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Abu Bakr al-ʿAydarūs, also known as Sayyid Abū Bakr al-ʿAdanī ibn ʿAbdullāh al-ʿAydarūs (أبو بكر العدني بن عبد الله العيدروس); 1447–1508J.
Shaikh Abu al-Fazal ibn Mubarak (ابو الفضل) also known as Abu'l-Fazl, Abu'l Fadl and Abu'l-Fadl 'Allami (14 January 1551 – 12 August 1602) was the Grand vizier of the Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbar's reign in three volumes, (the third volume is known as the Ain-i-Akbari) and a Persian translation of the Bible.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim dynasty, founded by Yusuf Adil Shah, that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur, centred on present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka in India, in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India from 1489 to 1686.
Adivasi is the collective term for the indigenous peoples of mainland South Asia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agate is a rock consisting primarily of cryptocrystalline silica, chiefly chalcedony, alternating with microgranular quartz.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Ahmad Shah I, born Ahmad Khan, was a ruler of the Muzaffarid dynasty, who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate from 1411 until his death in 1442.
Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.
Janmarg, also known as Ahmedabad BRTS, is a bus rapid transit system in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Ahmedabad District comprises the city of Ahmedabad, in the central part of the state of Gujarat in western India.
Ahmedabad Junction railway station is the main railway station of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Service (AMTS) runs the public bus service in the city of Ahmedabad in India.The responsibility of the administration of AMTS comes under the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation.
The Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association (commonly known as ATIRA) is an autonomous non-profit association for textile research located in the Navarangpura area of Ahmedabad, India.
Ahmedabad University is a private, non-profit university that comprises four schools and four centres with opportunities for interdisciplinary scholarship.
The Ajanta Caves are 29 (approximately) rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
The Akbarnama which translates to Book of Akbar, is the official chronicle of the reign of Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor (r. 1556–1605), commissioned by Akbar himself by his court historian and biographer, Abul Fazl who was one of the nine jewels in Akbar's court.
Akha Bhagat, commonly known as Akho) or Akha Rahiyadas Soni was a medieval Gujarati poet who wrote in the tradition of the Bhakti movement. He wrote his poems in a literary form called Chhappa (six stanza satirical poems).
On 24 September 2002, two armed men attacked the Akshardham Temple complex at Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
Alang is a census town in Bhavnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
ʿAlāʾ ud-Dīn Khaljī was the second and the most powerful ruler of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent.
The legal drinking age in India and the laws which regulate the sale and consumption of alcohol vary significantly from state to state.
Alcohol prohibition in India is in force in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, and Nagaland as well as in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep.
Alyque Padamsee (born 1928) is an Indian theatre personality and ad film maker.
Ambaji (Ambājī) is a census town in Banaskantha district in the state of Gujarat, India.
Amir Husain Al-Kurdi, (أمیر حسین الکردي), named the Mirocem or Mir-Hocem by the Portuguese, was a governor of the city of Jeddah in the Red Sea, then part of the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate, in early 16th century.
Amitabh Bachchan (born 11 October 1942) is an Indian film actor, producer, television host, and former politician.
An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.
Amreli district is one of the 33 administrative districts of the state of Gujarat in western India.
Amul is an Indian dairy cooperative, based at Anand in the state of Gujarat.
Anand District is an administrative district of Gujarat state in western India and is popularly known as Charotar.
Anandiben Patel (born 21 November 1941) is an Indian politician and the current Governor of Madhya Pradesh and former Chief Minister of Gujarat, a western state of India.
Anarta (आनर्त) was an ancient Indian region which corresponded to the present-day North Saurashtra to North Gujarat regions in Gujarat state of India.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The term Anglo-Indians can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent.
Ankleshwar, (sometimes written Anklesvar) is a city and a municipality in the Bharuch district of the state of Gujarat, India.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
A small but recognizable people with Arab origins have over time settled in the India.
Aravalli district is a district in the state of Gujarat in India that came into being on August 15, 2013, becoming the 29th district of the state.
The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains running approximately 692 km (430 mi) in a southwest direction, starting in North India from Delhi and passing through southern Haryana, through to Western India across the states of Rajasthan and ending in Gujarat.
The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is a Government of India (Ministry of Culture) organisation responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural monuments in the country.
Arjuna (in Devanagari: अर्जुन) is the main central character of the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata and plays a key role in the Bhagavad Gita alongside Krishna.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo leo) is a lion population in Gujarat, India.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Atma Siddhi is a spiritual treatise in verse, composed in Gujarati by the nineteenth century Jain mystic poet Shrimad Rajchandra (1867–1901 C.E.). Atma according to Jainism means "soul" or the "self" and "siddhi" means "attainment".
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
An auto rickshaw is a motorized development of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Āzar Kayvān (b. between 1529 and 1533; d. between 1609 and 1618; the first name sometimes transcribed Adhar), was a Zoroastrian high priest of Estakhr and native of Fars who emigrated to the Patna in Mughal India during the reign of the Emperor Akbar and became the founder of a Zoroastrian school of ishraqiyyun or Illuminationists.
Azim Hashim Premji (born 24 July 1945) is an Indian business tycoon, investor, and philanthropist, who is the chairman of Wipro Limited.
The Śvētāmbara (श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara.
The B. K. School of Business Management is one of the oldest and well-known business schools in the state of Gujarat.
The Badin District (ضلعو بدين, ضلع بدین) is a district in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Baghdadi Jews, also known as Indo-Iraqi Jews, is the traditional name given to the communities of Jewish migrants and their descendants from Baghdad and elsewhere in the Middle East, who settled primarily along the trade routes of ports around the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.
Bago (formerly spelt Pegu;,; ဗဂေါ), formerly known as Hanthawaddy (meaning "She Who Has Swans"), is a city and the capital of the Bago Region in Myanmar.
Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah, born Bahadur Khan was a sultan of the Muzaffarid dynasty who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate, a late medieval kingdom in India from 1526 to 1535 and again from 1536 to 1537.
The Bahmani Sultanate (also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Balaram Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary is located at Banaskantha, Gujarat, India.
Balasinor (also referred to as Vadasinor) is a city located in the Mahisagar district of Gujarat, India.
Balwantray Kalyanray Thakore (બળવંતરાય કલ્યાણરાય ઠાકોર) (23 October 1869 – 2 January 1952), popularly known as B. K. Thakore (.ક.ઠાકોર), was a poetry teacher and one of the great pioneers of the Pandit yug, the turn of the twentieth century period in Gujarati literature.
Banaskantha is one among the thirty-three districts of the Gujarat state of India.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
A banyan, also spelled "banian", is a fig that begins its life as an epiphyte, i.e. a plant that grows on another plant, when its seed germinates in a crack or crevice of a host tree or edifice.
Bappa Rawal, also spelled as "Bappa Raval", (c. 8th century) was a legendary ruler of the Mewar region in Rajasthan, India.
Barda Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Gujarat, India.
The Baroda Museum & Picture Gallery in Vadodara was built in 1894 on the lines of the Victoria & Albert Museum and the Science Museum of London.
Baroda State was a princely state in present-day Gujarat, ruled by the Gaekwad dynasty of the Maratha Confederacy from its formation in 1721 until 1949 when it acceded to the newly formed Union of India.
Barot is an Indian caste native to Gujarat and Rajasthan.
The Battle of Chaul was a naval battle between the Portuguese and an Egyptian Mamluk fleet in 1508 in the harbour of Chaul in India.
The Battle of Diu was a naval battle fought on 3 February 1509 in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Zamorin of Calicut with support of the Republic of Venice.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bhadreshwar Jain Temple, also known as Vasai Jain Temple, is a Jain temple of historical importance located in Bhadreshwar village of Mundra Taluka, Kutch, Gujarat, India.
Bhagwatikumar Sharma is a Gujarati language author and journalist from India.
