Ochlocracy, Organizational dissent, Organizational studies, Organizational theory, Parkinson's law, Pearl Harbor, Peer pressure, Phenomenon, Political midlife crisis, Political science, Problem solving, Rationalization (psychology), Realistic conflict theory, Reuters, Saddam Hussein, Scapegoating, Self-censorship, Self-efficacy, September 11 attacks, Silence procedure, Social comparison theory, Social group, Social norm, Social psychology, Soviet Union, Spiral of silence, Stereotype, Swissair, System justification, The New York Times, Three men make a tiger, Tuckman's stages of group development, United Kingdom, United States presidential election, 2016, Vendor lock-in, Vietnam War, Watergate scandal, William H. Whyte, Wishful thinking, Woozle effect, Yale University, 2003 invasion of Iraq. Expand index (73 more) »

Abilene paradox

In the Abilene paradox, a group of people collectively decide on a course of action that is counter to the preferences of many or all of the individuals in the group.

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Abraham Maslow

Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.

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Amity-enmity complex

The amity-enmity complex was a term introduced by Sir Arthur Keith.

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Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.

Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual.

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Asch conformity experiments

In psychology, the Asch conformity experiments or the Asch Paradigm refers to a series of studies directed by Solomon Asch studying if and how individuals yielded to or defied a majority group and the effect of such influences on beliefs and opinions.

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Attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.

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Bandwagon effect

The bandwagon effect is a phenomenon whereby the rate of uptake of beliefs, ideas, fads and trends increases the more that they have already been adopted by others.

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Bay of Pigs Invasion

The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.

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Blue chip (stock market)

A blue chip is stock in a corporation with a national reputation for quality, reliability, and the ability to operate profitably in good times and bad.

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British Airways

British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size, or the second largest, behind easyJet, when measured by passengers carried.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Collective intelligence

Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making.

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Collective narcissism

Collective narcissism (or group narcissism) extends the concept of individual narcissism onto the social level of self.

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Communication studies

Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.

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Confirmation bias

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.

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Conformity

Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms.

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Connotation

A connotation is a commonly understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to its explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation.

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Conservatism

Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Construals

In social psychology, construals are how individuals perceive, comprehend, and interpret the world around them, particularly the behavior or action of others towards themselves.

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Controversy

Controversy is a state of prolonged public dispute or debate, usually concerning a matter of conflicting opinion or point of view.

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Critical thinking

Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.

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Crowd psychology

Crowd psychology, also known as mob psychology, is a branch of social psychology.

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Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.

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Cuban Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Force

The Cuban Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Force (Spanish: Defensa Anti-Aérea Y Fuerza Aérea Revolucionaria) commonly abbreviated to DAAFAR in both Spanish and English, is the air force of Cuba.

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Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces

The Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias – FAR) consist of ground forces, naval forces, air and air defence forces, and other paramilitary bodies including the Territorial Troops Militia (Milicias de Tropas Territoriales – MTT), Youth Labor Army (Ejército Juvenil del Trabajo – EJT), and the Defense and Production Brigades (Brigadas de Producción y Defensa – BPD), plus the Civil Defense Organization (Defensa Civil de Cuba – DCC) and the National Reserves Institution (Instituto Nacional de las Reservas Estatales – INRE).

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Cult

The term cult usually refers to a social group defined by its religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal.

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Cultural diversity

Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay.

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Decision-making

In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.

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Deindividuation

Deindividuation is a concept in social psychology that is generally thought of as the loss of self-awareness in groups, although this is a matter of contention (see below).

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Devil's advocate

The Advocatus Diaboli (Latin for Devil's Advocate) was formerly an official position within the Catholic Church: one who "argued against the canonization (sainthood) of a candidate in order to uncover any character flaws or misrepresentation of the evidence favoring canonization".

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Dilemma

A dilemma (δίλημμα "double proposition") is a problem offering two unrelated possibilities, neither of which is unambiguously acceptable or preferable.

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Dissent

Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to a prevailing idea (e.g., a government's policies) or an entity (e.g., an individual or political party which supports such policies).

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Donald Trump

Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.

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Doublethink

Doublethink is the act of simultaneously accepting two mutually contradictory beliefs as correct, often in distinct social contexts.

