300 relations: Acronym, Adam Hochschild, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Alexander Dolgun, Alexander Galich (writer), Alexander Yakovlev (Russian politician), Allied-occupied Germany, Amnesty, Anatoli Granovsky, Andrey Vyshinsky, Anne Applebaum, Anton Antonov-Ovseyenko, Article 58 (RSFSR Penal Code), Austria, Baikal–Amur Mainline, Bard (Soviet Union), Belarus, Berghahn Books, Bertrand Russell, Bessarabia, Bitch Wars, Blagoy Popov, Buchenwald concentration camp, Bukovina, Bulgaria, By administrative means, Chabua Amirejibi, Cheka, China, Cobalt, Collaboration with the Axis Powers, Collectivization in the Soviet Union, Colloquialism, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Corrective labor colony, Council of People's Commissars, Crimean Tatars, Criminal law, Croatia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Danube–Black Sea Canal, Danylo Shumuk, Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Political Repressions, Defection, Dekulakization, Democratization, Devil's Island, Dictatorship of the proletariat, Doubleday (publisher), ..., Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union, Eastern Front (World War II), Eddie Rosner, Enemy of the people, Estonia, Europe-Asia Studies, Exile, Extrajudicial punishment, Family members of traitors to the Motherland, Far North (Russia), Federal Penitentiary Service, First Department, Folklore of Russia, Forced labor in the Soviet Union, Forced settlements in the Soviet Union, Foreign forced labor in the Soviet Union, Frantsishak Alyakhnovich, French Guiana, Fugitive, Georgi Dimitrov, German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, Glasnost, Goli otok, Great Purge, Gulag: A History, Gustaw Herling-Grudziński, Hannah Arendt, Hava Volovich, Herta Müller, History of the Soviet Union, Human rights in North Korea, Hungary, In the First Circle, Indigirka River, Industrialisation, Intelligentsia, Internetowa encyklopedia PWN, Internment camps in Sweden during World War II, Invasion of Poland, Israel Pliner, J. Arch Getty, Jacques Rossi, Jan T. Gross, Janusz Bardach, János Rózsás, John H. Noble, Joint State Political Directorate, Joseph Stalin, Julius Margolin, Karlo Štajner, Katorga, Katyn massacre, Kazakhstan, Kemerovo, Kengir uprising, KGB, Khrushchev Thaw, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Kolyma, Kulak, Kwalliso, Labor camp, Laogai, Latvia, Lavrentiy Beria, Law of Spikelets, Lazar Kogan, Leon Trotsky, Lev Razgon, Library of Congress, List of concentration and internment camps, List of Gulag camps, Lithuania, Logging, Lubyanka Square, Magadan, Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees, Malnutrition, Man Is Wolf to Man, Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, Marfino, Martin Amis, Martin Booth, Mass graves from Soviet mass executions, Matvei Berman, Maxim Gorky, Memorial (society), Military Units to Aid Production, Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia), Ministry of State Security (Soviet Union), Mitrokhin Archive, Mongolia, Moscow, Moscow Metro, Moscow State University, MVD special camp, Naftaly Frenkel, National Committee for a Free Europe, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi Germany, Nazino affair, Nickel, Nicolas Werth, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikita Petrov, Nikolai Yezhov, NKVD, NKVD Order No. 00447, NKVD prisoner massacres, NKVD special camps in Germany 1945–49, NKVD troika, Nobel Prize in Literature, Norillag, Norilsk, North Korea, Novaya Zemlya, Novy Mir, Nuclear weapon, OKB, Oleg Khlevniuk, On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Keelhaul, Order No. 270, Ore, Orlando Figes, Osadnik, Ostarbeiter, Oymyakon, Palgrave Macmillan, Patrick Watson (producer), Paul Hollander, PDF, Penal labor in the United States, Penal labour, People's Socialist Republic of Albania, Perm-36, Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union, Poland, Poles, Polish Armed Forces in the East, Polish prisoners-of-war in the Soviet Union after 1939, Politburo, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, Political prisoner, Political repression in the Soviet Union, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Princeton University Press, Prison, Prisoner of war, Production quota, Project, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Red Army, Reeducation camp, Rehabilitation (Soviet), Reichstag fire, Robert Conquest, Routledge, Russia, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian Far East, Sachsenhausen concentration camp, Savić Marković Štedimlija, Sławomir Rawicz, Scurvy, Second Polish Republic, Secret police, Semipalatinsk Test Site, Sevvostlag, Sharashka, Siberia, Solovetsky Islands, Solovki prison camp, Soviet famine of 1932–33, Soviet invasion of Poland, Soviet occupation zone, Soviet Union, Spaç Prison, Spassk, Stakhanovite movement, Stalag, Stalinism, Stanford University, Starvation, State Archive of the Russian Federation, State Political Directorate, Stéphane Courtois, Stephen G. Wheatcroft, Steplag, Steppe, Steven Rosefielde, Sweden, Synonym, The American Historical