231 relations: -stan, Abugida, Adjective, Affix, Afghanistan, Agreement (linguistics), Alveolar consonant, Apabhraṃśa, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic script, Article (grammar), Aspirated consonant, Australia, Auxiliary verb, Avestan, Babu Suthar, Back vowel, Bahrain, Bark (botany), BBC, Bengali language, Birmingham, Bradford, Brahmic scripts, Branching (linguistics), British Empire, Bungalow, Calque, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Causative, Census of India, Central Asia, Central Institute of Indian Languages, Central vowel, Central Zone (Hindi), China, Citizenship, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Code-switching, Compound (linguistics), Consonant, Consonant cluster, Coolie, Coventry, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Date palm, ..., Delhi, Delhi Sultanate, Dental consonant, Devanagari, Dharma, Dictionary, District Collector (India), Dual (grammatical number), East Africa, English language, Et cetera, Evening, Evolutionary linguistics, First language, Flap consonant, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Gemination, General Certificate of Secondary Education, George Abraham Grierson, Glottal consonant, Government of Gujarat, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical tense, Greater Toronto Area, Greek language, Gujarat, Gujarati alphabet, Gujarati Braille, Gujarati grammar, Gujarati languages, Gujarati literature, Gujarati Muslims, Gujarati people, Hindi, Hindu, Hindustani language, Hinglish, Idi Amin, India, Indian English, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Interlinear gloss, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, International Phonetic Alphabet, Kannada people, Karma, Kathiawar, Kenya, Kutch district, Kutchi language, Labial consonant, Lancashire, Language family, Leicester, Linguistic Survey of India, Lisan ud-Dawat, List of Gujarati-language writers, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of languages by number of native speakers in India, Literary language, Liturgy, Loanword, London, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mahatma Gandhi, Malayali, Manchester, Mangifera indica, Marker (linguistics), Marshall Cavendish, Media in Gujarati language, Memoni language, Microsoft Word, Middle Gujarati, Middle Indo-Aryan languages, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Morphology (linguistics), Mound, Mughal Empire, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Murmured voice, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Nasal consonant, Nationalencyklopedin, Neologism, New York metropolitan area, Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin, North America, Noun, Object (grammar), Official language, Old Gujarati, Online Etymology Dictionary, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Pakistan, Palatal consonant, Palate, Parkari Koli language, Parsi, Passport, Periphrasis, Persian alphabet, Persian language, Phoneme, Phonetic transcription, Phonology, Plural, Portuguese India, Portuguese language, Possession (linguistics), Postalveolar consonant, Prakrit, Preposition and postposition, Punjabi language, Rajasthan, Rajasthani language, Réunion, Refugee, Regional language, Retroflex consonant, Root (linguistics), Routledge, Sacred language, Salt, Salt March, Sanskrit, Sibilant, Sindhi language, Sindhis, Singapore, Snake, South Africa, Split ergativity, Statistics Canada, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Suffix, Sunni Bohra, Surname, Swahili coast, Syntax, Tamil language, Tamil Nadu, Tank (disambiguation), Tanzania, The Indian Express, The Straits Times, The Times of India, Tooth, Translation, Transliteration, Turco-Mongol tradition, Turkic languages, Turkic peoples, Uganda, Union territory, United Kingdom, United States, Vedic Sanskrit, Velar consonant, Verb, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, William St. Clair Tisdall, Word order, Zambia, Zoroastrianism, 7, 8. Expand index (181 more) » « Shrink index
The suffix -stan (ـستان|translit.
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Apabhranśa (अपभ्रंश,, Prakrit) is a term used by vyākaraṇin (grammarians) since Patañjali to refer to the dialects prevalent in the Ganges (east and west) before the rise of the modern languages.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
Babu Suthar (Gujarati: બાબુ સુથાર) was a Gujarati Lecturer in South Asia Studies at the University of Pennsylvania in 2003, at the time the only full-time instructor in this language in North America at the university level.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Bradford is in the Metropolitan Borough of the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines west of Leeds, and northwest of Wakefield.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
In linguistics, branching refers to the shape of the parse trees that represent the structure of sentences.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
A bungalow is a type of building, originally developed in the Bengal region in South Asia.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
The decennial Census of India has been conducted 15 times,.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL) is an Indian research and teaching institute based in Mysore, part of the Language Bureau of the Ministry of Human Resource Development.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Central Zone or Madhya languages are the central varieties of the Hindi Belt, spoken across northern India, of the Indo-Aryan languages.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
The word coolie (also spelled koelie, kuli, cooli, cooly and quli); (Hindi: कुली, Tamil: கூலி, Telugu: కూలీ, Chinese: 苦力) meaning a labourer, has a variety of other implications and is sometimes regarded as offensive or a pejorative, depending upon the historical and geographical context.
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli (DNH in initials) is a union territory in Western India.
Daman and Diu is a union territory in Western India.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
A District Collector, often abbreviated to Collector, is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer in charge of revenue collection and administration of a district in India.
Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Et cetera (in English), abbreviated to etc., etc, &c., or &c, is a Latin expression that is used in English to mean "and other similar things", or "and so forth".
Evening is a daily astronomic event of variable time period between daytime and night.
Evolutionary linguistics is a subfield of psycholinguistics that studies the psychosocial and cultural factors involved in the origin of language and the development of linguistic universals.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Sir George Abraham Grierson (7 January 1851 – 9 March 1941) was an Irish administrator and linguist in British India.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The Government of Gujarat, also known as the State Government of Gujarat, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Gujarat and its 33 districts.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi) is an abugida, like all Nagari writing systems, and is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages.
