435 relations: Afro-Guatemalan, Agustín Guzmán, Alejandro Maldonado, Alfonso Portillo, All Saints' Day, Allen Dulles, Alta Verapaz Department, Anastasio Somoza García, Aníbal López, Ancient Maya art, Antigua Guatemala, Arabs, Arawakan languages, Arrowhead, Asian people, Association football, Athletics at the 2012 Summer Olympics – Men's 20 kilometres walk, Óscar Humberto Mejía Víctores, Baja Verapaz Department, Banana plantation, Battle of La Arada, Bay of Pigs Invasion, BBC, BBC News, Belize, Benito Mussolini, Bill Clinton, Biodiversity hotspot, Biofuel, Black turtle bean, Bond (finance), Bosawás Biosphere Reserve, Buddhism, Burning of the Spanish Embassy, Capitalism, Captaincy, Captaincy General of Guatemala, Caribbean Plate, Caribbean Sea, Carlos Castillo Armas, Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio, Carlos Mérida, Carlos Salazar Castro, Catholic Church, Caudillo, Central America, Central Time Zone, Ch'orti' people, Chajoma, Chiantla, ..., Chiapas, Child Aid, Chili pepper, Chinese language, Christian socialism, Christianity, Ciudad Vieja, Classic Maya collapse, Claudia Paz y Paz, Coatepeque, Quetzaltenango, Cocido, Cocos Plate, Cold War, Colombia, Common Hope, CONCACAF Championship, Concordat of 1854, Congress of Guatemala, Cooking banana, Corregidor (position), Costa Rica, Coup d'état, Criollo people, Cuba, Cubans, Death squad, Decree 900, Democracy Now!, Demographics of Guatemala, Department (country subdivision), Diario de Centro América, Diaspora, Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement, Doroteo Vasconcelos, Duel, Dulce River (Guatemala), Dwight D. 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Afro-Guatemalan are Guatemalans of African descent.
Agustín Guzmán was a Mexican military officer, who was appointed as Army Commander in Chief of Los Altos when this new State was formed as part of the Central American Federation on 2 March 1838.
Alejandro Baltazar Maldonado Aguirre (born January 6, 1936) is a Guatemalan politician who was the Acting President of Guatemala, following the Congress of Guatemala's acceptance of the resignation of President Otto Pérez Molina on September 3, 2015.
Alfonso Antonio Portillo Cabrera (born September 24, 1951) is a Guatemalan politician who served as President of Guatemala from 2000 to 2004.
All Saints' Day, also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown.
Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and its longest-serving director to date.
Alta Verapaz is a department in the north central part of Guatemala.
Anastasio Somoza García (1 February 1896 – 29 September 1956) was officially the 21st President of Nicaragua from 1 January 1937 to 1 May 1947 and from 21 May 1950 to 29 September 1956, but ruled effectively as dictator from 1936 until his assassination.
Aníbal López (A-1 53167), full name Aníbal Asdrúbal López Juarez (April 13, 1964 – September 26, 2014) was an artist and a native of Guatemala.
Ancient Maya art refers to the material arts of the Maya civilization, an eastern and south-eastern Mesoamerican culture that took shape in the course of the later Preclassic Period (500 BCE to 200 CE).
Antigua Guatemala, commonly referred to as just Antigua or la Antigua, is a city in the central highlands of Guatemala famous for its well-preserved Spanish Baroque-influenced architecture as well as a number of ruins of colonial churches.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper), also known as Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre), is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America.
An arrowhead is a tip, usually sharpened, added to an arrow to make it more deadly or to fulfill some special purpose.
Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The men's 20 kilometres race walk at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London took place on 4 August on a route along The Mall and Constitution Hill in central London.
Brigadier General Óscar Humberto Mejía Víctores (9 December 1930 – 1 February 2016) was the 27th President of Guatemala from 8 August 1983 to 14 January 1986.
Baja Verapaz is a department in Guatemala.
A banana plantation is a commercial agricultural facility found in tropical climates where bananas are grown.
The Battle of La Arada was fought on 2 February 1851 near the town of Chiquimula in Guatemala, between the forces of Guatemala and an Allied army from Honduras and El Salvador.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
The black turtle bean is a small, shiny variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), especially popular in Latin American cuisine, though it can also be found in Cajun and Creole cuisines of south Louisiana.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
The Bosawás Biosphere Reserve in the northern part of state Jinotega (border with Honduras), Nicaragua is a hilly tropical forest designated in 1997 as a UNESCO biosphere reserve.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Burning of the Spanish Embassy (sometimes called the Spanish Embassy Massacre or the Spanish Embassy Fire) refers to the occupation of the Spanish Embassy in Guatemala City, Guatemala, on January 31st, 1980, by indigenous peasants of the Committee for Peasant Unity and their allies and the subsequent police raid that resulted in a fire which destroyed the embassy and left 36 people dead.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
A Captaincy (capitanía, capitania, kapetanija) is a historical administrative division of the former Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires.