A bhajan literally means "sharing".
Bhakri is a round flat unleavened bread often used in the cuisine of the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Goa states in India, along with several regions of western and central India, including areas of Rajasthan, Malwa, and Karnataka.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
Bharuch (Gujarati: ભરૂચ, Bharūca), formerly known as Broach, is a city at the mouth of the river Narmada in Gujarat in western India.
Bharuch (formerly commonly known as Broach) in India, is a district in the southern part of the Gujarat peninsula on the west coast of state of Gujarat with a size and population comparable to that of Greater Boston.
Bhatia is a group of people and a caste found in Punjab, Rajasthan, Sindh and Gujarat.
Bhavai, also known as Vesha or Swang, is a popular folk theatre form of western India, especially in Gujarat.
Bhavnagar is a city in the Bhavnagar district of the Saurashtra region of the Gujarat state of India.
Bhavnagar Aerodrome is an airport located 4 kilometres (2 mi) southeast of Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.
Bhavnagar District is a district of southeastern Gujarat, India, on the Saurashtra peninsula.
Bhavnagar State was a princely state in Saurashtra during the British Raj.
Bhavni Bhavai (ભવની ભવાઈ; The Tale of the Life) is a 1980 Gujarati film directed by Ketan Mehta, starring Naseeruddin Shah, Om Puri, Smita Patil, Mohan Gokhale, Benjamin Gilani.
The Bhil languages, also known as Bhili or Bhilodi and vagari, vaghari,in vagad areas banswara,dungerpur, some parts of Udaipur, are a group of Western Indo-Aryan languages spoken in 2011 by around 8 million Bhils in western, central, and far eastern India.
Bhili (Bhili) is a Western Indo-Aryan language spoken in west-central India, in the region east of Ahmedabad.
Bhima I (r. c. 1022–1064 CE) was an Indian king who ruled parts of present-day Gujarat.
Bhuj is a Municipality and District Headquarter of Kutch District in the state of Gujarat, India.
Bhuj Airport is a domestic airport located in Bhuj in the Kutch District of the state of Gujarat, India.
This is a bibliography of notable works about India.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bijapur, officially known as Vijayapura, is the district headquarters of Bijapur District of Karnataka state of India.
Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya Engineering College (BVM) is a grant-aided engineering institution located in the educational town of Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India.
Blackbuck National Park at Velavadar is situated in the Bhavnagar District of Gujarat state, India.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
Bombay State was a large Indian state created at the time of India's Independence, with other regions being added to it in the succeeding years. Bombay Presidency (roughly equating to the present-day Indian state of Maharashtra, excluding South Maharashtra and Vidarbha) was merged with the princely states of the Baroda, Western India and Gujarat (the present-day Indian state of Gujarat) and Deccan States (which included parts of the present-day Indian states of Maharashtra and Karnataka. On November 1, 1956, Bombay State was re-organized under the States Reorganisation Act on linguistic lines, absorbing various territories including the Saurashtra and Kutch States, which ceased to exist. On May 1, 1960, Bombay State was dissolved and split on linguistic lines into the two states of Gujarat, with Gujarati speaking population and Maharashtra, with Marathi speaking population.
Botad District is a district of the state of Gujarat, India.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
A brokerage firm, or simply brokerage, is a financial institution that facilitates the buying and selling of financial securities between a buyer and a seller.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
The Calico Museum of Textiles is located in the city of Ahmedabad in the state of Gujarat in western India.
Cambay, Kambay or Khambhat was a princely state during the British Raj.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.
Catherine of Braganza (Catarina; 25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705) was queen consort of England, of Scotland and of Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles II.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools, controlled and managed by Union Government of India.
Central Gujarat is region which is geographically located in center of Gujarat in India.
Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (formerly Central Salt Research Institute) is a constituent laboratory of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India.
Chhaachh (gu:છાશ)(hi:छाछ) is a dahi (yogurt)-based drink popular across Indian subcontinent.
The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
The Chalukyas (IAST: Calukya) of Navasarika (modern Navsari) were an Indian dynasty that ruled parts of present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra during 7th and 8th centuries, as vassals of the Chalukyas of Vatapi.
Chandragupta II (also known as Chandragupta Vikramaditya) was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta Empire in India.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
Chandrakant Keshavlal Bakshi (ચંદ્રકાંત કેશવલાલ બક્ષી) was a Gujarati author from Gujarat, India.
The Charan are a caste living in the Rajasthan and Gujarat states of India.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The Chaulukya dynasty, also known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat, ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Rajasthan in north-western India, between and.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
Chhota Udaipur district (also Chhota Udepur district) is a district in the state of Gujarat in India.
Chhundo (Gujarati: છૂંદો, Hindi: छुन्दो) is a kind of Indian pickle preparation as well as a condiment mostly made out of grated ripe mangoes, used in cuisine of the Indian subcontinent as an accompaniment to the main meal that consists of Roti, Sabzi and other food items.
The Chishtī Order (چشتی chishtī) is a Sunni Sufi order within the mystic Sufi tradition of Islam.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
Chorvad is a city and a municipality in Malia Hatina Taluka of Junagadh district in the state of Gujarat, India.
Chotila is a Hindu temple town and Taluka headquarters of Chotila Taluka, Surendranagar district, located near Rajkot, Gujarat, India.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Chup Tazia (چپ تعزیہ) or silent tazia is the name given to religious processions held mostly on 8th of Rabi' al-awwal by Twelver Shia Muslims in India and Pakistan to commemorate the death of Imam Hasan al-Askari, the eleventh of the Twelver Shi'a Imams.
A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products.
A condiment is a spice, sauce, or preparation that is added to food to impart a particular flavor, to enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) is a privately-held national level board of school education in India that conducts the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education and the Indian School Certificate examinations for Class X and Class XII respectively.
The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (IAST: vaigyanik tathā audyogik anusandhāna pariṣada; abbreviated as CSIR) was established by the Government of India in 1942 is an autonomous body that has emerged as the largest research and development organisation in India.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Curry (sometimes, plural curries) is an umbrella term referring to a number of dishes originating in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli (DNH in initials) is a union territory in Western India.
Dahod is a small city on the banks of the Dudhimati River in Dahod District in the State of Gujarat, India.
Dahod District is located in Gujarat state in western India, called after its administrative HQ.
Dakor is a city and a Nagarpalika in Kheda district in the state of Gujarat, India.
Dal (also spelled daal, dail, dhal; pronunciation) is a term in the Indian subcontinent for dried, split pulses (that is, lentils, peas, and beans).
Dalpatram Dahyabhai Travadi (દલપતરામ ડાહ્યાભાઈ ત્રવાડી) (1820-1898) was a Gujarati language poet during 19th century in India.
Daman and Diu is a union territory in Western India.
Daman district is one of the two districts of the union territory of Daman and Diu on the western coast of India, surrounded by Valsad District of Gujarat state on the north, east and south and the Persian Gulf to the west.
Raas or Dandiya Raas is the traditional folk dance form of Gujarat & Rajasthan India, and is associated with scenes of Holi, and lila of Krishna and Radha at Vrindavan.
Dang is a district in the state of Gujarat in India.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
Daulatabad, also known as Devagiri, is a 14th-century fort city in Maharashtra state of India, about northwest of Aurangabad.
David Sassoon (October 1792 – November 7, 1864) was the treasurer of Baghdad between 1817 and 1829.
Dayaram (Gujarati:દયારામ) (1777–1853) was a Gujarati poet of medieval Gujarati literature and was the last poet of the old Gujarati shcool.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.
Deesa Airport (also spelled Disa Airport), also known as Palanpur Airport, is an airport in Deesa, Gujarat originally built to serve the princely state of Palanpur.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Demetrius I (Greek: Δημήτριος Α΄) was a Greek king (reigned c. 200–180 BC) of Gandhara.