Gujarati Braille is one of the Bharati braille alphabets, and it largely conforms to the letter values of the other Bharati alphabets.
The grammar of the Gujarati language is the study of the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Gujarati language, an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat and spoken by the Gujarati people.
The Gujaratic languages are Gujarati and those Indic languages closest to it.
The history of Gujarati (ગુજરાતી સાહિત્ય) literature may be traced to 1000 AD, and this literature has flourished since then to the present.
The term Gujarati Muslims (گجراتی مسلمان) is usually used to signify an Indian Muslim from the state of Gujarat in North-western coast of India.
Gujarati people or Gujaratis (ગુજરાતી) are an ethnic group traditionally from Gujarat that speak Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan language.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Hinglish, a portmanteau of Hindi and English, is the macaronic hybrid use of English and South Asian languages from across the Indian subcontinent, involving code-switching between these languages whereby they are freely interchanged within a sentence or between sentences.
Idi Amin Dada (2816 August 2003) was a Ugandan politician and military officer.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
In linguistics and pedagogy, an interlinear gloss is a gloss (series of brief explanations, such as definitions or pronunciations) placed between lines (inter- + linear), such as between a line of original text and its translation into another language.
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The Kannada people known as the Kannadigas and Kannadigaru are the people who natively speak Kannada.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Kathiawar (also written Kathiawad or Kattywar) is a peninsula in western India and part of the Saurashtra region.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kutch district (also spelled as Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India.
Kutchi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Kutch region of the India.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
The Linguistic Survey of India, often referred to as the LSI, is a comprehensive survey of the languages of British India, describing 364 languages and dialects.
Lisaan ud-Da'wat (Lisan ud-Dawat, "language of the Dawat"; abbreviated LDA) is the language of the Taiyebi Bohras of Gujarat, an Isma'ili Shia Muslim community.
Well known laureates of Gujarati literature are Hemchandracharya, Narsinh Mehta, Mirabai, Akho, Premanand Bhatt, Shamal Bhatt, Dayaram, Dalpatram, Narmad, Govardhanram Tripathi, Mohandas Gandhi, K. M. Munshi, Umashankar Joshi, Suresh Joshi, Pannalal Patel and Rajendra Keshavlal Shah.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
India is home to several hundred languages.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
The Malayali people or Keralite people (also spelt Malayalee, Malayalam script: മലയാളി and കേരളീയൻ) are an Indian ethnic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala, located in South India.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango, is a species of flowering plant in the sumac and poison ivy family Anacardiaceae.
In linguistics, a marker is a free or bound morpheme that indicates the grammatical function of the marked word, phrase, or sentence.
Marshall Cavendish is a subsidiary company of Times Publishing Group, the printing and publishing subsidiary of Singapore-based conglomerate Fraser and Neave (which in turn currently owned by ThaiBev) and at present is a publisher of books, business directories and magazines.
The Media in Gujarati language started with publication of Bombay Samachar in 1822.
The Memon or Memoni language is the language of Memons historically associated with Kathiawar, in West India, a Memon subgroup.
Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft.
Middle Gujarati (AD 1500–1800), split off from Rajasthani, and developed the phonemes ɛ and ɔ, the auxiliary stem ch-, and the possessive marker -n-.
The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.
The Ministry of Minority Affairs, is a ministry of the Government of India established in 2006.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
A mound is a heaped pile of earth, gravel, sand, rocks, or debris.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
The New York metropolitan area, also referred to as the Tri-State Area, is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at 4,495 mi2 (11,642 km2).
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Gujarātī (જૂની ગુજરાતી; also called ગુજરાતી ભાખા Gujarātī bhākhā or ગુર્જર અપભ્રંશ Gurjar apabhraṃśa, 1000 CE–1500 CE), the ancestor of modern Gujarati and Rajasthani, was spoken by the Gurjars, who were residing and ruling in Gujarat, Punjab, Rajputana and central India.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
The Parkari Koli language (sometimes called just Parkari) is a language mainly spoken in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
A Parsi (or Parsee) means "Persian" in the "Persian Language", which today mainly refers to a member of a Zoroastrian community, one of two (the other being Iranis) mainly located in India, with a few in Pakistan.
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.
The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed).
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajasthani (Devanagari: राजस्थानी) refers to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken primarily in the state of Rajasthan and adjacent areas of Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh in India.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
The Salt March, also known as the Dandi March and the Dandi Satyagraha, was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience in colonial India led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to produce salt from the seawater in the coastal village of Dandi (now in Gujarat), as was the practice of the local populace until British officials introduced taxation on salt production, deemed their sea-salt reclamation activities illegal, and then repeatedly used force to stop it.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Split ergativity is a term used by comparative linguists to refer to languages where some constructions use ergative syntax and morphology, but other constructions show another pattern, usually nominative-accusative.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Sunni Vahoras or Sunni Bohras (سنی بوہرہ)(also Jafari Bohras or Patani Bohras) are a community from the state of Gujarat in India.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
The Swahili Coast is a coastal area in Southeast Africa inhabited by the Swahili people.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
A tank is an armoured combat vehicle.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.
The Straits Times is an English-language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore currently owned by Singapore Press Holdings (SPH).
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Turco-Mongol or the Turko-Mongol tradition was a cultural or ethnocultural synthesis that arose during the early 14th century, among the ruling elites of Mongol Empire successor states such as the Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8.
8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9.