The Captaincy General of Guatemala (Capitanía General de Guatemala), also known as the Kingdom of Guatemala (Spanish: Reino de Guatemala), was an administrative division of the Spanish Empire, under the viceroyalty of New Spain in Central America, including the present-day nations of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize and Guatemala, and the Mexican state of Chiapas.
The Caribbean Plate is a mostly oceanic tectonic plate underlying Central America and the Caribbean Sea off the north coast of South America.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
Carlos Castillo Armas (November 4, 1914 – July 26, 1957) was a Guatemalan military officer and politician.
Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio (July 17, 1918 – December 6, 2003) was President of Guatemala from July 1, 1970 to July 1, 1974.
Carlos Mérida (December 2, 1891 – December 21, 1985) was a Guatemalan artist who was one of the first to fuse European modern painting to Latin American themes, especially those related to Guatemala and Mexico.
Carlos Salazar Castro (1800 in San Salvador, El Salvador – July 23, 1867 in San José, Costa Rica) was a Central American military officer and Liberal politician.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A caudillo (Old Spanish: cabdillo, from Latin capitellum, diminutive of caput "head") was a type of personalist leader wielding military and political power.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The North American Central Time Zone (CT) is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
The Ch'orti' people (alternatively, Ch'orti' Maya or Chorti) are one of the indigenous Maya peoples, who primarily reside in communities and towns of southeastern Guatemala, northwestern Honduras, and northern El Salvador.
The Chajoma were a Kaqchikel-speaking Maya people of the Late Postclassic period, with a large kingdom in the highlands of Guatemala.
Chiantla is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango.
Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that with Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
Child Aid is a 501 (c) 3 non-profit based in Portland, Oregon working to promote literacy in Latin America.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Ciudad Vieja is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Sacatepéquez.
In archaeology, the classic Maya collapse is the decline of Classic Maya civilization and the abandonment of Maya cities in the southern Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica between the 8th and 9th centuries, at the end of the Classic Maya Period.
Claudia Paz y Paz Bailey (born ca. 1967) is the former Attorney General of Guatemala.
Coatepeque is a municipality in the Quetzaltenango department of Guatemala.
Cocido (Peninsular, Latin American) or cozido (European, Brazilian) is a traditional stew eaten as a main dish in Spain, Portugal, Brazil and other Hispanophone and Lusophone countries.
The Cocos Plate is a young oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Central America, named for Cocos Island, which rides upon it.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Common Hope is a non-profit organization based out of St. Paul, Minnesota that works with people in Guatemala.
The CONCACAF Championship was an association football tournament that took place between 1963 and 1989.
The Concordat of 1854 was an international treaty between the president of the Republic of Guatemala - General Captain Rafael Carrera - and the Holy See, which was signed in 1852 and ratified by both parties in 1854.
The Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la República) is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of Guatemala.
Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are generally used in cooking.
A corregidor was a local administrative and judicial official in Spain and in its overseas empire.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Criollo is a term which, in modern times, has diverse meanings, but is most commonly associated with Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial (and not necessarily Spanish) European immigrant origin.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cubans or Cuban people (Cubanos) are the inhabitants or citizens of Cuba.
A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror.
Decree 900 (Decreto 900), also called the Agrarian Reform Law, was a Guatemalan land reform law passed on June 17, 1952, during the Guatemalan Revolution.
Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.
The Demographics of Guatemala are diverse, the 17,263,239 people (2018 estimate) consist primarily of Mestizos, Amerindians, and people of European descent.
A department is an administrative or political subdivision in many countries.
The Diario de Centro América is the newspaper of public record in Guatemala.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
The Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) is a free trade agreement (legally a treaty under international law, but not under U.S. law).
Doroteo Vasconcelos Vides y Ladrón de Guevara (1803–1883) was President of El Salvador 7 February 1848 - 1 February 1850 and 4 February 1850 – 1 March 1851.
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.
Dulce River (Río Dulce, or "Sweet River") is a river in Guatemala, completely contained within the department of Izabal.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The Eastern Coast of Central America Commercial and Agricultural Company was a failed British venture of the 1830s to exploit logging and promote colonisation in a region of what is now northern Guatemala.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Guatemala is the most populous Central American country and has a GDP per capita roughly one-third of Brazil's.
José Efraín Ríos Montt (June 16, 1926 – April 1, 2018) was a Guatemalan general and politician who was born in Huehuetenango.
El Mirador (which translates as “the lookout,” “the viewpoint,” or “the belvedere”) is a large pre-Columbian Maya settlement, located in the north of the modern department of El Petén, Guatemala.
El Periódico is a daily Guatemalan newspaper founded by José Rubén Zamora on November 6, 1996.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
El Señor Presidente (Mister President) is a 1946 novel written in Spanish by Nobel Prize-winning Guatemalan writer and diplomat Miguel Ángel Asturias (1899–1974).
El Tintal is a Maya archaeological site in the northern Petén region of Guatemala, about northeast of the modern-day settlement of Carmelita, with settlement dating to the Preclassic and Classic periods.