The Department of Technical Education (DTE) is a higher education governance body under the government of Kerala, India.
Devbhumi Dwarka District is a district of India located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Kutch in the state of Gujarat.
Devgadh Baria is a municipality in Dahod district in the state of Gujarat, India.
Dharmsinh Desai University(DDU) formerly known as Dharmsinh Desai Institute of Technology(DDIT) was founded on 2nd January, 1968 as an institution of higher learning in Nadiad, Gujarat, India in the fields of Engineering and Technology.
Dharasana Satyagraha was a protest against the British salt tax in colonial India in May, 1930.
Dhirajlal "Dhirubhai" Hirachand Ambani (28 December 1932 – 6 July 2002) was an Indian business tycoon who founded Reliance Industries in Bombay with his cousin.
Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology (DA-IICT), is a technological university located in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
Dholavira (ધોળાવીરા) is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern-day village south of it.
Dholka is a city and municipality in the Ahmedabad District of the Indian state of Gujarat.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
Digambara ("sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara (white-clad).
Diu is a town in Diu district in the union territory of Daman and Diu, India.
Diwali or Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).
Draupadi (द्रौपदी) is the most important female character in the Hindu epic, Mahabharata.
Duarte Barbosa (c. 1480, Lisbon, Portugal1 May 1521, Philippines) was a Portuguese writer and officer from Portuguese India (between 1500 and 1516).
Durga, also identified as Adi Parashakti, Devī, Shakti, Bhavani, Parvati, Amba and by numerous other names, is a principal and popular form of Hindu goddess.
The Dwarkadhish temple, also known as the Jagat Mandir and occasionally spelled Dwarakadheesh (દ્વારકાધીશ મન્દિર; Sanskrit and द्वारकाधीश मन्दिर), is a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Krishna, who is worshiped here by the name Dwarkadhish, or 'King of Dwarka'.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
The European Association for Distance Learning (EADL), formerly the Association of European Correspondence Schools, is an international organization consisting of schools, institutions and individuals working in the field of distance education, organized for the exchange of information and ideas on distance education.
Ezra Mir (October 26, 1903-93), (fl. 1924–1993) was an Indian film-maker, known for his documentary films.
"Factory" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; feitoria, factorij, factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.
A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
François Pyrard de Laval (ca. 1578 – ca. 1623) was a French navigator who is remembered for a personal written account of his adventures in the Maldives Islands from 1602 to 1607, which was part of a ten-year sojourn (1601–1611) in South Asia, et al.
The Gaekwad or Gaikwad (once rendered as Guicowar, also given (incorrectly) as Gaekwar) (गायकवाड Gāyǎkǎvāḍǎ) are a Hindu Maratha clan.
Gagra choli or ghagra choli, which is also known as lehenga choli and locally as chaniya choli, is the traditional clothing of women from the Indian subcontinent, notable in Indian states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu, as well as in Maithal/Bhojpuri speaking regions and the Khas people of Nepal.
Gamit is a language of India, spoken by the Gamit people of Tapi district of gujarat and by some people in surat, Bharuch, Dang and Valsad districts of southern Gujarat.
Gandhinagar is the capital of the state of Gujarat in Western India.
Gandhinagar district is an administrative division of Gujarat, India, whose headquarters are at Gandhinagar, the state capital.
Garba (ગરબા in Gujarati) is a form of dance which originated in the state of Gujarat in India.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Gautamiputra Satakarni (IAST) was a ruler of the Satavahana Empire in present-day Deccan region of India.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
The Ghurids or Ghorids (سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain, and it has been argued that they were Pashtun.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary, also known as Sasan Gir, is a forest and wildlife sanctuary near Talala Gir in Gujarat, India.
Girnar, also known as Girinagar ('city-on-the-hill') or Revatak Parvata, is a group of mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh.
The group temples of Jainism are situated on the Girnar mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
The Godhra train burning was an incident that occurred on the morning of 27 February 2002, in which 59 people died in a fire inside the Sabarmati Express train near the Godhra railway station in the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Godrej family is an Indian Gujarati-speaking Zororastrian Parsi family that manages and largely owns the Godrej Group, a conglomerate founded by Ardeshir Godrej and his brother Pirojsha Burjorji Godrej in 1897, spanning sectors as diverse as real estate, consumer products, industrial engineering, appliances, furniture, security and agricultural products.
Gola Dhoro is an archaeological site belonging to Indus Valley Civilization, situated at the head of the Gulf of Kutch, near Bagasara in Kutch district of Gujarat, India.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Govardhanram Madhavram Tripathi was an Indian Gujarati language novelist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Government of Gujarat, also known as the State Government of Gujarat, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Gujarat and its 33 districts.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
The Great Rann of Kutch is a salt marsh located in the Thar Desert in the Kutch District of Gujarat, India.
The greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) is the most widespread and largest species of the flamingo family.
Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
The Guhila dynasty ruled the Medapata (modern Mewar) region in present-day Rajasthan state of India.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
Gujarat Legislative Assembly or Gujarat Vidhan Sabha is the unicameral legislature of the Indian state of Gujarat.
Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilisers & Chemicals (GNFC) is an Indian manufacturer of fertilizers and Chemicals.GNFC was founded in 1976 and it is listed on Bombay Stock Exchange.
Gujarat National Law University (GNLU) is a National Law University established under the Gujarat National Law University Act, 2003 in the state of Gujarat.
Gujarat Sahitya Sabha, originally called the Social and Literary Association is a literary institution for the promotion of Gujarati literature located in the city of Ahmedabad, India.
Gujarat Science City, located in Hebatpur, Ahmedabad, is part of a government initiative to draw more students towards education in science.
The Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board or GSEB is a government of Gujarat body responsible for determining the policy-related, administrative, cognitive, and intellectual direction the state's secondary and higher secondary educational system takes.
Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) is a state owned corporation for passenger transport providing bus services both within state of Gujarat, India and neighbouring states.
The Gujarat Sultanate was a medieval Indian kingdom established in the early 15th century in present-day Gujarat, India.
Gujarat Technological University (International Innovative University), commonly referred as GTU, is a statewide institution affiliating many engineering, pharmacy, and management colleges and varsities across the western Indian Districts of Gujarat.
Gujarat University is a state university situated at Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Gujarat Vidhya Sabha, originally called Gujarat Vernacular Society is a literary institution for the promotion of vernacular Gujarati literature and education, and for the collection of manuscripts and printed books; located in the city of Ahmedabad, India.
Gujarati cinema, informally referred to as Dhollywood or Gollywood, is the Gujarati language film industry.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
The history of Gujarati (ગુજરાતી સાહિત્ય) literature may be traced to 1000 AD, and this literature has flourished since then to the present.
The term Gujarati Muslims (گجراتی مسلمان) is usually used to signify an Indian Muslim from the state of Gujarat in North-western coast of India.
Gujarati people or Gujaratis (ગુજરાતી) are an ethnic group traditionally from Gujarat that speak Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan language.
Gujarati Sahitya Parishad (Gujarati Literary Council) is a literary organisation for the promotion of Gujarati literature located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
The Gulf of Khambhat, also known as the Gulf of Cambay, is a bay on the Arabian Sea coast of India, bordering the state of Gujarat.
Gunvant Shah is an essayist, educationist, columnist and philosophy writer and critics from Gujarat, India.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan.
The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, also known as the Pratihara Empire, was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-7th to the 11th century.
Gurjaradesa/Gurjaradesh (Gurjara country) or Gurjaratra is a historical region in India comprising the eastern Rajasthan and northern Gujarat during the period of 6th -12th century CE.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Hadramaut, Hadhramaut, Hadramout, Hadramawt or Ḥaḍramūt (حضرموت Ḥaḍramawt; Musnad: 𐩢𐩳𐩧𐩣𐩩) is a region on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Acharya Hemachandra was a Jain scholar, poet, and polymath who wrote on grammar, philosophy, prosody, and contemporary history.
Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University (HNGU) is a public university in Patan, Gujarat, India.
The Gujarat High Court is the High Court of the state of Gujarat.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ("Hindustan" being a historical name for India).
Stepwells are wells in which the water is reached by steps.
Holi (Holī), also known as the "festival of colours", is a spring festival celebrated all across the Indian subcontinent as well as in countries with large Indian subcontinent diaspora populations such as Jamaica, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Mauritius, and Fiji.
Hormuz Island (جزیره هرمز Jazireh-ye Hormoz), also spelled Hormoz, is an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam (English: I Have Given My Heart Away, Darling) is a 1999 Indian Hindi-language romantic drama film directed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (نصیرالدین محمد|translit.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Hutheesing Temple (હઠીસિંહનાં દેરા) is the best known Jain temple in Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India.
Hyderabad State was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Illuminationist or ishraqi philosophy is a type of Islamic philosophy introduced by Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi in the twelfth century CE.
IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats and film projectors.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to India or Indian culture include: List of India-related topics People are listed by their first names.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
India Today is an Indian English-language fortnightly news magazine and news television channel.
Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited, also known as IFFCO, is a large scale fertiliser cooperative federation based in India which is registered as a Multistate Cooperative Society.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIM Ahmedabad or IIMA) is a public business school located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar (also known as IIT Gandhinagar or IITGN) is a public engineering institution located in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
The Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Shalivahana Shaka calendar, is used along with the Vikram Samvat calendar.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indian Railways (IR) is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.
Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary also known as the Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Little Rann of Kutch in the Gujarat state of India.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
Indo-Saracenic Revival (also known as Indo-Gothic, Mughal-Gothic, Neo-Mughal, Hindoo style) was an architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Institute of Infrastructure Technology Research and Management (IITRAM) is a state university located in located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA) is an autonomous institution located in Anand in Gujarat, India with the mandate of contributing to the professional management of rural organisations.
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) is an international agricultural research center founded in the early 1970s to improve the understanding of national agricultural and food policies to promote the adoption of innovations in agricultural technology.
International Institute of Management and Technical Studies (IIMT STUDIES) is an Indian-based educational outfit known for offering e-learning and distance education to working professionals.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Irani are an ethno-religious community in South Asia; they belong to the Zoroastrians who emigrated from Iran to South Asia in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.
ISO 3166-2:IN is the entry for India in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht (مخدوم سید جہانیاں جہان گشت البخاری) (b 1308- d 1384) was a Sufi saint from the South Asia.
"Jai Jai Garavi Gujarat" (જય જય ગરવી ગુજરાત) is a poem written by Gujarati poet Narmadashankar Dave, better known as Narmad in 1873.
The Jains in India are the last direct representatives of the ancient Śramaṇa tradition.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jama Masjid (literally Friday Mosque), also known as Jami or Jumma Mosque, is the most splendid mosque of Ahmedabad, built in 1424 during the reign of Ahmed Shah I. Lying in the old walled city, the mosque is situated outside Bhadra Fort area, along the south side of the road extending from Teen Darwaza to Manek Chowk.
Jami Masjid (also known as, Jama Masjid; meaning "public mosque") in Champaner, Gujarat state, western India, is part of the Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and is among the 114 monuments there which are listed by the Baroda Heritage Trust.
Jambughoda is a Wildlife Sanctuary situated in Jambughoda Tehsil, in the South-Central part of Gujarat, and the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests' ecoregion in India.
Jamnagar is a city located on the western coast of India in the state of Gujarat in Saurashtra region.
The Jamnagar Airport, officially known as Civil Enclave Jamnagar, is an airport in Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.
Jamnagar District is a district of India located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Kutch in the state of Gujarat.
Jamshedji Nusserwanji Tata (also spelled as Jamsetji) (3 March 1839 – 19 May 1904) was an Indian pioneer industrialist, who founded the Tata Group, India's biggest conglomerate company.
The Janata Morcha ("People's Front") was a coalition of Indian political parties formed in 1974 to oppose the government of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her Congress (R) party.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.
Jessore Sloth Bear Sanctuary is situated in the Banaskantha district formerly under Palanpur State in the Indian state of Gujarat at the Gujarat-Rajasthan border.
Jethwa (or Jethva, Jaitwa, Jethi or Kamari, Camari, Kam(a)r) is a branch of the Suryavanshi Rajput clan.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jhaverchand Meghani (–) was a noted poet, writer, social reformer and freedom fighter from Gujarat.
John IV (João IV de Portugal,; 19 March 1604 – 6 November 1656) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1640 to his death.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Junagadh is the headquarters of Junagadh district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Junagadh District is a district of the Indian state of Gujarat.
Junagadh was a princely state in Gujarat ruled by the Muslim Babi or Babai dynasty in British India, until its integration into the Indian Union in 1948.
Jyotigram Yojana is an initiative of the Government of Gujarat to ensure availability of 24-hour three phase quality power supply to rural areas of the state and to supply power to farmers residing in scattered farm houses through feeders having specially designed transformers.
A Jyotirlinga or Jyotirlingam, is a devotional representation of the Supreme God Shiva.
Kaba Gandhi No Delo (literally "Kaba Gandhi's house"), Rajkot was Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi's primary family home in India until 1915, including during those years when he stayed in London and in South Africa.
Kabaddi is a contact team sport.
Kadhi or karhi is a dish originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Kadi Sarva Vishwavidyalaya (KSV) or Kadi Sarva University is a private university in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
Kakrapar Atomic Power Station is a nuclear power station in India, which lies in the proximity of the city of Vyara in the state of Gujarat.
Sursinhji Takhtasinhji Gohil (1874–1900), popularly known by his pen name, Kalapi was a Gujarati poet and the Thakor (prince) of Lathi state in Gujarat.
Kalol is a city and a municipality (tehsil) in Panchmahal district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Kanhaiyalal Maneklal Munshi (30 December 1887 – 8 February 1971), popularly known as K. M. Munshi, was an Indian independence movement activist, politician, writer and educationist from Gujarat state.
Kandla, also known as the Kandla Port Trust or Deendayal Port(કંડલા) is a seaport in Kutch District of Gujarat state in western India, near the city of Gandhidham.
Kandla Airport is located north of Kandla and Varsamedi Village Anjar in the Kutch District of the state of Gujarat, India.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Karamsad is a city and a municipality in Anand district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Kathiawar (also written Kathiawad or Kattywar) is a peninsula in western India and part of the Saurashtra region.
Manishankar Ratnji Bhatt (મણિશંકર રત્નજી ભટૃ), popularly known as Kavi Kant (ગુજરાતી: કવિ કાન્ત) was a Gujarati poet, playwright and essayist.
Keshod Airport at Airports Authority of India is a public airport located in Keshod, in the state of Gujarat, India.
Keshubhai Patel (born 24 July 1928) is an Indian politician who was the Chief Minister of Gujarat state of India in 1995 and from 1998 to 2001.
Ketan Mehta (born 1952) is an Indian film director, who has also directed documentaries and television serials since 1975.
Khambhat (/kɑːmˈbɑːt/), also known as Cambay, is a town and the surrounding urban agglomeration in Khambhat Taluka, Anand district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Khanderao Dabhade (Marathi: खंडेराव दाभाडे) is the founding patriarch of the Sarsenapati Dabhade family of Talegaon Dabhade.
Khavda is a village in Bhuj Taluka of Kutch district of Gujarat, India.
Kheda District is one of the thirty-three districts of Gujarat state in western India.
Khichdi, or khichri, is a dish from the Indian subcontinent made from rice and lentils (dal), but other variations include bajra and mung dal kichri.
The Khojas (کوجا، خوجا، خواجا; ખોજા) are a group of diverse people who converted to Islam in India and Pakistan.