Review, The Black Book of Communism, The Daily Telegraph, The Gulag Archipelago, The Hunger Angel, The Kolyma Tales, The Origins of Totalitarianism, Thief in law, Tin, Tom River, Totalitarianism, Treason, Tsardom of Russia, Typhus, Udarnik, Ukase, Ukraine, Unfree labour, United Kingdom, United States, Uranium, USSR anti-religious campaign (1928–1941), Uzbekistan, Varlam Shalamov, Vasil Tanev, Vasili Mitrokhin, Vaygach Island, Vernacular, Victimisation, Victor Herman, Victor Kravchenko (defector), Vietnam, Viktor Zemskov, Vladimir Lenin, Vladimir Vysotsky, Volga Germans, Vorkuta, Vorkuta uprising, Vorkutlag, Walter Ciszek, Władysław Anders, White Sea, White Sea–Baltic Canal, World War II, Yale University Press, Yalta Conference, Yevgenia Ginzburg, Yugoslavia, Yuri Andropov, Zagreb, Zoltán Szalkai, 101st kilometre. Expand index (250 more) » « Shrink index
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Adam Hochschild (born October 5, 1942) is an American author, journalist, and lecturer.
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer.
Alexander Dolgun (29 September 1926 – 28 August 1986) was a survivor of the Soviet Gulag who wrote about his experiences in 1975 after being allowed to leave the Soviet Union and return to his native United States.
Alexander Arkadievich Galich (a, Олександр Аркадійович Галич; born Alexander Aronovich Ginzburg, a, Олександр Аркадійович Гінзбург, 19 October 1918, Ekaterinoslav – 15 December 1977, Paris) was a Soviet poet, screenwriter, playwright, singer-songwriter, and dissident.
Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Я́ковлев; 2 December 1923 – 18 October 2005) was a Soviet politician and historian.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
Anatoli Granovsky (born 1922) is a former NKVD agent who defected to the West in 1946 and authored an autobiographical book about his career in Soviet intelligence.
Andrey Yanuaryevich Vyshinsky (italic; Andrzej Wyszyński) (– 22 November 1954) was a Soviet politician, jurist and diplomat.
Anne Elizabeth Applebaum (born July 25, 1964) is an American-Polish journalist and Pulitzer Prize–winning author who has written extensively about communism and the development of civil society in Central and Eastern Europe.
Anton Vladimirovich Antonov-Ovseyenko (Анто́н Влади́мирович Анто́нов-Овсе́енко; 23 February 1920, Moscow, RSFSR – 9 July 2013, Moscow, Russia) was a Russian historian and writer.
Article 58 of the Russian SFSR Penal Code was put in force on 25 February 1927 to arrest those suspected of counter-revolutionary activities.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Baikal–Amur Mainline (Russian Байкало-Амурская магистраль (БАМ), Baikalo-Amurskaya magistral, BAM) is a broad gauge railway line in Russia.
The term bard (bard) came to be used in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, and continues to be used in Russia today, to refer to singer-songwriters who wrote songs outside the Soviet establishment, similarly to folk singers of the American folk music revival.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Berghahn Books is a publisher of scholarly books and academic journals in the humanities and social sciences, with a special focus on social & cultural anthropology, European history, politics, and film & media studies.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
The Bitch Wars or Suka Wars (translit or in singular: translit) occurred within the Soviet labor-camp system between 1945 and around the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.
Blagoi Popov (Благой Попов) (1902–1968) was one of the co-defendants along with Georgi Dimitrov and Vasil Tanev in the Leipzig trial.
Buchenwald concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Buchenwald,; literally, in English: beech forest) was a German Nazi concentration camp established on Ettersberg hill near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil, following Dachau's opening just over four years earlier.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
By administrative means (В административном порядке, "V administrativnom poryadke") was an expression in use in the Soviet Union applied to the cases when some actions that normally required a court decision were left to the decision of executive bodies (administration).
Mzechabuk "Chabua" Amirejibi, (often written as "Amiredjibi", მზეჭაბუკ "ჭაბუა" ამირეჯიბი) (November 18, 1921 – December 12, 2013) was a Georgian novelist and Soviet-era dissident notable for his magnum opus, Data Tutashkhia, and a lengthy experience in Soviet prisons.
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Всероссийская Чрезвычайная Комиссия), abbreviated as VChK (ВЧК, Ve-Che-Ka) and commonly known as Cheka, (from the initialism ChK) was the first of a succession of Soviet secret police organizations.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers in World War II, some citizens and organizations, prompted by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, opportunism, self-defense, or often a combination, knowingly collaborated with the Axis Powers.