Elmar René Rojas Azurdia (1942 in San Raymundo Peñafort, Guatemala – 18 February 2018), practiced as an architect before studying art in Guatemala, Spain, France and Italy.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Colonel Alfredo Enrique Peralta Azurdia (June 17, 1908 – February 18, 1997) was President of Guatemala from March 31, 1963 to July 1, 1966.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Erick Bernabé Barrondo García (born 14 June 1991) is a Guatemalan racewalker who competes in the 20 km walk and 50 km walk events.
The Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas "Rafael Rodríguez Padilla" (National School of Plastic Arts) (ENAP), based in Guatemala City, is a public institution of higher education, research, and professional education in academic and applied fine arts of painting, sculpture, and graphic design.
Escuintla is a city in south central Guatemala.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Exposición Centroamericana -Central American Expo- was and industrial and cultural exposition that took place in Guatemala in 1897 and which was approved on 8 March 1894 by the National Assembly by Decree 253 by a suggestion made by president general José María Reina Barrios, at a time when both coffee - only Guatemalan export at the time- and silver international prices were at an all-time high.
Eysenhardtia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.
The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (in Spanish: Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional, FMLN) is one of the two major political parties in El Salvador.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
The Federal Republic of Central America (República Federal de Centroamérica), also called the United Provinces of Central America (Provincias Unidas del Centro de América) in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain.
Femicide or feminicide is a sex-based hate crime term, broadly defined as "the intentional killing of females (women or girls) because they are females", though definitions vary depending on the cultural context.
General Fernando Romeo Lucas García (4 July 1924 – 27 May 2006) was the 25th President of Guatemala from 1 July 1978 to 23 March 1982.
Fiambre is a traditional Guatemalan dish that is prepared and eaten yearly to celebrate the Day of the Dead (Día de los Muertos) and the All Saints Day (Día de Todos los Santos).
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The FIFA Futsal World Cup is the international championship for futsal, the indoor version of association football organized by FIFA.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
In English usage, a finca (Spanish for an "estate") refers to a piece of rural or agricultural land, typically with a cottage, farmhouse or estate buildings present, and often adjacent to a woodland or plantation.
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) was a short-lived monarchy and the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.
Francisco Ferrera (29 January 1794 – 10 April 1851) was a president of Honduras.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Francisco Javier Arana (December 5, 1905 – July 18, 1949) was one of the three members of the revolutionary junta that ruled Guatemala from 20 October 1944 to 15 March 1945 during the early part of the Guatemalan Revolution.
Francisco Morazán (born October 3, 1792 – September 15, 1842) was a Honduran politician who was president of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1830 to 1839.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).
Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors.
The Garifuna (Pardo) (pl. Garinagu in Garifuna) are Indigenous of mixed-race descendants of West African, Central African, Island Carib, European, and Arawak people.
Garifuna (Karif) is a minority language widely spoken in villages of Garifuna people in the western part of the northern coast of Central America.
Garifuna music is a type of music found in Central America, primarily on the Caribbean coast of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
A German Guatemalan is a citizen of Guatemala whose ancestors were German settlers (along with other settlers from Belgium) who arrived in the 19th and 20th centuries.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Grand Prix de Futsal is an international futsal competition of the same kind of the FIFA Futsal World Cup but with invited nations and held annually in Brazil.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Guacamole (or; sometimes informally referred to as "guac" in North America) is an avocado-based dip, spread, or salad first developed by the Aztecs in what is now Mexico.
Guatemala competed in the Summer Olympic Games for the first time at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland.
Guatemala competed at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, Mexico.
Guatemala competed in the Winter Olympic Games for the first time (and as of 2018, only time) at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Guatemala competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London from 27 July to 12 August 2012.
Guatemala City (Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción (New Guatemala of the Assumption), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Guatemala, and the most populous in Central America.
The Guatemala national football team (Selección de fútbol de Guatemala) is governed by the Federación Nacional de Fútbol de Guatemala.
The Guatemala national futsal team represents Guatemala in international futsal competitions, such as the World Cup and the CONCACAF Championships, and is controlled by the Federación Nacional de Fútbol.
The Guatemalan Civil War ran from 1960 to 1996.
General elections were held in Guatemala on 3 March 1974.
The Guatemalan genocide, Mayan genocide, or Silent Holocaust refers to the massacre of Maya civilians during the Guatemalan military government's counterinsurgency operations.
The Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (in Spanish: Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca, URNG-MAIZ or most commonly URNG) is a Guatemalan political party that started as a guerrilla movement but laid down its arms in 1996 and became a legal political party in 1998 after the peace process which ended the Guatemalan Civil War.
The Guatemalan Olympic Committee (Comité Olímpico Guatemalteco, abbreviated as COG) is a non-profit organization serving as the National Olympic Committee of Guatemala and a part of the International Olympic Committee and PASO.
The quetzal (code: GTQ) is the currency of Guatemala, named after the national bird of Guatemala, the resplendent quetzal.
The Guatemalan Revolution (Revolución de Guatemala) was the period in Guatemalan history between the popular uprising that overthrew dictator Jorge Ubico in 1944 and the United States-orchestrated coup d'état in 1954 that unseated President Jacobo Árbenz.