Kirti Mandir is the memorial temple built in memory of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Kasturba Gandhi located in city of Porbandar, Gujarat, India.
Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
Kumarapala was an Indian king from the Chaulukya (Solanki) dynasty of Gujarat.
Kutch Bustard Sanctuary or Kachchh Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary, also known as Lala–Parjan Sanctuary, is located near Jakhau village in Nalia Taluka, Kutch District, Gujarat, India.
Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the Great Rann of Kutch, Kutch district, Gujarat, India, it was declared a sanctuary in February 1986.
Kutch district (also spelled as Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India.
Kutch Museum in Bhuj is the oldest museum of Gujarat.
Kutchi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Kutch region of the India.
The Kutchi people (Gujarati: કચ્છી) traditionally hail from the Kachchh/Kutch Region of the western Indian state of Gujarat.
Programs Lalbhai Dalpatbhai College of Engineering (LDCE or LD), located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Lata (IAST: Lāṭa) was a historical region of India, located in the southern part of the present-day Gujarat state.
The term Maharaja Palace actually refers to a series of palaces in Vadodara, Gujarat, India, constructed since the Gaekwad, a prominent Maratha family, started ruling the Baroda State.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
The Chief Minister of Gujarat is the chief executive of the western Indian state of Gujarat.
The following is a list of the most populous cities in Gujarat state of India as per the 2011 census.There are 31 cities in Gujarat which have a population over 100,000.
This is a list of constituencies of Gujarat Legislative Assembly or Gujarat Vidhan Sabha (ગુજરાત વિધાનસભા).
A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory.
The western Indian state of Gujarat has 33 districts after several splits of the original 17 districts at the formation of the state in 1960.
The Governor of Gujarat is a nominal head and representative of the President of India in the state of Gujarat.
There are 24 high courts at the state and union territory level of India, which together with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprise the country's judicial system.
The national average HDI for India in 2008 was 0.467.
These are lists of Indian states and union territories by their nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP).
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
The Prime Minister of India is the chief executive of the Government of India.
The following is a list of states and union territories of the Republic of India by area from largest to smallest according to the census of 2011.
India is a union of 29 states and 7 union territories.
Literacy in India is a key for socio-economic progress, and the Indian literacy rate has grown to 74% (2011 Census figure) with recent reports of 80% literacy.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
The long and short scales are two of several large-number naming systems for integer powers of ten that use the same words with different meanings.
Lothal is one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and first inhabited 3700 BCE.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Magen Abraham Synagogue is the only Jewish synagogue of Gujarat state situated in Ahmedabad, India.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
Maha Shivaratri a Hindu festival celebrated annually in honour of the god Shiva.
Mahagujarat movement, known as Mahagujarat Andolan locally, was a political movement demanding the creation of the state of Gujarat for Gujarati-speaking people from the bilingual Bombay state of India in 1956.
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
Maharaja Fateh Singh Museum is a museum housed within the Maharaja's palace (the Lakshmi Vilas Palace) in Vadodara, India.
The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (MSU), formerly Baroda College is a public university in the city of Vadodara, in Gujarat state, India.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
The Mahi is a river in western India.
Mahisagar district – also Mahisagar – is a district in the state of Gujarat in India that came into being on 26 January 2013, becoming the 28th district of the state.
Sultan Mahmud Begada or Mahmud Shah I, was the most prominent Sultan of Gujarat Sultanate.
Mahudi is a town in Mansa taluka of Gandhinagar district, Gujarat, India situated on the banks of Madhumati river, a tributary of Sabarmati River.
The Maitraka dynasty ruled western India (now Gujarat) from approximately 475 to approximately 776 AD from their capital at Vallabhi.
Makar Sankranti, also known as Makara Sankrānti (Sanskrit: मकर सङ्क्रान्ति) or Maghi, is a festival day in the Hindu calendar, in reference to deity Surya (sun).
The Malabar Coast is a long, narrow coastline on the southwestern shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent.
Malabar region refers to the historic and geographic area of southwest India covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Malappuram and Palakkad Districts.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
Malacca City (Malay: Bandaraya Melaka, Jawi:,, Tamil: மலாக்கா மாநகரம்), is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malik Ayyaz, called Meliqueaz by the Portuguese, was a naval officer and governor of the city of Diu, in the mouth of the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), circa 1507-1509 under the rule of Gujarat Sultanate.
Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Mandvi is a town with municipality in the Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
The Maratha (IAST:Marāṭhā; archaically transliterated as Marhatta or Mahratta) is a group of castes in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Marine National Park in the Gulf of Kutch is situated on the southern shore of the Gulf of Kachchh in the Devbhumi Dwarka district of Gujarat state, India.
Marwari (Mārwāṛī; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
The Marwari or Marwadi are a South Asian ethno-linguistic group in India and Nepal that originate from the Marwar region of Rajasthan, India.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Meera, also known as Meera Bai or Mirabai (1498-1546) was a Hindu mystic poet and disciple of Sri Guru Ravidass, a lower caste shoe maker.
Mehsana Airport is a civil aviation training base in Mehsana, Gujarat, India.
Mehsana district (alternate spelling "Mahesana") is one of the 33 districts of Gujarat state in western India.
The Memon or Memoni language is the language of Memons historically associated with Kathiawar, in West India, a Memon subgroup.
Metro-Link Express for Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad, abbreviated MEGA, or Ahmedabad Metro is an under construction mass-transit rail system for the cities of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar in Gujarat, India.
MICA, formerly Mudra Institute of Communications, Ahmedabad, is a higher education institution for Strategic Marketing and Communication skills in India.
Mid Day (stylised as mid-day) is a morning daily Indian compact newspaper.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Ministry of Minority Affairs, is a ministry of the Government of India established in 2006.
Mint is an Indian financial daily newspaper published by HT Media, a Delhi-based media group which is controlled by the KK Birla family and also publishes Hindustan Times.
Mohammed Ghous Mosque, also known as Mosque of Muhammad Ghous Gwaliori or Shattari or Ek Toda Mosque, is a medieval mosque in Sarangpur area of Ahmedabad, India.
A money changer is a person or organisation whose business is the exchange of coins or currency of one country, for that of another.
A moneylender is a person or group who typically offers small personal loans at high rates of interest and is different from banks and financial institutions that typically provide such loans.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Morarji Desai (29 February 1896 – 10 April 1995) was an Indian independence activist and served between 1977 and 1979 as the 4th Prime Minister of India and led the government formed by the Janata Party.
Morbi or Morvi is a city and a municipality in Morbi district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Morbi District is in the state of Gujarat, India.
Mottama (မုတ္တမမြို့,; Mon:,; formerly Martaban) is a small town in the Thaton district of Mon State, Myanmar.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
Abu'l Faaiz Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam (28 June 1653 – 8 June 1707), commonly known as Azam Shah ("King Azam"), was a titular Mughal emperor, who reigned from 14 March 1707 to 8 June 1707.
Muhammad Ghawth (Ghouse, Ghaus or Gwath) Gwaliyari was a 16th-century Sufi master of the Shattari order and Sufi saint, a musician, See.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Mumtaz Mahal (مُمتاز محَل), (meaning "the Exalted One of the palace"; Arjumand Banu; 27 April 1593 – 17 June 1631) was Empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 19 January 1628 to 17 June 1631 as the chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
Mundra is a census town in Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Mundra Port is the largest private port of India located on the north shores of the Gulf of Kutch near Mundra, Kutch district, Gujarat.
A musical fountain, also known as a dancing fountain, is a type of animated fountain for entertainment purposes that creates an aesthetic design (including three-dimensional images).
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Musta‘lī (مستعلي) are a sect of Isma'ilism named for their acceptance of al-Musta'li as the legitimate nineteenth Fatimid caliph and legitimate successor to his father, al-Mustansir Billah.
Nagabhata I (r. c. 730-760 CE) was an Indian king who founded the imperial Gurjara Pratihara dynasty.
