242 relations: Administrative divisions of Mexico, Alabama, Algae, Amberjack, American Mediterranean Sea, Americas, Amerigo Vespucci, Anhydrite, Anna Maria, Florida, Apalachee Bay, Appalachian Mountains, Aseismic creep, Associated Press, Atlantic croaker, Atlantic Ocean, Ángel de Villafañe, Back-arc basin, Bacteria, Bathymetry, Bay, Bay of Campeche, Benthos, Biloxi, Mississippi, Blowout (well drilling), Boulder, Colorado, Boundary delimitation, Bremerhaven, Brine pool, Bryde's whale, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Cabo Catoche, Campeche, Campeche Bank, Cape San Antonio, Cuba, Carbonate rock, Caribbean Current, Caribbean Sea, Cat Island (Mississippi), Cenozoic, Central America, Cetacea, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charlotte Harbor (estuary), Chemosynthesis, Chesapeake Bay, Chicxulub crater, Christopher Columbus, Clastic wedge, Cold seep, Continental shelf, ..., Corpus Christi, Texas, Crab, Cretaceous, Crinoid, Cuba, Dauphin Island, Alabama, Dead zone (ecology), Deepwater Horizon, Demersal fish, Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau, Diego Velázquez, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, Dry Tortugas, Earthquake, Eastern Time Zone, Ethnic groups in Europe, Evaporite, Fauna, Fish, Florida, Florida Bay, Florida Keys, Florida Platform, Florida Public Archaeology Network, Fort Maurepas, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador), Galveston, Texas, Geographic Names Information System, Geological Society of America, Gold, Great Lakes, Green Canyon, Grijalva River, Grouper, Gulf Coast of the United States, Gulf of Mexico basin, Gulf of Mexico Foundation, Gulf Stream, Gulfport, Mississippi, Havana, Hernán Cortés, Hispaniola, Houston, Hurricane Katrina, Hypoxia (environmental), Impact event, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, International Hydrographic Organization, Intraplate earthquake, Ixtoc I oil spill, Jack 2, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, Juan de Grijalva, Juan de la Cosa, Jurassic, Keathley Canyon, Key West, Kilometre, Kriegsmarine, Laramide orogeny, Laurentia, List of pre-Columbian cultures, List of seas, Loop Current, Louann Salt, Louisiana, Louisiana State Museum, Map of Juan de la Cosa, Marathon Uplift, Maritime boundary, Megafauna, Meiobenthos, Mesozoic, Mexico, Mexico City, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Minerals Management Service, Mississippi, Mississippi Canyon, Mississippi embayment, Mississippi River, Mississippi River Delta, Mobile Bay, Mobile, Alabama, Narváez expedition, NASA Earth Observatory, National Geographic Society, National Museum of Natural History, Nautilus Productions, Nazi Germany, New England, New Orleans, Nitrogen, North America, Northern red snapper, Nutrient, Oberleutnant zur See, Ocean current, Ocean gyre, Ocean Springs, Mississippi, Oceanic basin, Oceanic crust, Oil platform, Oil spill, Oil well, Oklahoma, Old World, Orca Basin, Ouachita Mountains, Outer Continental Shelf, Oyster, Padre Island, Paleogene, Pangaea, Pasco County, Florida, Passive margin, Pánfilo de Narváez, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola, Florida, Permian, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Petroleum, Phosphorus, Photic zone, Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, Plate tectonics, Port Fourchon, Louisiana, Privateer, Quincy, Florida, Quintana Roo, Rebecca Shoal Light, Red beds, Richter magnitude scale, Rift, Rift valley, Rio Grande, River, Royal Dutch Shell, Salt marsh, Scorpion Reef, Sea pen, Seafloor spreading, Sedimentary rock, Seebeckwerft, Seiche, Shellfish, Ship Island (Mississippi), Shrimp, Sierra Madre Oriental, Sigsbee Deep, Sigsbee Escarpment, Smithsonian Institution, Southeastern United States, Southern United States, Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Straits of Florida, Surface runoff, Swordfish, Tabasco, Tallahassee, Florida, Tamaulipas, Tampa Bay, Tampa, Florida, Tampico, Territorial evolution of the Caribbean, Texas, The Boston Globe, The Tampa Tribune, Third Coast, Thomas Kitchin, Tide, Tilefish, Triassic, Tristán de Luna y Arellano, Tropical cyclone, Type IX submarine, U-boat, United States, United States Geological Survey, Upwelling, Usumacinta River, Venice, Louisiana, Veracruz, Veracruz (city), Virilization, Wellhead, Yucatán, Yucatán Channel, Yucatán Peninsula, 10th U-boat Flotilla, 4th U-boat Flotilla, 83rd meridian west. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
The United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic composed of 31 states and the capital, Mexico City, an autonomous entity on par with the states.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Amberjack is an Atlantic and Pacific fish of the Carangidae family (genus Seriola).
The American Mediterranean Sea is the combined waterbody of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer.
Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.
Anna Maria, is a city in Manatee County, Florida, United States.