Guatemalan Spanish (Español guatemalteco) is the national variant of Spanish spoken in the Central American country of Guatemala.
Guatemalan people (Spanish: Pueblo guatemalteco (collective), Guatemaltecos (individuals)) colloquially known as Chapínes refers to all persons who identify with Guatemala, a multiethnic country in Central America.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The Han Chinese,.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
Hispanicisation or hispanisation, also known as castilianization or castilianisation (Spanish: castellanización) refers to the process by which a place or person becomes influenced by Hispanic culture or a process of cultural and/or linguistic change in which something non-Hispanic becomes Hispanic.
In 1994 Guatemala's Commission for Historical Clarification - La Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico (CEH) - was created as a response to the thousands of atrocities and human rights violations committed during the decades long civil war that began in 1962 and ended in the late 1990s with United Nations-facilitated peace accords.
The history of the Jews in Latin America began with conversos who joined the Spanish and Portuguese expeditions to the continents.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Huehuetenango is a city and a municipality in the highlands of western Guatemala.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hurricane Mitch was the second-deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record, causing over 11,000 fatalities in Central America, with over 7,000 occurring in Honduras alone due to the catastrophic flooding it wrought due to the slow motion of the storm.
Hurricane Stan was a rather weak but deadly tropical cyclone that affected areas of Central America in early October 2005.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
In Christianity, inculturation is the adaptation of the way Church teachings are presented to non-Christian cultures and, in turn, the influence of those cultures on the evolution of these teachings.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Guatemala.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Inter-American Court of Human Rights is an autonomous judicial institution based in the city of San José, Costa Rica.
The International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (Comisión Internacional contra la Impunidad en Guatemala, CICIG) is an international body charged with investigating and prosecuting serious crime in Guatemala.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Muslim population of Guatemala is approximately 1,200 (0.008% of the total population), of which 95% are Palestinian immigrants.
The Itza are a Guatemalan people of Maya affiliation.
Ixchel Museum of Indigenous Textiles and Clothing or Museo Ixchel del Traje Indigena is a museum in Guatemala City, Guatemala.
Iximche (or Iximché using Spanish orthography) is a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican archaeological site in the western highlands of Guatemala.
Izabal is one of the 22 departments of Guatemala.
Colonel Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán (September 14, 1913 – January 27, 1971), nicknamed The Big Blonde (Guatemalan El Chelón) or The Swiss (El Suizo) for his Swiss origins, was a Guatemalan military officer who was the second democratically elected President of Guatemala from 1951 to 1954.
Ernesto Jafeth Cabrera Franco (Guatemala City, 16 November 1951) is a Guatemalan politician who is Vice President of Guatemala since 14 January 2016.
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
The Jakaltek people are a Mayan people of Guatemala.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
Jimmy Morales (born James Ernesto Morales Cabrera; 18 March 1969) is a Guatemalan politician, who won the 2015 Guatemalan presidential election with over 67 percent of the vote in the second round.
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.
Jorge Toriello Garrido (23 April 1908 – 16 June 1998) was one of the three leaders of the first government that ruled Guatemala from 20 October 1944 to 15 March 1945 as part of the October Revolution.
Jorge Ubico Castañeda (10 November 1878 – 14 June 1946), nicknamed Number Five (based on the letters of the name Jorge) or also Central America's Napoleon, was the authoritarian ruler of Guatemala from 14 February 1931 to 4 July 1944.
José Francisco Barrundia y Cepeda (May 12, 1787, Guatemala City – August 4, 1854, New York City) was a liberal Central American politician.
José María Reyna Barrios (24 December 1854 – 8 February 1898) was President of Guatemala from 15 March 1892 until his death on 8 February 1898.
José Víctor Ramón Valentín de las Ánimas Zavala y Córdova (November 2, 1815 – March 26, 1886) was a Guatemalan Field Marshal who participated in the wars of Rafael Carrera and the National War of Nicaragua against the invasion of William Walker.
Juan Federico Ponce Vaides (26 August 1889 – 16 November 1956) was the acting President of Guatemala from 4 July 1944 to 20 October 1944.
Juan José Arévalo Bermejo (10 September 1904 – 8 October 1990) was a professor of philosophy who became Guatemala's first democratically elected president in 1945.
Juan José de Aycinena y Piñol (Guatemala City, 29 August, 1792 - Guatemala City, 17 February, 1865) was an ecclesiastical and intellectual conservative in Central America.
Juan Nepomuceno Fernández Lindo y Zelaya (generally known as Juan Lindo) (16 May 1790, Tegucigalpa, Honduras – 23 April 1857, Gracias, Honduras) was a Conservative Central American politician, president of the Republic of El Salvador from 1841 to 1842 and of the Republic of Honduras from 1847 to 1852.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Julio César Méndez Montenegro (November 23, 1915 – April 30, 1996) was the Revolutionary Party President of Guatemala from July 1, 1966 to July 1, 1970.