Nagaland is a state in Northeast India.
Nākhudā (ناخدا) (when also written Nakhodazadeh, Nakhoda, Nakhodeh, Nakhodaei, Nakhooda, and Nacoda) is a term originating from the Persian language literally meaning captain.
Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, consisting primarily of a lake and ambient marshes, is situated about 64 km to the west of Ahmedabad near Sanand Village, in the Gujarat state of India.
Nalanda University (also known as Nalanda International University) is located in Rajgir, near Nalanda, Bihar, India.
Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary also popularly known as Narayan Sarovar Wildlife Sanctuary or Narayan Sarovar Chinkara Sanctuary; By D V MAHESHWARI; Sep 04, 2008; The Indian Express notified as such in April 1981 and subsequently denotified in 1995 with reduced area, is a unique eco-system near Narayan Sarovar in the Lakhpat taluka of Kutch district in the state of Gujarat, India.
Narendra Damodardas Modi (born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014.
Narmada district is an administrative district in the state of Gujarat in India.
The Narmada, also called the Rewa and previously also known as Nerbudda,even Shankari, is a river in central India and the sixth longest river in the Indian subcontinent.
Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave (24 August 1833 – 26 February 1886), popularly known as Narmad, was a Gujarati poet, playwright, essayist, orator, lexicographer and reformer under the British Raj.
Narsinh Mehta, also known as Narsi Mehta or Narsi Bhagat (1414–1481), was a poet-saint of Gujarat, India, notable as a bhakta, an exponent of Vaishnava poetry.
Narsinh Mehta (નરસિંહ મેહતા) is a 1932 Gujarati biographical film directed by Nanubhai Vakil.
The National Institute of Design (NID) is a design school in Ahmedabad, India.
The National Security Guard (NSG) is an Indian special forces unit under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
Navaratri (नवरात्रि, literally "nine nights"), also spelled Navratri or Navarathri, is a nine nights (and ten days) Hindu festival, celebrated in the autumn every year.
Navnirman Andolan (Re-invention or Re-construction movement) was a socio-political movement in 1974 in Gujarat by students and middle-class people against economic crisis and corruption in public life.
Navsari is a city municipality and the administrative headquarters Navsari District of Gujarat, India.
Navsari is an administrative district in the state of Gujarat in India, with its headquarters at Navsari city.
Nawanagar (also spelled Nowanuggur) was an Indian princely state in the historical Halar region, located on the southern shores of the Gulf of Kutch.
Nicolaus of Damascus (Greek: Νικόλαος Δαμασκηνός, Nikolāos Damaskēnos; Latin: Nicolaus Damascenus) was a Greek historian and philosopher who lived during the Augustan age of the Roman Empire.
Nirma University (NU) is a private university in Ahmedabad in the state of Gujarat, India.
North Gujarat, the Northern part of Indian state of Gujarat includes the districts of Gandhinagar, Banaskantha, Sabarkantha, Aravalli, Mehsana, and Patan.
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Oh Darling Yeh Hai India (English: Oh Darling! This is India) is a 1995 Indian musical parody film directed by Ketan Mehta, starring Shah Rukh Khan, Deepa Sahi, Jaaved Jaffrey and Amrish Puri.
Om Prakash Kohli is Governor of Gujarat and a former member of Rajya Sabha.
Operation Flood, launched in 1970, was a project of India's National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), which was the world's biggest dairy development program.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Gujarat: Gujarat – state in Western India, sometimes referred to as the "Jewel of Western India".
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to India: India – seventh-largest country by area, located on the Indian subcontinent in South Asia.
P P Savani University is located in Dhamdod, Kosamba, Surat district, Gujarat, India.
Padishah, sometimes rendered as Padeshah or Padshah (پادشاه, padişah) is a superlative sovereign title of Persian origin, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king", which was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Palitana is a town in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India.
The Palitana temples of Jainism are located on Shatrunjaya hill by the city of Palitana in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India.
Panchmahal, also Panch Mahals, is a district in the eastern portion of Gujarat State western India.
Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University (or PDPU) Gujarat, established through PDPU Act, a legislature passed by Gujarat state assembly in 2007.
Pannalal Nanalal Patel (7 May 1912 – 6 April 1989) was a Gujarati author.
A Parsi (or Parsee) means "Persian" in the "Persian Language", which today mainly refers to a member of a Zoroastrian community, one of two (the other being Iranis) mainly located in India, with a few in Pakistan.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Patan district is one of the 33 districts of Gujarat state in western India.
Patan, an ancient fortified city, was founded in 745 AD by Vanraj Chavda, the most prominent king of the Chavda Kingdom.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
Persecution of Zoroastrians is the religious persecution inflicted upon the followers of the Zoroastrian faith.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian Inscriptions on Indian Monuments is a book written in Persian by Dr Ali Asghar Hekmat E Shirazi and published in 1956 and 1958.
A Peshwa was the equivalent of a modern Prime Minister in the Maratha Empire.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) is a National Research Institute for space and allied sciences, supported mainly by Department of Space, Government of India.
Pilajirao Gaekwad (d. 14 May 1732) was a Maratha general.
Pipavav is located at latitude 20°54'N and longitude 71°30'E on the coast of Gujarat, India.
A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped greenfield land.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Porbandar is a coastal city in the Indian state of Gujarat, perhaps best known for being the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi and Sudama (friend of Lord Krishna).
Porbandar Airport is a public airport in Porbandar, Gujarat, India.
Porbandar Bird Sanctuary is situated in the Porbandar District of Gujarat state, India.
Porbandar district is one of the 33 districts of Gujarat state in western India.
The Port of Magdalla is a port in western India, located on the southern bank of the Tapi River, around 10 km from Surat.
Navlakhi Port is an all-weather lighterage non-major intermediate port.
Port Pipavav, India’s first port in the private sector, is a port on the West Coast of India for containers, bulk and liquid cargo.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The discovery of the sea route to India is the description sometimes used in Europe and among the Portuguese for the first recorded trip made directly from Europe to India via the Atlantic Ocean.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
Premanand Krushanram Bhatt (Gujarati: પ્રેમાનંદ કૃષ્ણંરામ ભટ્ટ) (1649–1714), also known as Premanand, was a medieval Gujarati poet and Maanbhatt (professional story teller) known for his Akhyana compositions.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
Prince Vijaya (විජය කුමරු) was a legendary king of Sri Lanka, mentioned in the Pali chronicles, including Mahavamsa.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Purna Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary in the Western Ghats mountain range, in the States of Gujarat and Maharashtra, India.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak also spelt Quṭb ud-Dīn Aibak or Qutub ud-Din Aybak, (1150–1210), was the founder of the Mamluk dynasty and the first sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajendra Keshavlal Shah (January 28, 1913 – January 2, 2010) was a lyrical poet who wrote in Gujarati.
Rajkot (Rājkot) is the fourth-largest city in the state of Gujarat, India, after Ahmedabad, Surat and Vadodara.
http://www.aai.aero/traffic_news/Mar2k15annex3.pdfhttp://www.aai.aero/traffic_news/Mar2k15annex2.pdfhttp://www.aai.aero/traffic_news/Mar2k15annex4.pdf Rajkot Airport is a public airport located at Rajkot, Gujarat, India.
The Rajpath or Rajkot BRTS is a bus rapid transit system in Rajkot, Gujarat, India.
Rajkot district is one of the 33 districts of the Indian state of Gujarat.
Rajkot Junction railway station is the main railway station in the city of Rajkot in Gujarat, India.
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Rander is a town in Surat district in the state of Gujarat, India, located on the bank of the Tapti River, from the city of Surat.