The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
A corrective labor colony (Исправительно-трудовая колония, ИТК, ispravitelno-trudovaya koloniya, ITK) is the most common type of prison in Russia and some post-Soviet states which combines penal detention with forced labor.
The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Danube–Black Sea Canal (Canalul Dunăre – Marea Neagră) is a canal in Romania, which runs from Cernavodă, on the Danube, to Constanța (southern arm, as main branch), and to Năvodari (northern arm), on the Black Sea.
Danylo Lavrentiyovych Shumuk (December 30, 1914 in village Boremschyna, Russian Empire, now in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine – May 21, 2004 in Krasnoarmiisk, Ukraine) was a Ukrainian political activist who served a total of 42 years imprisoned by three different states, Second Polish Republic, Nazi Germany and Soviet Union.
Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Political Repressions (День памяти жертв политических репрессий), is an annual day of remembrance for victims of political repression in the Soviet Union.
In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state in exchange for allegiance to another, in a way which is considered illegitimate by the first state.
Dekulakization (раскулачивание, raskulachivanie; розкуркулення, rozkurkulennia) was the Soviet campaign of political repressions, including arrests, deportations, and executions of millions of wealthy peasants and their families in the 1929–1932 period of the First five-year plan.
Democratization (or democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic political regime.
The penal colony of Cayenne (French: Bagne de Cayenne), commonly known as Devil's Island (Île du Diable), was a French penal colony that operated in the 19th and 20th century in the Salvation's Islands of French Guiana.
In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.
Throughout Russian history famines and droughts have been a common feature, often resulting in humanitarian crises traceable to political or economic instability, poor policy, environmental issues and war.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Adolph Ignatievich Rosner, known as Ady Rosner and also Eddie Rosner (26 May 1910 in Berlin – 8 August 1976 in West Berlin) was a Polish and Soviet Jazz musician called "The White Louis Armstrong" or "Polish Louis Armstrong" in different sources.
The term enemy of the people is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Europe-Asia Studies is an academic peer-reviewed journal published 10 times a year by Routledge on behalf of the Institute of Central and East European Studies, University of Glasgow, and continuing (since vol. 45, 1993) the journal Soviet Studies (vols. 1-44, 1949–1992), which was renamed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
Extrajudicial punishment is punishment for an alleged crime or offense carried out without legal process or supervision from a court or tribunal through a legal proceeding.
Traitor of the Motherland family members (Russian: ЧСИР: члены семьи изменника Родины) was a term in Article 58 of Criminal Code of RSFSR about criminal prosecution of wives and children (kin punishment) of all people who were arrested and convicted as "traitors of the Motherland" in the Soviet Union during Stalinist purges of 1930s and later.
The Extreme North or Far North (Крайний Север, Дальний Север) is a large part of Russia located mainly north of the Arctic Circle and boasting enormous mineral and natural resources.
Federal Penitentiary Service (FSIN of Russia, in Russian: Федеральная служба исполнения наказаний, ФСИН России Federalnaya Sluzhba Ispolneniya Nakazaniy, FSIN Rossii "Russian Federal Service of punishment fulfillment") - is the official name of the Russian federal prison authority responsible for security and maintenance of prisons in Russia.
The First Department (Первый отдел) was in charge of secrecy and political security of the workplace of every enterprise or institution of the Soviet Union that dealt with any kind of technical or scientific information (plants, R&D institutions, etc.) or had printing capabilities (e.g., publishing houses).
Folklore of Russia is folklore of Russians and other ethnic groups of Russia.
Forced labor was used extensively in the Soviet Union as a means of controlling Soviet citizens and foreigners.
Forced settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms.
Foreign forced labor was used by the Soviet Union during and in the aftermath of World War II, which continued up to 1950s.
Frantsishak Alyakhnovich (March 9, 1883 in Vilnius – March 3, 1944 in Vilnius, Францішак Аляхновіч, Franciszek Olechnowicz, František Olechnovič) was a Belarusian writer, journalist of Polish and Czech origins.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
A fugitive (or runaway) is a person who is fleeing from custody, whether it be from jail, a government arrest, government or non-government questioning, vigilante violence, or outraged private individuals.
Georgi Dimitrov Mikhaylov (Гео̀рги Димитро̀в Миха̀йлов), also known as Georgi Mikhaylovich Dimitrov (Гео́ргий Миха́йлович Дими́тров; 18 June 1882 – 2 July 1949), was a Bulgarian communist politician.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
Goli otok (meaning "barren island"; Isola Calva) is a barren, uninhabited island that was the site of a political prison in use when Croatia was part of Yugoslavia.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Gulag: A History, also published as Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps, is a non-fiction book covering the history of the Soviet Gulag system.