Justo Rufino Barrios (July 19, 1835 – April 2, 1885) was a Guatemalan politician who was President of Guatemala from 1873 to 1885.
Jutiapa is a municipality in the Jutiapa department of Guatemala.
The K'iche' kingdom of Q'umarkaj was a state in the highlands of modern-day Guatemala which was founded by the K'iche' (Quiché) Maya in the thirteenth century, and which expanded through the fifteenth century until it was conquered by Spanish and Nahua forces led by Pedro de Alvarado in 1524.
K'iche' (pronounced; previous Spanish spelling: Quiché) are indigenous peoples of the Americas and are one of the Maya peoples.
The Kaqchikel (also called Kachiquel) are one of the indigenous Maya peoples of the midwestern highlands in Guatemala.
The Kejache (sometimes spelt Kehache, Quejache, Kehach, Kejach or Cehache) were a Maya people in the southern Yucatán Peninsula at the time of Spanish contact in the 17th century.
Brigadier General Kjell Eugenio Laugerud García (January 24, 1930, Harris M. Lentz, Routledge, 4 Feb 2014, page 345 – December 9, 2009) was President of Guatemala from July 1, 1974 to July 1, 1978.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.
The Kowoj (also recorded as Ko'woh, Couoh, Coguo, Cohuo, Kob'ow and Kob'ox, and Kowo) was a Maya group and polity, from the Late Postclassic period (ca. 1250–1697) of Mesoamerican chronology.
La Blanca is a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican archaeological site in present-day Retalhuleu Department, western Guatemala.
La Granadera was the national anthem of the Federal Republic of Central America.
La Línea corruption case began in Guatemala on April 16, 2015, when the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (Comisión Internacional Contra la Impunidad en Guatemala, CICIG) and State prosecutors accused a number of politicians in the administration of President Otto Pérez Molina of setting up a customs corruption ring with the help of high-ranking officials in the tax and customs administration.
The Ladino people are a mix of mestizo or hispanicized peoples en el Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE) in Latin America, principally in Central America.
Lake Izabal, also known as the Golfo Dulce, is the largest lake in Guatemala with a surface area of 589.6 km² (145,693 acres or 227.6 sq mi) and a maximum depth is 18 m (59 ft).
Latin pop (Spanish and Portuguese: Pop latino) refers to pop music that contains sounds or influence from Latin America, but it can also mean pop music from anywhere in the Spanish-speaking world.
The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leopold I (Léopold Ier; German and Leopold I; 16 December 1790 – 10 December 1865) was a German prince who became the first King of the Belgians following the country's independence in 1830.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America have unique historical roots as Latin American independence began to occur in 1808 after the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic Wars that eventually engulfed all of Europe.
Liga Nacional de Fútbol de Guatemala (National Football League of Guatemala), formerly known as Liga Mayor "A" (Major League "A") is a professional football division in Guatemala, the highest one in the country.
Caribbean music genres are diverse.
The President of the Congress of the Republic of Guatemala is the presiding officer of the legislature.
This is a list of universities in Guatemala.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Los Altos (Spanish for "the highlands" or "the heights") was the sixth state of the Federal Republic of Central America, and a short-lived independent republic.
Luis Batres Juarros or Luis Batres y Juarros (New Guatemala de la Asunción 7 May 1802 – 17 June 1862) was an influential conservative Guatemalan politician during the regime of General Rafael Carrera.
Luis Rolando Ixquiac Xicará (born 1947) is an indigenous artist born in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
The Mam are an indigenous people in the western highlands of Guatemala and in south-western Mexico who speak the Mam language.
Mano Blanca (White Hand), was a Guatemalan right-wing, anti-communist death squad, set up in 1966 to prevent Julio César Méndez Montenegro from being inaugurated as the president of Guatemala.
Manuel Lisandro Barillas Bercián (17 January 1845 – 15 March 1907) was a Guatemalan general and acting president of Guatemala from 6 April 1885 to 15 March 1886 and President from 16 March 1886 to 15 March 1892.
Manuel José Estrada Cabrera (21 November 1857 – 24 September 1924) was President of Guatemala from 1898 to 1920.
Mariachi is a musical expression that dates back to at least 18th century in Western Mexico.
José Felipe Mariano Gálvez (ca. 1794 – March 29, 1862 in Mexico) was a jurist and Liberal politician in Guatemala.
Mariano Paredes (1800—1856) was President of Guatemala from January 1, 1849 to November 6, 1851 as a compromise chief of state.
Mariano Rivera Paz (24 December 1804 – 26 February 1849) was Head of State of Guatemala and its first president.
The marimba is a percussion instrument consisting of a set of wooden bars struck with mallets called knobs to produce musical tones.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Mataquescuintla (from Nahuatl, meaning net to catch dogs) is a municipality in the Jalapa department of south-east Guatemala.
The Maya Biosphere Reserve (Reserva de la Biosfera Maya) is a nature reserve in Guatemala managed by Guatemala's National Council of Protected Areas (CONAP).