Rani ki vav is an intricately constructed stepwell situated in the town of Patan in Gujarat, India.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
Rashtrakuta (IAST) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) is an Indian conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
The system of reservation in India comprises a series of measures, such as reserving access to seats in the various legislatures, to government jobs, and to enrollment in higher educational institutions.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
RORO ferry service, Gujarat was launched by PM Narendra Modi on 22 October 2017.
Roti (also known as chapati) is a flatbread native to the Indian subcontinent made from stoneground wholemeal flour, traditionally known as atta, and water that is combined into a dough.
Rudradaman I (r. 130–150) was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapas dynasty.
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلالالدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلالالدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sabarkantha is a district in Northeast of Gujarat state of India.
Sabarmati Ashram (also known as Gandhi Ashram, Harijan Ashram, or Satyagraha Ashram) is located in the Sabarmati suburb of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, adjoining the Ashram Road, on the banks of the River Sabarmati, four miles from the town hall.
The Sabarmati river is one of the major west-flowing rivers in India.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
The Salt March, also known as the Dandi March and the Dandi Satyagraha, was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience in colonial India led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to produce salt from the seawater in the coastal village of Dandi (now in Gujarat), as was the practice of the local populace until British officials introduced taxation on salt production, deemed their sea-salt reclamation activities illegal, and then repeatedly used force to stop it.
Samyukta Maharashtra Movement (or Sanyukta Maharashtra Chalaval) was an organisation that, starting in 1956, demanded the creation of a separate Marathi-speaking state out of the (then-bilingual) State of Bombay in western India, with the city of Bombay as its capital.
Sanjay Leela Bhansali (born 24 February 1963) is an Indian film director, producer, screenwriter, and music director.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Saputara is a small hill station located in Sahyadris or Western Ghats.
Saraswatichandra is a Gujarati novel by Govardhanram Madhavaram Tripathi, an author of early twentieth century from Gujarat, India.
Sardar Patel University (SPU) is a university in Gujarat, India.
The National Institute of Technology, Surat (NIT Surat), formally known as Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology or SVNIT, is an engineering institute of higher education established by the Parliament of India in 1961.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport (SVPIA) is an international airport serving the cities of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar in Gujarat, India.
The Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Memorial is a museum and exhibition centre dedicated to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel at Moti Shahi Mahal, located in Shahibaug, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, near Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad.
The Satavahanas (IAST), also referred to as the Andhras in the Puranas, were an ancient Indian dynasty based in the Deccan region.
Saurashtra, also known as Sorath or Kathiawar, is a peninsular region of Gujarat, India, located on the Arabian Sea coast.
The Saurashtra University is one of the significant universities in Gujarat state in India.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.
Screen was a weekly film magazine, published in India.
Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat.
The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) was the second conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.
Senapati (Sanskrit: सेनापति sena- meaning "army", -pati meaning "lord"), or also known as parvanda, is a title in ancient India denoting the rank of military commander or general of the army.
The Seuna, Sevuna or Yadavas of Devagiri (c. 850–1334) was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh, from its capital at Devagiri (present-day Daulatabad in modern Maharashtra).
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Shah e Alam was a prominent Muslim religious teacher residing in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India during the Mughal era.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
S̲h̲āhbandar (شهبندر, lit. “harbourmaster”), was an official of the ports in Safavid Persia and one also known on other shores of the Indian Ocean.
Shamal Bhatt (Gujarati: શામળ ભટ્ટ) was a Gujarati narrative poet of the medieval Gujarati literature.
Shamlaji no medo, also spelled Shamalaji, (શામળાજી and शामलाजी) is a major Hindu pilgrimage centre in Aravalli district of Gujarat state of India.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Shankersinh Vaghela (born 21 July 1940) is an Indian politician from Gujarat.
Shankheshwar is a town in the Patan district of Gujarat state of India.
Shatrunjaya ("place of victory against inner enemies") originally Pundarikgiri), also spelt Shetrunjaya are hills located by the city of Palitana, in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India. They are situated on the banks of the Shetrunji River at an elevation above sea level. These hills have similarities to other hills where Jain temples have been built in Bihar, Gwalior, Mount Abu and Girnar. The Jain's sacred site of Shatrunjaya contains hundreds of Palitana temples. The hills were sanctified when Rishabha, the first tirthankara of Jainism, gave his first sermon in the temple on the hill top. The ancient history of the hills is also traced to Pundarika Swami, a chief Ganadhara and grandson of Rishabha, who attained salvation here. His shrine located opposite to the main Adinath temple, built by his son Bharata, is also worshiped by pilgrims. There are several alternate spellings, including Śatruñjaya, Satrunjaya, Shetrunja, and Shetrunjo. Shatrunjaya was also known as Pundarikgiri as Pundarik was said to have attained nirvana on this mountain. Alternate names include Siddhakshetra or Siddhanchal as many thirtankaras are stated to have received enlightenment here.
The Shattariyya are members of a Sufi mystical order (tariqah) that originated in Persia in the fifteenth century C.E. and formally developed, completed and codified in India.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
Shivaji Bhonsle (c. 1627/1630 – 3 April 1680) was an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.
Shrimad Rajchandra (9 November 1867 – 9 April 1901) was a Jain poet, philosopher, scholar and reformer.
The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque, popularly known as Sidi Saiyyid ni Jali locally, built in 1572 AD, is one of the most famous mosques of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Sikandar Lodi (died 21 November 1517), born Nizam Khan, was the Sultan of Delhi between 1489 and 1517.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
The Somnath temple located in Prabhas Patan near Veraval in Saurashtra on the western coast of Gujarat, is believed to be the first among the twelve jyotirlinga shrines of Shiva.
South Arabia is a historical region that consists of the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, mainly centered in what is now the Republic of Yemen, yet it has also historically included Najran, Jizan, and 'Asir, which are presently in Saudi Arabia, and the Dhofar of present-day Oman.
South Gujarat, also known as Dakshin Gujarat (Daxin Gujarat), is a region in Indian state of Gujarat.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
The Space Applications Centre (SAC)(Hindi: अंतरिक्ष उपयोग केंद्र) is an institution of research in Ahmedabad under the aegis of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A state of emergency in India refers to a period of governance under an altered constitutional setup that can be proclaimed by the President of India, when he/she perceives grave threats to the nation from internal and external sources or from financial situations of crisis.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
This is a list of states and territories of India by allocated power capacity from power generation utilities.
Stepwells are wells or ponds in which the water is reached by descending a set of steps.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.
A Subah was the term for a province in the Mughal Empire.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The Sun Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the solar deity Surya located at Modhera village of Mehsana district, Gujarat, India.
Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Surat Airport is a customs airport located in Magdalla, 11 kilometres (7 mi) southwest of Surat in the western Indian state of Gujarat.
The Sitilink or Surat BRTS is a bus rapid transit system for Surat, Gujarat, India.
Surat is a district in the state of Gujarat India with Surat city as the administrative headquarters of this district.
Surat railway station, (Code: ST), is a railway station serving Surat, beside Gothangam, Kosad, Uttran,, Bhestan, Niol and Sachin.
Surendranagar is an administrative district in Saurashtra region of Gujarat state in India.
Suresh Hariprasad Joshi (સુરેશ હરિપ્રસાદ જોશી) was an Indian novelist, short-story writer, literary critic, poet, translator, editor and academic in the Gujarati language.
Swaminarayan (IAST:, 3 April 1781 – 1 June 1830), also known as Sahajanand Swami, was a yogi, and an ascetic whose life and teachings brought a revival of central Hindu practices of dharma, ahimsa and brahmacharya.
Tagetes is a genusSoule, J. A. 1996.
Tailapa II (r. c. 973-997), also known as Taila II and by his title Ahavamalla, was the founder of the Western Chalukya dynasty in southern India.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Tapi district is one of the 33 districts of Gujarat state in western India.It has 7 talukas Vyara, Songadh, Nijhar, Valod, Uchhal, Dolvan, Kukarmunda.
The Tapti River (or Tapi) is a river in central India between the Godavari and Narmada rivers.