Gustaw Herling-Grudziński (May 20, 1919 − July 4, 2000) was a Polish writer, journalist, essayist, World War II underground fighter, and political dissident abroad during the communist system in Poland.
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist.
Hava Vladimirovna Volovich (ru:Волович, Хава Владимировна;1916–2000), was a Russian writer, actress, puppet theater director and Gulag survivor.
Herta Müller (born 17 August 1953) is a Romanian-born German novelist, poet, essayist and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature.
The "History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union" reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world.
Human rights in North Korea are severely limited.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
In the First Circle (В кру́ге пе́рвом, V krúge pérvom; also published as The First Circle) is a novel by Russian writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, released in 1968.
The Indigirka River (Индиги́рка; Индигиир) is a river in the Sakha Republic in Russia between the Yana River and the Kolyma River.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.
Internetowa encyklopedia PWN (Polish for Internet PWN Encyclopedia) is a free online Polish-language encyclopedia published by Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
A number of internment camps were operated by Sweden during World War II.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Israel Pliner (Израиль Израилевич Плинер, Izrail Izrailevich Pliner) (1896–1939) was a high functionary of the Soviet secret police, Jewish by origin.
John Archibald Getty, III (born November 30, 1950) is an American historian and professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, specializing in the History of Russia and History of the Soviet Union.
Jacques Rossi (October 10, 1909, Wrocław – June 30, 2004, Paris) was a Polish-French writer and polyglot.
Jan Tomasz Gross (born 1947) is a Polish-American sociologist and historian.
Janusz Bardach (July 28, 1919 in Odessa – August 16, 2002 in Iowa City) was a gulag survivor, author, and noted plastic surgeon.
János Rózsás (6 August 1926 – 2 November 2012) was a Hungarian writer.
John H. Noble (September 4, 1923 – November 10, 2007) was an American survivor of the Soviet Gulag system, who wrote two books relating to his experiences after being permitted to leave the Soviet Union and return to his native United States.
The Joint State Political Directorate (also translated as the All-Union State Political Administration and Unified State Political Directorate) was the secret police of the Soviet Union from 1923 to 1934.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Julius Margolin (Юлий (Юлиус) Борисович Марголин, October 14, 1900 – January 21, 1971) was a Litvak writer and political activist, and author of the book Journey to the Land of the Ze-Ka (Путешествие в страну Зэ-Ка).
Karlo Štajner (15 January 1902 – 1 March 1992) was an Austrian-Yugoslav communist activist and a prominent Gulag survivor.
Katorga (p; from medieval and modern Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union (see Katorga labor in the Soviet Union).
The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kemerovo (p) is an industrial city and the administrative center of Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Iskitim and Tom Rivers, in the major coal mining region of the Kuznetsk Basin.
The Kengir uprising was a prisoner uprising that took place in the Soviet labor camp for political prisoners Kengir (Steplag) in May and June 1954.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
The Khrushchev Thaw (or Khrushchev's Thaw; p or simply ottepel)William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, London: Free Press, 2004 refers to the period from the early 1950s to the early 1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed, and millions of Soviet political prisoners were released from Gulag labor camps due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Kolyma (Колыма́) is a region located in the Russian Far East.
The kulaks (a, plural кулаки́, p, "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuli in Ukraine, but also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of affluent peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and the early Soviet Union.
North Korea's political penal labour colonies, transliterated kwalliso or kwan-li-so, constitute one of three forms of political imprisonment in the country, the other two being what Hawk translated as "short-term detention/forced-labor centers" and "long-term prison labor camps", for misdemeanour and felony offenses respectively.
A labor camp (or labour, see spelling differences) or work camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor as a form of punishment under the criminal code.
Laogai (勞改/劳改), the abbreviation for Láodòng Gǎizào (勞動改造/劳动改造), which means "reform through labor", is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of penal labour and prison farms in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (p; tr,; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician, Marshal of the Soviet Union and state security administrator, chief of the Soviet security and secret police apparatus (NKVD) under Joseph Stalin during World War II, and promoted to deputy premier under Stalin from 1941.
The Law of Spikelets or Law of Three Spikelets (Закон о трёх колосках) was a law in the Soviet Union to protect state property of kolkhozes (Soviet collective farms)—especially the grain they produced—from theft.
Lazar Iosifovich Kogan (Ла́зарь Ио́сифович Ко́ган) (1899—March 3, 1939) was a Soviet secret police (Cheka, OGPU, NKVD) high functionary.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Lev Emmanuilovich Razgon (Лев Эммануи́лович Разго́н, 1 April 1908, Horki, Horki Raion, Mogilev Governorate – 8 September 1999, Moscow) was a Soviet journalist, a prisoner of the Gulag from 1938 to 1942 and again from 1950 to 1955, a Russian writer and, latterly, a human rights activist.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
This is a list of internment and concentration camps, organized by country.