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Dunning–Kruger effect

In the field of psychology, the Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people of low ability have illusory superiority and mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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Emotional contagion

Emotional contagion is the phenomenon of having one person's emotions and related behaviors directly trigger similar emotions and behaviors in other people.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Episodic memory

Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.

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Ethical dilemma

An ethical dilemma or ethical paradox is a decision-making problem between two possible moral imperatives, neither of which is unambiguously acceptable or preferable.

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Everett Dean Martin

Everett Dean Martin (July 5, 1880 – May 10, 1941) was an American minister, writer, journalist, instructor, lecturer, social psychologist, social philosopher, and an advocate of adult education.

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Failure of imagination

A failure of imagination is a circumstance wherein something seemingly predictable (particularly from hindsight) and undesirable was not planned for.

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False consensus effect

In psychology, the false-consensus effect or false-consensus bias is an attributional type of cognitive bias whereby people tend to overestimate the extent to which their opinions, beliefs, preferences, values, and habits are normal and typical of those of others (i.e., that others also think the same way that they do).

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Fidel Castro

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.

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Filter bubble

A filter bubble is a state of intellectual isolation Technopedia,, Retrieved October 10, 2017, "....A filter bubble is the intellectual isolation that can occur when websites make use of algorithms to selectively assume the information a user would want to see, and then give information to the user according to this assumption...

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Foreign policy of the United States

The foreign policy of the United States is its interactions with foreign nations and how it sets standards of interaction for its organizations, corporations and system citizens of the United States.

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Fortune (magazine)

Fortune is an American multinational business magazine headquartered in New York City, United States.

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Gatekeeping (communication)

Gatekeeping is the process through which information is filtered for dissemination, whether for publication, broadcasting, the Internet, or some other mode of communication.

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General Group Problem Solving (GGPS) Model

The General Group Problem Solving (GGPS) Model is a problem solving methodology, in which a group of individuals will define the desired outcome, identify the gap between the current state and the target and generate ideas for closing the gap by brainstorming.

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George Orwell

Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Group cohesiveness

Group cohesiveness (also called group cohesion and social cohesion) arises when bonds link members of a social group to one another and to the group as a whole.

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Group conflict

Group conflict, or hostilities between different groups, is a feature common to all forms of human social organization (e.g., sports teams, ethnic groups, nations, religions, gangs), and also occurs in social animals.

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Group dynamics

Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics).

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Group polarization

In social psychology, group polarization refers to the tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members.

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Groupshift

Groupshift is a phenomenon in which the initial positions of individual members of a group are exaggerated toward a more extreme position.

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Herd behavior

Herd behavior describes how individuals in a group can act collectively without centralized direction.

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Hillary Clinton presidential campaign, 2016

The 2016 presidential campaign of Hillary Rodham Clinton was announced in a YouTube video, on April 12, 2015.

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Homophily

Homophily from Ancient Greek ὁμοῦ (homou, "together") and Greek φιλία (philia, "friendship") is the tendency of individuals to associate and bond with similar others, as in the proverb "birds of a feather flock together".

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HuffPost

HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.

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Identity (social science)

In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group).

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In-group favoritism

In-group favoritism, sometimes known as in-group–out-group bias, in-group bias, or intergroup bias, is a pattern of favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members.

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Ingroups and outgroups

In sociology and social psychology, an ingroup is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member.

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Irving Janis

Irving Lester Janis (May 26, 1918 – November 15, 1990) was a research psychologist at Yale University and a professor emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley most famous for his theory of "groupthink" which described the systematic errors made by groups when making collective decisions.

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J. William Fulbright

James William Fulbright (April 9, 1905 – February 9, 1995) was a United States Senator representing Arkansas from January 1945 until his resignation in December 1974.

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Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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Liberalism

Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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London Stock Exchange

The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.

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Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.

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Major League Baseball

Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.

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Major League Umpires Association

The Major League Umpires Association was a union for the umpires of both the American League and the National League.

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Management

Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.

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Marks & Spencer

Marks & Spencer Group plc (also known as M&S) is a major British multinational retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London.

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Milieu control

Milieu control is a term popularized by psychiatrist Robert Jay Lifton to describe tactics that control environment and human communication through the use of social pressure and group language; such tactics may include dogma, protocols, innuendo, slang, and pronunciation, which enables group members to identify other members, or to promote cognitive changes in individuals.