Taranga is a Jain pilgrimage center near Kheralu in Mehsana district, Gujarat, India.
Tarim (تريم tarīm) is a historic town situated in the Hadhramaut Valley of South Yemen, South Arabia.
Tarnetar is a village in the Surendranagar district of the state of Gujarat in India.
The Tata family is a prominent Indian business family, based in the Indian city of Mumbai.
Tata Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Tata Motors Limited (formerly TELCO, short for Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company) headquartered in Mumbai, is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing company and a member of the Tata Group.
The Tata Nano is a compact sized city car manufactured by Tata Motors made and sold primarily in India.
Tax exemption is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Thali (Hindi/Nepali: थाली, தட்டு, pronounced "Thattu"; meaning "plate") is the Indian name for a round platter used to serve food.
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
Tharparkar District (ضلعو ٿرپارڪر, (ضِلع تھرپارکر), is one of the twenty nine districts of Sindh province in Pakistan. It is largest district of Sindh province by land area. It is headquartered at Mithi. It has the lowest Human Development Index of all the districts in Sindh. Thar has a fertile desert and the livelihood of Thari people depends on rainfall agriculture. Tharparkar has the only fertile desert in the world.
Thatta District (ضلو ٺٽو; ضِلع ٹهٹہ) is located in the southern area, locally called Laar, of the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
The Conversation is an independent, not-for-profit media outlet that uses content sourced from the academic and research community.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
Financial Express is an Indian English-language business newspaper.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
Thomas the Apostle (תומאס הקדוש; ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ Thoma Shliha; also called Didymus which means "the twin") was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, according to the New Testament.
The three-language formula for language learning was formulated in 1968 by the Ministry of Education of the Government of India in consultation with the states.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
In Jainism, a tīrtha (तीर्थ "ford, a shallow part of a body of water that may be easily crossed") is used to refer both to pilgrimage sites as well as to the four sections of the sangha.
Tomé Pires (1465?–1524 or 1540)Madureira, 150–151.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
Tribhuvandas Purushottamdas Luhar, better known by his pen name Sundaram, (22 March 1908 – 13 January 1991), was a Gujarati poet and author from India.
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Ujjain is the largest city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
Umashankar Jethalal Joshi (21 July 1911 – 19 December 1988) was an eminent poet, scholar and writer.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
In the first half of the 8th century CE, a series of battles took place between the Umayyad Caliphate and the Indian kingdoms to the east of the Indus river.
Undhiyu is a Gujarati mixed vegetable dish that is a regional specialty of Surat, India.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Urjit R. Patel (born 1963) is an Indian economist, who is currently serving as 24th Governor of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) since September 2016.
The Vachanamrut (વચનામૃત) of Swaminarayan is the most sacred and foundational scripture of the Swaminarayan spiritual tradition.
Vadnagar is a city and a municipality in Mehsana district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Vadodara (formerly known as Baroda) is the third-largest.
Vadodara Airport, is a civilian airport located in the north-east of Vadodara, Gujarat, India in the suburb of Harni.
Vadodara District is a district in the eastern part of the state of Gujarat in western India.
Vadodara Junction railway station is the main station in the Indian city of Vadodara, Gujarat.
The Vaghela dynasty was a short-lived Indian dynasty that ruled Gujarat from their capital Dholka during the 13th century CE.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Vaishya is one of the four varnas of the Hindu social order in Nepal and India.
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India.
Valsad district is one of the 33 districts in the Western Indian state of Gujarat.
Vansda National Park, also known as Bansda National Park, is a protected area which represents the thick woodlands of the Dangs and southern Gujarat, and is situated in the Vansda tehsil, Navsari District of Gujarat State, India.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
In consonance with its motto, “Satyam Gyanam Anantam”, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University has endeavoured to be an institution of excellence in higher education since its existence, keeping in view the regional needs and the emerging trends in the global scenario.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Veraval is a municipality and the headquarters of Gir Somnath district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Vijay Ramniklal Rupani (born 2 August 1956) is an Indian politician from the Bharatiya Janata Party.
Vijaya Vilas Palace is the famous one time summer palace of Jadeja Maharao of Cutch located on sea-beach of Mandvi in Kutch, Gujarat, India.
Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai (12 August 1919 – 30 December 1971) was an Indian scientist and innovator widely regarded as the father of India's space programme.
Vikramaditya II (reigned 733 – 744 CE) was the son of King Vijayaditya and ascended the Badami Chalukya throne following the death of his father.
The Vindhya Range(also known as Vindhyachal)() is a complex, discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
The Wadia family is a Parsi family from Surat, India currently based in Mumbai, India and the United States.
Wajihuddin Alvi, also known as Haider Ali Saani, was an Islamic scholar and Sufi in the Shattari tradition.
The Watson Museum, considered to be one of the best among the seven such museums located across Saurashtra (region) and managed by the Gujarat state Government, it has collections of precious objects from the princely State of Rajkot founded by the Jadeja Rajputs.
The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries.
Western Ghats also known as Sahyadri (Benevolent Mountains) is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, located entirely in India.
Western India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of its western part.
The Western Railway (abbreviated WR and परे) is one of the 17 zones of Indian Railways, and is among the busiest railway networks in India.
The Western Satraps, Western Kshatrapas, or Kshaharatas (35–405 CE) were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states).
Wipro Limited (Western India Palm Refined Oils Limited or more recently, Western India Products Limited) is an Indian Information Technology Services corporation headquartered in Bengaluru, India.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yijing (635–713 CE) was a Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk originally named Zhang Wenming.
Zarmanochegas (Ζαρμανοχηγὰς; according to Strabo) or Zarmarus (according to Dio Cassius) was a gymnosophist (naked philosopher), a monk of the Sramana tradition (possibly, but not necessarily a Buddhist) who, according to ancient historians such as Strabo and Dio Cassius, met Nicholas of Damascus in Antioch while Augustus (died 14 AD) was ruling the Roman Empire, and shortly thereafter proceeded to Athens where he burnt himself to death.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Zoroastrians are the oldest religious community of Iran.
The 14th Lok Sabha (17 May 2004 – 18 May 2009) was convened after the Indian general election, 2004 held in four phases during 20 April – 10 May 2004, which led to the formation of First Manmohan Singh ministry (2004–2009).
The 1969 Gujarat riots refers to the communal violence between Hindus and Muslims during September–October 1969, in Gujarat, India.
The Machchhu dam failure or Morbi disaster was a dam-related flood disaster which occurred on 11 August 1979, in India.
The 2001 Gujarat earthquake, also known as the Bhuj earthquake, occurred on 26 January, India's 51st Republic Day, at and lasted for over 2 minutes.
The 2002 Gujarat riots, also known as the 2002 Gujarat violence and the Gujarat pogrom, was a three-day period of inter-communal violence in the western Indian state of Gujarat.
The 2008 Ahmedabad bombings were a series of 21 bomb blasts that hit Ahmedabad, India, on 26 July 2008, within a span of 70 minutes.
3 Idiots is a 2009 Indian coming-of-age comedy-drama film, directed and written by Rajkumar Hirani, and produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra, with screenplay by Abhijat Joshi, inspired by the novel Five Point Someone by Chetan Bhagat.
Capital Terrotiry of Gujarat, Capitals of Gujarat, Dahej, Demographics of Gujarat, Flora and fauna of Gujarat, Gajarat, Goojrat, Gugarat, Gugrat, Gujarat (India), Gujarat Division, Gujarat State, Gujarat State, India, Gujarat peninsula, Gujarat, India, Gujarath, Gujarāt, Gujerat, Gujrāt, Gujurat, Gujǎrāt, Hinduism in Gujarat, IN-GJ, Juggerat, Languages of Gujarat, Nizar, Tapi district, Religion in Gujarat, State of Gujarat, Uchchhal.