The list below, enumerates the selected sites of the Soviet forced labor camps (known in Russian as the "corrective labor camps") of the Gulag.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
Lubyanskaya Square (Lubyanskaya ploshchad'), or simply Lubyanka in Moscow lies about north-east of Red Square.
Magadan (p) is a port town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay (within Taui Bay) and serving as a gateway to the Kolyma region.
The Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees ('''GUPVI''', GUPVI NKVD SSSR/ MVD SSSR.) was a department of NKVD (later MVD) in charge of handling of foreign civilian internees and POW in the Soviet Union during and in the aftermath of World War II (1939–1953).
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Man Is Wolf to Man (1998) from the Latin Homo homini lupus is a memoir by Janusz Bardach, primarily surrounding the years during World War II.
Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (born 1962 in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American historian specializing in East Central European history of the 19th and 20th century.
Marfino (Марфино) is the name of several rural localities in Russia.
Martin Louis Amis (born 25 August 1949) is a British novelist, essayist and memoirist.
Martin Booth (7 September 1944 – 12 February 2004) was a British novelist and poet.
Mass graves in the Soviet Union were used for the burial of mass numbers of citizens and foreigners executed by the government of the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin.
Matvei Davidovich Berman (Russian: Матвей Давыдович Берман; April 10, 1898 – March 7, 1939) was a Soviet intelligence officer and head of the GULAG Soviet prison camp system from 1932 to 1937.
Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Макси́м Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.
Memorial (Мемориа́л) is a Russian historical and civil rights society that operates in a number of post-Soviet states.
Military Units to Aid Production or UMAPs (Unidades Militares de Ayuda a la Producción) were agricultural labor camps operated by the Cuban government from November 1965 to July 1968 in the province of Camagüey.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (MOI, Министерство внутренних дел, МВД, Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del, MVD) is the interior ministry of Russia.
The MGB ('МГБ'), an initialism for Ministerstvo gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti SSSR (p, translated in English as Ministry for State Security), was the name of the Soviet state security apparatus dealing with internal and external security issues: secret police duties, foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence, etc from 1946 to 1953.
The Mitrokhin Archive is a collection of handwritten notes made secretly by KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin during his thirty years as a KGB archivist in the foreign intelligence service and the First Chief Directorate.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moscow Metro (p) is a rapid transit system serving Moscow, Russia and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov, Lyubertsy and Kotelniki.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
MVD Special camps of the Gulag (Особые лагеря МВД, особлаги, osobye lagerya, osoblags) was a system of labor camps established addressing the February 21, 1948 decree 416—159сс of the USSR Council of Ministers by the February 28 decree 00219 of the Soviet Ministry of Internal Affairs exclusively for a "special contingent" of political prisoners, convicted according to the more severe sub-articles of Article 58: treason, espionage, terrorism, etc., for various real political opponents, such as Trotskyites, "nationalists", white émigré, as well as for fabricated ones.
Naftaly Aronovich Frenkel (Нафталий Аронович Френкель; 1883 in Haifa – 1960 in Moscow) was a Jewish Russian Bolshevik and member of the Cheka Soviet secret police.
The National Committee for a Free Europe, later known as Free Europe Committee, was an anti-communist Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) front organization, founded on June 1, 1949, in New York City, which worked for the spreading of American influence in Europe and to oppose the Soviet one.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Nazino affair (Nazinskaya Tragediya) was the mass deportation of 6,000 people to Nazino Island in the Soviet Union in May 1933.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nicolas Werth (born 1950) is a French historian, and an internationally known expert on communist studies, particularly the history of the Soviet Union.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikita Vasilyevich Petrov (Ники́та Васи́льевич Петро́в, born 31 January 1957, Kiev) is a Russian historian.
Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov,; May 1, 1895 – February 4, 1940) was a Soviet secret police official under Joseph Stalin who was head of the NKVD from 1936 to 1938, during the most active period of the Great Purge. Having presided over mass arrests and executions during the Great Purge, Yezhov eventually fell from Stalin's favour and power. He was arrested, confessed to a range of anti-Soviet activity, later claiming he was tortured into making these confessions, and was executed in 1940. By the beginning of World War II, his status within the Soviet Union had become that of enemy of the people.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
NKVD Order № 00447 of July 30, 1937 (О репрессировании бывших кулаков, уголовников и других антисоветских элементов) O repressirovanii byvshikh kulakov, ugolovnikov i drugikh antisovyetskikh elementov ("About repression of former kulaks, criminals, and other anti-Soviet elements") was signed by Nikolai Yezhov and approved by Politburo during the Great Purge.
