104 relations: Agar, Agar plate, Alcaligenes, Allele, Ammonium, Ampicillin, Anaerobic organism, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial resistance, Auxotrophy, Bacillus, Bacteria, Bacterial conjugation, Baird-Parker agar, Beer, Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar, Carbon, Cell (biology), Cell culture, Chemically defined medium, Chocolate agar, Colloid, Cytokinin, Cytophaga, Eosin, Eosin methylene blue, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Fermentation in food processing, Flavobacterium, Fungus, Ganciclovir, Gellan gum, Gene, Genetic marker, Genomics, Glucose, Glycerol, Gram-negative bacteria, Granada medium, Group A streptococcal infection, Growth factor, Hektoen enteric agar, Herpes simplex virus, Hormone, Impedance microbiology, In vivo, Inorganic compound, Karyotype, Lac operon, ..., Legionella pneumophila, Lysogeny broth, MacConkey agar, Magnesium, Malt, Mannitol salt agar, Media dispenser, Metabolite, Methylene blue, Microbiological culture, Microorganism, Modified Chee's medium, Moss, Neomycin, Neutral red, Nitrate, Nitrogen, Nucleic acid, Nutrient agar, Parasitism, Petri dish, PH, Phenol red, Phosphorus, Physcomitrella patens, Plant, Plate count agar, Proline, Protein, Pseudomonas, Ralf Reski, Recombinant DNA, Sabouraud agar, Salt, Serum (blood), Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Succinic acid, Sulfur, Suspension (chemistry), Tetracycline, Thioglycolate broth, Transfection, Trypticase soy agar, Unicellular organism, Vibrio cholerae, Virus, Wort, X-gal, XLD agar, Yeast extract, YM (selective medium). Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains a solid growth medium, typically agar plus nutrients, used to culture small organisms such as microorganisms.
Alcaligenes is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis, and endocarditis.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Auxotrophy (αὐξάνω "to increase"; τροφή "nourishment") is the inability of an organism to synthesize a particular organic compound required for its growth (as defined by IUPAC).
Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
Baird-Parker agar is a type of agar used for the selective isolation of gram-positive Staphylococci species.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar is a selective growth medium used to culture or grow certain bacteria, particularly the Gram-negative species Legionella pneumophila.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
A chemically defined medium is a growth medium suitable for the in vitro cell culture of human or animal cells in which all of the chemical components are known.
Chocolate agar (CHOC) or chocolate blood agar (CBA) – is a nonselective, enriched growth medium used for isolation of pathogenic bacteria.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots.
Cytophaga is a genus of Gram-negative, gliding, rod-shaped bacteria.
Eosin is the name of several fluorescent acidic compounds which bind to and form salts with basic, or eosinophilic, compounds like proteins containing amino acid residues such as arginine and lysine, and stains them dark red or pink as a result of the actions of bromine on fluorescein.
Eosin methylene blue (EMB, also known as "Levine's formulation") is a selective stain for gram-negative bacteria.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Flavobacterium is a genus of gram-negative, nonmotile and motile, rod-shaped bacteria that consists of 130 recognized species.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Ganciclovir is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections.
Gellan gum is a water-soluble anionic polysaccharide produced by the bacterium Sphingomonas elodea (formerly Pseudomonas elodea).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Granada medium is a selective and differential culture medium designed to selectively isolate Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) and differentiate it from other microorganisms.
A group A streptococcal infection is an infection with group A streptococcus (GAS).
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Hektoen enteric agar (HEK or HE or HEA) is a selective and differential agar primarily used to recover Salmonella and Shigella from patient specimens.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Impedance microbiology is a rapid microbiological technique used to measure the microbial number density (mainly bacteria but also yeasts) of a sample by monitoring the electrical parameters of the growth medium.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
The lac operon (lactose operon) is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and many other enteric bacteria.
Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, nonspore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella.
Lysogeny broth (LB), a nutritionally rich medium, is primarily used for the growth of bacteria.
MacConkey agar is an indicator, a selective and differential culture medium for bacteria designed to selectively isolate Gram-negative and enteric (normally found in the intestinal tract) bacilli and differentiate them based on lactose fermentation.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".
Mannitol salt agar or MSA is a commonly used selective and differential growth medium in microbiology.
A media dispenser or a culture media dispenser is a device for repeatedly delivering small fixed volumes (typically between 1 ml and 50 ml) of liquid such as a laboratory growth medium like molten agar or caustic or volatile solvents like toluene into a series of receptacles (Petri dishes, test tubes, Fernbach flasks, etc.). It is often important that such dispensers operate without biological or chemical contamination, and so must be internally sealed from the environment and designed for easy cleaning and sterilization before use.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methylene blue, also known as methylthioninium chloride, is a medication and dye.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
In cellular biology and microbiology, modified Chee's medium is used to cultivate cells and bacteria.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments, and eyedrops.
Neutral red (toluylene red, Basic Red 5, or C.I. 50040) is a eurhodin dye used for staining in histology.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nutrient agar is a general purpose medium supporting growth of a wide range of non-fastidious organisms.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie Dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenol red (also known as phenolsulfonphthalein or PSP) is a pH indicator frequently used in cell biology laboratories.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Physcomitrella patens, the spreading earthmoss, is a moss (bryophyte) used as a model organism for studies on plant evolution, development, and physiology.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plate Count Agar (PCA), also called Standard Methods Agar (SMA), is a microbiological growth medium commonly used to assess or to monitor "total" or viable bacterial growth of a sample.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species.
Ralf Reski (born 18 November 1958 in Gelsenkirchen) is a German Professor of Plant Biotechnology and former Dean of the Faculty of Biology of the University of Freiburg.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Sabouraud agar or Sabouraud Dextrose Agar or SDA is a type of agar growth medium containing peptones.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) with a tendency to form chains (as reflected by the genus name Streptococcus).
Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria.
Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.
Thioglycolate broth is a multipurpose, enriched, differential medium used primarily to determine the oxygen requirements of microorganisms.
Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing naked or purified nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells.
Trypticase soy agar or tryptone soya agar (TSA) and Trypticase soy broth or tryptone soya broth (TSB) with agar are growth media for the culturing of bacteria.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Wort is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky.
X-gal (also abbreviated BCIG for 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside) is an organic compound consisting of galactose linked to a substituted indole.
Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar (XLD agar) is a selective growth medium used in the isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from clinical samples and from food.
Yeast extract is the common name for yeast products made by extracting the cell contents (removing the cell walls); they are used as food additives or flavorings, or as nutrients for bacterial culture media.
YM Agar and Broth, is a selective growth medium with low pH useful for cultivating yeasts, molds, or other acid-tolerant or acidophilic organisms, while deterring growth of most bacteria and other acid intolerant organisms.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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