Apalachee Bay is a bay in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico occupying an indentation of the Florida coast to the west of where the Florida peninsula joins the United States mainland.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
In geology, aseismic creep or fault creep is measurable surface displacement along a fault in the absence of notable earthquakes.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
The Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) is a species of marine ray-finned fish belonging to the family Sciaenidae and is closely related to the black drum (Pogonias cromis), the silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura), the spot croaker (Leiostomus xanthurus), the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), the spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and the weakfish (Cynoscion regalis).
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Ángel de Villafañe (b. c. 1504) was a Spanish conquistador of Florida, Mexico, and Guatemala, and was an explorer, expedition leader, and ship captain (with Hernán Cortés), who worked with many 16th-century settlements and shipwrecks along the Gulf of Mexico.
Back-arc basins are geologic basins, submarine features associated with island arcs and subduction zones.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors.
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay.
The Bay of Campeche (Bahía de Campeche), or Campeche Sound, is a bight in the southern area of the Gulf of Mexico.
Benthos is the community of organisms that live on, in, or near the seabed, also known as the benthic zone.
Biloxi is a city in Harrison County, Mississippi, United States.
A blowout is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from an oil well or gas well after pressure control systems have failed.
Boulder is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, and the 11th most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado.
Boundary delimitation (or simply delimitation) is the drawing of boundaries, particularly of electoral precincts, states, counties or other municipalities.
Bremerhaven (literally "Bremen's harbour", Low German: Bremerhoben) is a city at the seaport of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
A brine pool is a large area of brine on the ocean basin.
Bryde's whale or the Bryde's whale complex putatively comprises two species of rorqual and maybe three.
The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, established in 2010 by Secretarial Order.
Cabo Catoche or Cape Catoche, in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, is the northernmost point on the Yucatán Peninsula.
Campeche, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Campeche (Estado Libre y Soberano de Campeche), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Campeche Bank is part of the Gulf of Mexico and extends from the Yucatan Straits in the east to the Tabasco-Campeche Basin in the west.
Cape San Antonio (Cabo San Antonio), is a cape which forms the western extremity of the Guanahacabibes Peninsula and the western extremity of Cuba.
Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals.
The Caribbean Current is a warm ocean current that transports significant amounts of water and flows northwestward through the Caribbean from the east along the coast of South America and into the Gulf of Mexico.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
Cat Island is a barrier island off the Gulf Coast of the United States.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Charlotte Harbor Estuary, the second largest bay in Florida, is located on the Gulf of Mexico coast of west Florida, mostly (2/3) in Charlotte County, Florida with the remaining 1/3 in Lee County.
In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia.
The Chicxulub crater is an impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
In geology, clastic wedge usually refers to a thick assemblage of sediments--often lens-shaped in profile--eroded and deposited landward of a mountain chain; they begin at the mountain front, thicken considerably landwards of it to a peak depth, and progressively thin with increasing distance inland.
A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
Corpus Christi, colloquially Corpus (Latin: Body of Christ), is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U.S. state of Texas.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Dauphin Island is a town in Mobile County, Alabama, United States, on a barrier island of the same name (split by the Katrina Cut), at the Gulf of Mexico.
Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water.
Deepwater Horizon was an ultra-deepwater, dynamically positioned, semi-submersible offshore drilling rig owned by Transocean.
Demersal fish live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes (the demersal zone).
Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau Aktiengesellschaft (abbreviated Deschimag) was a cooperation of eight German shipyards in the period 1926 to 1945.
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized on June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age.
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar (1465 in Cuéllar, Spain – c. June 12, 1524 in Santiago de Cuba) was a Spanish conquistador.
The Dry Tortugas are a small group of islands, located in the Gulf of Mexico at the end of the Florida Keys, United States, about west of Key West, and west of the Marquesas Keys, the closest islands.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Florida Bay is the bay located between the southern end of the Florida mainland (the Florida Everglades) and the Florida Keys in the United States.
The Florida Keys are a coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost portion of the continental United States.
The Florida Platform is a flat geological feature with the emergent portion forming the Florida peninsula.
The Florida Public Archaeology Network, or FPAN, is a state supported organization of regional centers dedicated to public outreach and assisting Florida municipalities and the Florida Division of Historical Resources "to promote the stewardship and protection of Florida's archaeological resources." -- FAQ page FPAN was established in 2004, upon legislation that sought to establish a "Florida network of public archaeology centers to help stem the rapid deterioration of this state’s buried past and to expand public interest in archaeology." -- Chapter 267.145.
Fort Maurepas, later known as Old Biloxi, was developed in colonial French Louisiana (New France) in April 1699 along the Gulf of Mexico.
Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (died 1517) was a Spanish conquistador, known to history mainly for the ill-fated expedition he led in 1517, in the course of which the first European accounts of the Yucatán Peninsula were compiled.
Galveston is a coastal resort city on Galveston Island and Pelican Island in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its territories.
The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
Green Canyon is an area in the Gulf of Mexico that is rich in oil fields and under the control of the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management.