The NKVD prisoner massacres were a series of mass executions carried out by the Soviet NKVD secret police during World War II against political prisoners across Eastern Europe, primarily Poland, Ukraine, the Baltic states, Bessarabia and other parts of the Soviet Union from which the Red Army was retreating following the Nazi German attack on the Soviet positions in occupied Poland, known as Operation Barbarossa.
NKVD special camps (Speziallager) were NKVD-run late and post–World War II internment camps in the Soviet-occupied parts of Germany from May 1945 to January 6, 1950.
NKVD troika or Special troika (особая тройка), in Soviet history, were The People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs (NKVD which would later be the beginning of the KGB) of three persons who issued sentences to people after simplified, speedy investigations and without a public and fair trial.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
Norillag, Norilsk Corrective Labor Camp (Норильлаг, Норильстрой, Норильский ИТЛ) was a gulag labor camp set by Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia and headquartered there.
Norilsk (p) is an industrial city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located above the Arctic Circle, east of the Yenisei River and south of the western Taymyr Peninsula.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. the new land), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.
Novy Mir (Но́вый Ми́р,, New World) is a Russian language monthly literary magazine.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
OKB is a transliteration of the Russian initials of "Опытное конструкторское бюро" – Opytnoye Konstruktorskoye Buro, meaning Experimental Design Bureau.
Oleg Vitalyevich Khlevniuk (Олег Витальевич Хлевнюк, born July 7, 1959 Vinnytsia, Ukrainian SSR) is a historian and a senior researcher at the State Archive of the Russian Federation in Moscow.
"On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" («О культе личности и его последствиях», «O kul'te lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956.
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (Оди́н день Ива́на Дени́совича Odin den' Ivana Denisovicha) is a novel by Russian writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, first published in November 1962 in the Soviet literary magazine Novy Mir (New World).
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Keelhaul was a forced repatriation of former Soviet Armed Forces POWs of the Nazis to the Soviet Union, carried out in Northern Italy by British and American forces between 14 August 1946 and 9 May 1947.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Orlando Guy Figes (born Islington, 20 November 1959) is a British historian and writer known for his works on Russian history.
Osadniks (osadnik/osadnicy, "settler/settlers, colonist/colonists") were veterans of the Polish Army and civilians who were given or sold state land in the Kresy (current Western Belarus and western Ukraine) territory ceded to Poland by Polish-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty of 1921 (and occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939 and ceded to it after World War II).
Ostarbeiter ("Eastern worker") was a Nazi German designation for foreign slave workers gathered from occupied Central and Eastern Europe to perform forced labor in Germany during World War II.
Oymyakon (Оймяко́н,; Өймөкөөн, Öymököön) is a rural locality (a selo) in Oymyakonsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located along the Indigirka River, northwest of Tomtor on the Kolyma Highway.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Patrick Watson, CC (born December 23, 1929) has been a prolific and outspoken Canadian broadcaster, television and radio interviewer and host, author, commentator, and television writer, producer, and director for five decades.
Paul Hollander (born 1932 in Hungary) is an American political sociologist, communist-studies scholar, and non-fiction author.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Penal labor in the United States, a form of slavery or involuntary servitude, is explicitly allowed by the 13th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Perm-36 (also known as ITK-6) was a Soviet forced labor camp located near the village of Kuchino, 100 km (60 miles) northeast of the city of Perm in Russia.
Throughout the history of the Soviet Union (1922–1991), there were periods where Soviet authorities suppressed and persecuted various forms of Christianity to different extents depending on State interests.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Polish Armed Forces in the East (Polskie Siły Zbrojne na Wschodzie) (or Polish Army in USSR) refers to military units composed of Poles created in the Soviet Union at the time when the territory of Poland was occupied by both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in the Second World War.
As a result of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, hundreds of thousands of Polish soldiers became prisoners of war in the Soviet Union.
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
There was systematic political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, based on the interpretation of political opposition or dissent as a psychiatric problem.
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.
Throughout the history of the Soviet Union, tens of millions of people suffered political repression, which was an instrument of the state since the October Revolution.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
A production quota is a goal for the production of a good.
Contemporary business and science treat as a project any undertaking, carried out individually or collaboratively and possibly involving research or design, that is carefully planned (usually by a project team) to achieve a particular aim.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Reeducation camp (trại học tập cải tạo) is the official title given to the prison camps operated by the Communist government of Vietnam following the end of the Vietnam War.
Rehabilitation (реабилитация, transliterated in English as reabilitatsiya or academically rendered as reabilitacija) was a term used in the context of the former Soviet Union, and the Post-Soviet states.