The Maya calendar is a system of calendars used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and in many modern communities in the Guatemalan highlands, Veracruz, Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
The traditional Maya religion of Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and the Tabasco, Chiapas, and Yucatán regions of Mexico is a southeastern variant of Mesoamerican religion.
The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Mexican street food, called antojitos (literally "little cravings"), is prepared by street vendors and at small traditional markets in Mexico.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Middle America Trench is a major subduction zone, an oceanic trench in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the southwestern coast of Middle America, stretching from central Mexico to Costa Rica.
Miguel Ángel Asturias Rosales (October 19, 1899 – June 9, 1974) was a Nobel Prize-winning Guatemalan poet-diplomat, novelist, playwright and journalist.
The Miguel Ángel Asturias National Prize in Literature (officially in Spanish language: Premio Nacional de Literatura "Miguel Ángel Asturias") is the most important literary award in Guatemala.
Miguel García Granados y Zavala (September 29, 1809 – September 8, 1878) was President of Guatemala from 1871 to 1873.
General José Miguel Ramón Ydígoras Fuentes (17 October 1895 – 27 October 1982) was the conservative President of Guatemala from 1958 to March 1963.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Minor Cooper Keith (19 January 1848 – 14 June 1929) was an American businessman whose railroad, commercial agriculture, and shipping enterprises much influenced the national economies of the Central American countries, and that of Colombia.
The Mirador Basin is a hypothesized geological depression found in the remote rainforest of the northern department of Petén, Guatemala.
Mixco is a municipality in the Guatemala department of Guatemala.
Monetary inflation is a sustained increase in the money supply of a country (or currency area).
The Motagua Fault (also, Motagua Fault Zone) is a major, active left lateral-moving transform fault which cuts across Guatemala, continuing offshore along the southern Pacific coast of Mexico, returning onshore along the southernmost tip of Oaxaca, then continuing offshore until it merges with the Middle America Trench near Acapulco.
The Motagua River is a long river in Guatemala.
A mudflow or mud flow is a form of mass wasting involving "very rapid to extremely rapid surging flow" of debris that has become partially or fully liquified by the addition of significant amounts of water to the source material.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
The Museo Nacional de Arte Moderno "Carlos Mérida" is a national museum of modern art in Guatemala City, named after Carlos Mérida.
The Museo Popol Vuh (Popol Vuh Museum) is home to one of the major collections of Maya art in the world.
The music of Mexico is very diverse and features a wide range of musical genres and performance styles.
Naïve art is any form of visual art that is created by a person who lacks the formal education and training that a professional artist undergoes (in anatomy, art history, technique, perspective, ways of seeing).
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Nakbe is one of the largest early Maya archaeological sites.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Naranjo is a Pre-Columbian Maya city in the Petén Basin region of Guatemala.
The national anthem of Guatemala was written by José Joaquín Palma (1844–1911) and composed by Rafael Álvarez Ovalle.
The National Convergence Front (Frente de Convergencia Nacional, FCN–Nación) was a political party in Guatemala.
The National Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Guatemala (Iglesia Evangélica Nacional Presbiteriana de Guatemala) was founded in 1882 by missionaries of the Presbyterian Church United States in Guatemala.
The National Football Federation of Guatemala (Federación Nacional de Fútbol de Guatemala), known as Fedefut Guate or FENAFUTG, is the governing body of football in Guatemala.
The National Statistics Institute of Guatemala (Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Guatemala, INE) is the statistics agency of the Government of Guatemala.
The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-governmental, non-profit research and archival institution located on the campus of the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 to check rising government secrecy, the National Security Archive is an investigative journalism center, open government advocate, international affairs research institute, and is the largest repository of declassified U.S. documents outside the federal government.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, the Bahamas, extreme northeastern Asia, and parts of Iceland and the Azores.
Nueva canción ((standard European) or (American) 'new song') is a social movement and musical genre in Iberian America and the Iberian peninsula, characterized by folk-inspired styles and socially committed lyrics.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
Operation PBFORTUNE, also known as Operation FORTUNE, was the name of a covert United States operation to overthrow the democratically elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz in 1952.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
Otto Fernando Pérez Molina (born 1 December 1950) is a Guatemalan politician and retired military officer, who was President of Guatemala from 2012 to 2015.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Guatemala: Guatemala – sovereign country located in Central America bordering Mexico to the northwest, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize and the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, and Honduras and El Salvador to the southeast.
Pacaya is an active complex volcano in Guatemala, which first erupted approximately 23,000 years ago and has erupted at least 23 times since the Spanish invasion of Guatemala.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
A pariah state (also called an international pariah or a global pariah) is a nation considered to be an outcast in the international community.
Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala.
Pedro de Aycinena y Piñol (19 October 1802 – 14 May 1897) was a conservative politician and member of the Aycinena clan that worked closely with the conservative regime of Rafael Carrera.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Peon (English, from the Spanish peón) usually refers to a person subject to peonage: any form of unfree labour or wage labor in which a laborer (peon) has little control over employment conditions.
The Petén Basin is a geographical subregion of Mesoamerica, primarily located in northern Guatemala within the Department of El Petén, and into Campeche state in southeastern Mexico.