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Moral Man and Immoral Society

Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and Politics is a 1932 book by Reinhold Niebuhr, an American Protestant theologian at Union Theological Seminary (UTS) in New York City.

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Morale

Morale, also known as esprit de corps, is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.

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Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nineteen Eighty-Four

Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published in 1949 by English author George Orwell.

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No soap radio

"No soap radio" is a form of practical joke and an example of surreal comedy.

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Ochlocracy

Ochlocracy (ὀχλοκρατία, okhlokratía; ochlocratia) or mob rule is the rule of government by mob or a mass of people, or, the intimidation of legitimate authorities.

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Organizational dissent

Organizational dissent is the "expression of disagreement or contradictory opinions about organizational practices and policies".

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Organizational studies

Organizational studies is "the examination of how individuals construct organizational structures, processes, and practices and how these, in turn, shape social relations and create institutions that ultimately influence people", organizational studies comprise different areas that deal with the different aspects of the organizations, many of the approaches are functionalist but critical research also provide alternative frame for understanding in the field.

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Organizational theory

Organizational theory consists of approaches to organizational analysis.

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Parkinson's law

Parkinson's law is the adage that "work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion".

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Pearl Harbor

Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu.

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Peer pressure

Peer pressure (or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers, or the effect on an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes, values or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual.

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Phenomenon

A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.

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Political midlife crisis

A political midlife crisis is a turning point or watershed moment in the fortunes of a governance entity such as an empire, nation, faction, political party, or international alliance.

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Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

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Problem solving

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.

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Rationalization (psychology)

In psychology and logic, rationalization or rationalisation (also known as making excuses) is a defense mechanism in which controversial behaviors or feelings are justified and explained in a seemingly rational or logical manner to avoid the true explanation, and are made consciously tolerable—or even admirable and superior—by plausible means.

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Realistic conflict theory

Realistic conflict theory (initialized RCT), also known as realistic group conflict theory (initialized RGCT), is a social psychological model of intergroup conflict.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.

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Scapegoating

Scapegoating is the practice of singling out a person or group for unmerited blame and consequent negative treatment.

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Self-censorship

Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse.

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Self-efficacy

Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief in his or her innate ability to achieve goals.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Silence procedure

A silence procedure or tacit acceptance procedure (French: procédure d'approbation tacite; Latin: qui tacet consentire videtur, "he who is silent is taken to agree", "silence implies/means consent") is a way of formally adopting texts, often, but not exclusively in international political context.

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Social comparison theory

Social comparison theory, initially proposed by social psychologist Leon Festinger in 1954, centers on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations.

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Social group

In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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Social psychology

Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spiral of silence

The spiral of silence theory is a political science and mass communication theory proposed by the German political scientist Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, which stipulates that individuals have a fear of isolation, which results from the idea that a social group or the society in general might isolate, neglect, or exclude members due to the members' opinions.

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Stereotype

In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.

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Swissair

Swissair AG/S.A. (German: Schweizerische Luftverkehr-AG; French: S.A. Suisse pour la Navigation Aérienne) was the national airline of Switzerland between its founding in 1931 and bankruptcy in 2002.

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System justification

System justification theory (SJT) is a theory within social psychology that system-justifying beliefs serve a psychologically palliative function.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Three men make a tiger

"Three men make a tiger" is a Chinese proverb or chengyu (four-character idiom).

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Tuckman's stages of group development

The forming–storming–norming–performing model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, who said that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow, face up to challenges, tackle problems, find solutions, plan work, and deliver results.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States presidential election, 2016

The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.

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Vendor lock-in

In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Watergate scandal

The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during the early 1970s, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up its involvement.

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William H. Whyte

William Hollingsworth "Holly" Whyte (October 1, 1917 – January 12, 1999) was an American urbanist, organizational analyst, journalist and people-watcher.

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Wishful thinking

Wishful thinking is the formation of beliefs and making decisions according to what might be pleasing to imagine instead of by appealing to evidence, rationality, or reality.

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Woozle effect

The Woozle effect, also known as evidence by citation,.

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Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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2003 invasion of Iraq

The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).

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Group think, Group-think, GroupThink, Groupthink theory.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groupthink

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