The Reichstag fire (Reichstagsbrand) was an arson attack on the Reichstag building (home of the German parliament) in Berlin on 27 February 1933, just one month after Adolf Hitler had been sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.
George Robert Acworth Conquest, CMG, OBE, FBA, FAAAS, FRSL, FBIS (15 July 1917 – 3 August 2015) was an English-American historian, propagandist and poet.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
Sachsenhausen ("Saxon's Houses") or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany, used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945.
Savić Marković Štedimlija (12 January 1906, Stijena – 25 January 1971, Zagreb) was a Montenegrin writer, publicist and scientist.
Sławomir Rawicz (1 September 1915 – 5 April 2004) was a Polish Army lieutenant who was imprisoned by the NKVD after the German-Soviet invasion of Poland.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS or Semipalatinsk-21), also known as "The Polygon", was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons.
Sevvostlag (Северо-восточные исправительно-трудовые лагеря, Севвостлаг, СВИТЛ, North-Eastern Corrective Labor Camps) was a system of forced labor camps set up to satisfy the workforce requirements of the Dalstroy construction trust in the Kolyma region in April 1932.
The Experimental Design Bureau (Opytnoe konstruktorskoe bûro; ОКБ), commonly known as sharashka (шара́шка,; sometimes sharaga, sharazhka) was an informal name for secret research and development laboratories in the Soviet Gulag labor camp system.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Solovetsky Islands (Солове́цкие острова́), or Solovki (Соловки́), are an archipelago located in the Onega Bay of the White Sea, Russia.
The Solovki special camp (later the Solovki special prison), was set up in 1923 on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea as a remote and inaccessible place of detention, primarily intended for socialist opponents of Soviet Russia's new Bolshevik regime.
The Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a major famine that killed millions of people in the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, including Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, Volga Region and Kazakhstan, the South Urals, and West Siberia.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spaç Prison was a political prison in Communist Albania at the village of Spaç.
Spassk (Спасск) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
The term Stakhanovite originated in the Soviet Union and referred to workers who modelled themselves after Alexey Stakhanov.
In Germany, stalag was a term used for prisoner-of-war camps.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.
The State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF) (Государственный архив Российской Федерации (ГАРФ)) is a large Russian state archive managed by Rosarkhiv (The Federal Archival Agency of Russia), which preserves some official (mostly concerning activity of police) and personal (including archives of some Romanovs imperial family members from early 19th century to 1918) documents on history of the Russian Empire, official documents of the supreme national legislative and executive institutions of the Russian Provisional Government (1917), Soviet Russia as independent state (1917-1922) and as territorial entity of the USSR (1923-1991), Soviet Union (1922-1991), Russian Federation (since 1992) as well as many other sources.
The State Political Directorate (also translated as the State Political Administration) (GPU) was the intelligence service and secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) from February 6, 1922 to December 29, 1922 and the Soviet Union from December 29, 1922 until November 15, 1923.
Stéphane Courtois (born 25 November 1947) is a French historian and university professor, a Director of research at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Professor at the Catholic Institute of Higher Studies (ICES) in La Roche-sur-Yon, and Director of a collection specialized in the history of communist movements and regimes.
Stephen G. Wheatcroft (born 1 June 1947) is professor of the School of Historical Studies, University of Melbourne.
Steplag or Stepnoy Camp Directorate, Special Camp No.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Steven R. Rosefielde (born 1942) is Professor of Comparative Economic Systems at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
The American Historical Review is the official publication of the American Historical Association.
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a 1997 book by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Andrzej Paczkowski and several other European academics documenting a history of political repressions by Communist states, including genocides, extrajudicial executions, deportations, killing population in labor camps and artificially created famines.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Gulag Archipelago (Архипела́г ГУЛА́Г, Arkhipelág GULÁG) is a three-volume book written between 1958 and 1968 by Russian writer and historian Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.
The Hunger Angel (Atemschaukel; 2009) is a 304-page prose poem by Herta Müller.
Kolyma Tales (Колымские рассказы, Kolymskiye rasskazy) is the name given to six collections of short stories by Russian author Varlam Shalamov, about labour camp life in the Soviet Union.
The Origins of Totalitarianism (Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft, "Elements and Origins of Totalitarian Rule"; 1951), by Hannah Arendt, describes and analyzes Nazism and Stalinism, the major totalitarian political movements of the first half of the 20th century.