Petén is a department of the Republic of Guatemala.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The Polochic River is a long river in eastern Guatemala.
The Poqomchi' are a Maya people in Guatemala.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
Prensa Libre is a Guatemalan newspaper published in Guatemala City by Prensa Libre, S.A. and distributed nationwide.
The presidency of John F. Kennedy began on January 20, 1961, when Kennedy was inaugurated as the 35th President of the United States, and ended on November 22, 1963, upon his assassination and death, a span of days.
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.
The President of Guatemala (Presidente de Guatemala) officially known as the President of the Republic of Guatemala (Presidente de la República de Guatemala), is the head of state and head of government of Guatemala, elected to a single four-year term.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
Primitivism is a mode of aesthetic idealization that either emulates or aspires to recreate "primitive" experience.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.
Pueblo a Pueblo is a 501(c)(3) organization that provides programs in health, education, and food security in rural communities in Latin America, especially Mayan communities in Guatemala.
Puerto Barrios is a city in Guatemala, located within the Gulf of Honduras.
Punch is a wide assortment of drinks, both non-alcoholic and alcoholic, generally containing fruit or fruit juice.
Punta is a dance originated in the Central American coast of Belize, Honduras and Guatemala in the late 18th century with African beats.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Q'eqchi' (K'ekchi' in the former orthography, or simply Kekchi in many English-language contexts, such as in Belize) are a Maya people of Guatemala and Belize.
Quetzaltenango, also known by its Maya name, Xelajú or Xela, is the second largest city of Guatemala.
Quiché is a department of Guatemala.
José Rafael Carrera Turcios (24 October 1814 – 14 April 1865) was the president of Guatemala from 1844 to 1848 and from 1851 until his death in 1865, after being appointed President for Life in 1854.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
The Real Audiencia, or simply Audiencia (Reial Audiència, Audiència Reial, or Audiència), was an appellate court in Spain and its empire.
Regular clergy, or just regulars, is applied in the Roman Catholic Church to clerics who follow a "rule" (Latin regula) in their life, those who are members of religious institutes.
A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Rigoberta Menchú Tum (born 9 January 1959) is a K'iche' political and human rights activist from Guatemala.
Roberto González Goyri (1924 in Guatemala City - November 13, 2007 in Guatemala City) was a Guatemalan painter, sculptor and muralist.
Ingrid Roxana Baldetti Elías (born May 13, 1962) was the first female Vice President of Guatemala from 2012 until her resignation amid a corruption scandal in 2015.
Salamá is a city in Guatemala.
Salsa music is a popular dance music that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s.
San Marcos is a department in northwestern Guatemala, on the Pacific Ocean and along the western Guatemala-Mexico border.
San Miguel Petapa is a municipality in the Guatemala department of Guatemala, located south of Guatemala City.
San Salvador ("Holy Savior") is the capital and the most populous city of El Salvador and its eponymous department.
Sanarate is the largest city in the El Progreso department of Guatemala.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
Santa María Volcano is a large active volcano in the western highlands of Guatemala, in the Quetzaltenango Department near the city of Quetzaltenango.
Santo Tomás de Castilla, also known as Matías de Gálvez is a port city in the Izabal Department, Guatemala.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
Self-immolation is an act of killing oneself as a sacrifice.
Siglo Veintiuno or stylized Siglo XXI is a Guatemalan daily newspaper.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sipacate is a resort town on the Pacific coast of Guatemala, in Escuintla Department about 22 miles (36 km) west of Puerto San José.
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
The Spanish conquest of Guatemala was a protracted conflict during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, in which Spanish colonisers gradually incorporated the territory that became the modern country of Guatemala into the colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21), was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
Suchitepéquez is one of the 22 departments of Guatemala.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
Tabasco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tabasco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tabasco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Tacaná is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of San Marcos.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
A tamale (tamal, tamalli) is a traditional Mesoamerican dish made of masa or dough (starchy, and usually corn-based), which is steamed in a corn husk or banana leaf.
A team sport includes any sport which involves two or more players working together towards a shared objective.
Tecpán Guatemala (locally referred to as just Tecpán) is a municipality in the department of Chimaltenango, in Guatemala, on the Inter-American Highway CA-1.
Country Code: +502International Call Prefix: 00 In Guatemala, regular phone numbers are 8 digits.
Telephone tapping (also wire tapping or wiretapping in American English) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Tikal (Tik’al in modern Mayan orthography) is the ruin of an ancient city, which was likely to have been called Yax Mutal, found in a rainforest in Guatemala.
Tlaxcala (Spanish;; from Tlaxcallān), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tlaxcala (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tlaxcala), is one of the 31 states which along with the Federal District make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
Tomato sauce (also known as Neapolitan sauce, and Salsa di pomodoro in Italian) can refer to a large number of different sauces made primarily from tomatoes, usually to be served as part of a dish, rather than as a condiment.
Tostada is a Spanish word meaning "toasted".
In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.