A thief in law (r; Estonian: seaduslik varas; злодій у законі, zlodiy u zakoni; злодзей у законе, zlodzey u zakone; კანონიერი ქურდი, kanonieri kurdi; օրենքով գող, orenk'ov goğ; Qanuni oğru) in the Soviet Union, the post-Soviet states, Serbia and respective diasporas abroad is a specifically granted formal status of a professional criminal who enjoys an elite position within the organized crime environment and employs informal authority over its lower-status members.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
The Tom River (p, Том) is a river in Russia, a right tributary of the Ob River in Central Siberia.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
An udarnik (p; English plural udarniks or udarniki), also known in English as a shock worker or strike worker (collectively known as shock brigades or a shock labour team) was a highly productive worker in the Soviet Union, the Eastern Bloc, and other communist countries.
An ukase, or ukaz (указ, formally "imposition"), in Imperial Russia, was a proclamation of the tsar, government, or a religious leader (patriarch) that had the force of law.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
The USSR anti-religious campaign of 1928–1941 was a new phase of anti-religious persecution in the Soviet Union following the anti-religious campaign of 1921–1928.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Varlam Tikhonovich Shalamov (Варла́м Ти́хонович Шала́мов; June 18, 1907 – January 17, 1982), baptized as Varlaam, was a Russian writer, journalist, poet and Gulag survivor.
Vasil Tanev (Васил Танев) (1879–1941) was a Bulgarian Communist, one of the three Bulgarian Comintern operatives arrested and tried for complicity in the Reichstag fire in 1933.
Vasili Nikitich Mitrokhin (Васи́лий Ники́тич Митро́хин; March 3, 1922 – January 23, 2004) was a major and senior archivist for the Soviet Union's foreign intelligence service, the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, who defected to the United Kingdom in 1992 after providing the British embassy in Riga with a vast collection of KGB files, which became known as the Mitrokhin Archive.
Vaygach Island (Vajgač) is an island in the Arctic Sea between the Pechora Sea and the Kara Sea.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Victimisation (or victimization) is the process of being victimised or becoming a victim.
Victor Herman (September 25, 1915 – March 25, 1985) was a Jewish-American who spent 18 years as a Soviet prisoner in the Gulags of Siberia.
Viktor Andreevich Kravchenko (Віктор Андрійович Кра́вченко, 11 October 1905 – 25 February 1966) was a Soviet defector, known for writing the best-selling book, I Chose Freedom, published in 1946, about the realities of life in the Soviet Union.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Viktor Nikolaevich Zemskov (Ви́ктор Никола́евич Земско́в, 30 January 1946 — 22 June 2015) was a Russian historian, doctor (habil.) of historical sciences (2005), research associate of the Institute of Russian History.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Semyonovich Vysotsky (p; 25 January 1938 – 25 July 1980) was a Russian singer-songwriter, poet, and actor whose career had an immense and enduring effect on Soviet and Russian culture.
The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche, Povolzhskiye nemtsy) are ethnic Germans who colonized and historically lived along the Volga River in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov and to the south.
Vorkuta (Воркута́; Вӧркута, Vörkuta; Nenets for "the abundance of bears", "bear corner") is a coal-mining town in the Komi Republic, Russia, situated just north of the Arctic Circle in the Pechora coal basin at the Usa River.
The Vorkuta Uprising was a major uprising of the labor camp inmates at the Vorkuta Gulag in Vorkuta, Russia in July–August 1953, shortly after the arrest of Lavrentiy Beria.
The Vorkutlag (Воркутлаг), sometimes Vorkuta Gulag, was one of the major Soviet era GULAG labor camps, full name Воркутинский исправительно-трудовой лагерь (Vorkuta Corrective Labor Camp).
Walter Joseph Ciszek, S.J. (November 4, 1904–December 8, 1984) was a Polish-American Jesuit priest who conducted clandestine missionary work in the Soviet Union between 1939 and 1963.
Władysław Albert Anders (11 August 1892 – 12 May 1970) was a general in the Polish Army and later in life a politician and prominent member of the Polish government-in-exile in London.
The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.
The White Sea–Baltic Canal (Беломо́рско–Балти́йский кана́л, Byelomorsko–Baltiyskiy kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on 2 August 1933.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Yevgenia Solomonovna Ginzburg (December 20, 1904 – May 25, 1977) (Евге́ния Соломо́новна Ги́нзбург) was a Russian author who served an 18-year sentence in the Gulag.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (p; – 9 February 1984) was a Soviet politician and the fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zoltán Szalkai (born 1961) is a Hungarian documentary film director.
The phrase 101st kilometre (101-й километр, sto pervyy kilometr) is a colloquial name for the law restricting freedom of movement in the Soviet Union.
Chief Administration of Corrective Labor Camps and Colonies, GULAG, GULag, Glavnoye upravleniye lagerey, Goulag, GuLag, Guitk Chief Administration of Collective Labor Colonies, Gulags, Soviet Gulag, Soviet concentration camp, Soviet concentration camps, Soviet gulag, Zek (inmate), ГУЛАГ.