Tropical Storm Agatha was a weak but catastrophic tropical cyclone that brought widespread floods to much of Central America, and was the deadliest tropical cyclone in the eastern Pacific since Hurricane Pauline in 1997.
A truth commission or truth and reconciliation commission is a commission tasked with discovering and revealing past wrongdoing by a government (or, depending on the circumstances, non-state actors also), in the hope of resolving conflict left over from the past.
The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.
The Tz'utujil (Tzutujil, Tzutuhil, Sutujil) are a Native American people, one of the 21 Maya ethnic groups that dwell in Guatemala.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Fruit Company was an American corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas), grown on Central and South American plantations, and sold in the United States and Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala (USAC, University of San Carlos of Guatemala) is the biggest and oldest university of Guatemala; it is also the fourth founded in the Americas.
Francisco Marroquín University (Spanish: Universidad Francisco Marroquín), also known by the abbreviation UFM, is a private, secular university in Guatemala City, Guatemala.
The University of Costa Rica (Spanish: Universidad de Costa Rica, abbreviated UCR) is a public university in the Republic of Costa Rica, in Central America.
University Press of America is an academic publisher based in the United States.
The Usumacinta River (named after the Howler monkey) is a river in southeastern Mexico and northwestern Guatemala.
Vagrancy is the condition of a person who wanders from place to place homeless with no regular employment nor income, referred to as a vagrant, vagabond, rogue, tramp or drifter.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vice President of Guatemala is a political position in Guatemala which is since 1966 elected concurrently with the position of President of Guatemala.
Vicente Cerna y Cerna (22 January 1815 – 27 June 1885) was president of Guatemala from 24 May 1865 to 29 June 1871.
Vicente Filisola (sometimes Vicente Filísola, with an acute accent on the second syllable) (c. 1789, Ravello, Italy – July 23, 1850, Mexico City) was a Spanish military figure, Mexican military and political figure in the 19th century.
A viceroyalty is an entity headed by a viceroy.
Villa Nueva is a City in the Guatemala department of Guatemala.
Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo (born December 26, 1942) is a Guatemalan politician.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses in which fever and hemorrhage are caused by a viral infection.
A volcanic crater is a roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity.
Volcán de Agua (also known as Hunahpú by Maya) is a stratovolcano located in the departments of Sacatepéquez and Escuintla in Guatemala.
Volcán de Fuego (Spanish for "Volcano of Fire", often shortened to Fuego) or Chi'gag (Mayan for "where the fire is") is an active stratovolcano in Guatemala, on the borders of Chimaltenango, Escuintla and Sacatepéquez departments.
Volcán Tajumulco is a large stratovolcano in the department of San Marcos in western Guatemala.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Xalapa (often spelled Jalapa,;; officially Xalapa-Enríquez) is the capital city of the Mexican state of Veracruz and the name of the surrounding municipality.
Xinca (Szinca) is a small extinct family of Mesoamerican languages, formerly regarded as a single language isolate, once spoken by the indigenous Xinca people in southeastern Guatemala, much of El Salvador, and parts of Honduras.
The Yalain have been proposed as a Maya polity that existed during the Postclassic period (c. AD 1000–1697) in the Petén Basin of northern Guatemala, based in the central Petén lakes region.
Youth in Guatemala are the largest segment of the nation's population.
The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
Zacapa is the departmental capital municipality of Zacapa Department, one of the 22 Departments of Guatemala.
.gt is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Guatemala.
The 1917 Guatemala earthquake was a sequence of tremors that lasted from 17 November 1917 through 24 January 1918.
The 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état was a covert operation carried out by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that deposed the democratically elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz and ended the Guatemalan Revolution of 1944–1954.
The 1967 CONCACAF Championship, also referred to as the NORCECA Championship, was the third edition of the football championship of the North, Central America, and Caribbean region.
The 2000 edition of the FIFA Futsal World Championship was held between November 18 and December 3 in Guatemala.
The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census.
The 2008 CONCACAF Futsal Championship was the fourth edition of the main international futsal tournament of the North and Central America and the Caribbean region.
The 2008 edition of the FIFA Futsal World Cup was held in Brazil from 30 September to 19 October.
The 2009 Grand Prix de Futsal was the fifth edition of the international futsal competition of the same kind as the FIFA Futsal World Cup but with invited nations and held annually in Brazil.
The 2012 CONCACAF Futsal Championship was the fifth edition of the main international futsal tournament of the North and Central America and the Caribbean region.
The 2014 Grand Prix de Futsal was the ninth edition of the international futsal competition of the same kind as the FIFA Futsal World Cup but with invited nations and held annually in Brazil.
The 2016 CONCACAF Futsal Championship was the 6th edition of the CONCACAF Futsal Championship, the quadrennial international futsal championship organised by CONCACAF for the men's national teams of the North, Central American and Caribbean region.
Administrative divisions of Guatemala, Etymology of Guatemala, Guatamala, Guatelmala, Guatimala, Gutzemala, Gvatemala, ISO 3166-1:GT, Republic Guatemala, Republic of Guatemala, República de Guatemala, Sport in Guatemala, Subdivisions of Guatemala.