Grijalva River, formerly known as Tabasco River.
Groupers are fish of any of a number of genera in the subfamily Epinephelinae of the family Serranidae, in the order Perciformes.
The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.
The formation of the Gulf of Mexico, an oceanic rift basin located between North America and the Yucatan Block, was preceded by the breakup of the Supercontinent Pangaea in the Late-Triassic, weakening the lithosphere.
The Gulf of Mexico Foundation is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 1990 by citizens concerned with the health and productivity of the Gulf of Mexico.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Gulfport is the second largest city in Mississippi after the state capital, Jackson.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that caused catastrophic damage along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge and levee failure.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
The term intraplate earthquake refers to a variety of earthquake that occurs within the interior of a tectonic plate; this stands in contrast to an interplate earthquake, which occurs at the boundary of a tectonic plate.
Ixtoc I was an exploratory oil well being drilled by the semi-submersible drilling rig Sedco 135 in the Bay of Campeche of the Gulf of Mexico, about northwest of Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche in waters deep.
Jack 2 is a test well in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (Walker Ridge Block 758) that successfully extracted oil from the Paleogene area of the Gulf in the second quarter of 2006.
Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville (February 23, 1680 – March 7, 1767) was a colonist, born in Montreal, New France, and an early, repeated governor of French Louisiana, appointed four separate times during 1701–1743.
Juan de Grijalva (born around 1489 in Cuéllar, Crown of Castille - 21 January 1527 in Nicaragua) was a Spanish conquistador, and relation of Diego Velázquez.
Juan de la Cosa (c. 1450 – 28 February 1510) was a Spanish navigator and cartographer, known for designing the earliest European world map that incorporated the territories of the Americas that were discovered in the 15th century.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Keathley Canyon is an undersea canyon in the United States Exclusive Economic Zone in the Gulf of Mexico.
Key West (Cayo Hueso) is an island and city in the Straits of Florida on the North American continent, at the southwesternmost end of the roadway through the Florida Keys in the state of Florida, United States.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
The Laramide orogeny was a period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 to 80 million years ago, and ended 35 to 55 million years ago.
Laurentia or the North American Craton is a large continental craton that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent.
This list of pre-Columbian cultures includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas.
This is a list of seas - large divisions of the World Ocean, including areas of water variously, gulfs, bights, bays, and straits.
A parent to the Florida Current, the Loop Current is a warm ocean current that flows northward between Cuba and the Yucatán Peninsula, moves north into the Gulf of Mexico, loops east and south before exiting to the east through the Florida Straits and joining the Gulf Stream.
The Louann Salt is a widespread evaporite formation that formed in the Gulf of Mexico during the Callovian in the mid Jurassic.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Louisiana State Museum (LSM), founded in New Orleans in 1906, is a statewide system of National Historic Landmarks and modern structures across Louisiana, housing thousands of artifacts and works of art reflecting Louisiana's legacy of historic events and cultural diversity.
The map or chart of Juan de la Cosa is a mappa mundi painted on parchment, 93 cm high and 183 cm wide.
The Marathon Uplift is a Paleogene-age domal uplift, approximately in diameter, in southwest Texas.
A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.
In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.
Meiobenthos, also called meiofauna, are small benthic invertebrates that live in both marine and fresh water environments.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States.
The Minerals Management Service (MMS) was an agency of the United States Department of the Interior that managed the nation's natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the outer continental shelf (OCS).
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
The Mississippi Canyon is an undersea canyon, part of the Mississippi Submarine Valley in the North-central Gulf of Mexico, south of Louisiana.
The Mississippi Embayment is a physiographic feature in the south-central United States, part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Mississippi River Delta region is a 3-million-acre (12,000 km2) area of land that stretches from Vermilion Bay on the west, to the Chandeleur Islands in the Gulf of Mexico on the southeastern coast of Louisiana.
Mobile Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States.
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States.
The Narváez expedition was a Spanish journey of exploration and colonization started in 1527 that intended to establish colonial settlements and garrisons in Florida.
NASA Earth Observatory is an online publishing outlet for NASA which was created in 1999.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.
Nautilus Productions LLC is an American video production, stock footage, and photography company incorporated in Fayetteville, North Carolina in 1997.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) is a species of snapper native to the western Atlantic Ocean including the Gulf of Mexico, where it inhabits environments associated with reefs.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Oberleutnant zur See (OLt zS or OLZS in the German Navy, Oblt.z.S. in the Kriegsmarine) is traditionally the first and highest Lieutenant grade in the German Navy.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
In oceanography, a gyre is any large system of circulating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements.
Ocean Springs is a city in Jackson County, Mississippi, United States, approximately east of Biloxi and west of Gautier.
In hydrology, an oceanic basin may be anywhere on Earth that is covered by seawater but geologically ocean basins are large geologic basins that are below sea level.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
The Orca Basin is a mid-slope, silled, mini-basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico some 300 km southwest of the Mississippi River mouth on the Louisiana continental slope.
The Ouachita Mountains, simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma.
The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) is a peculiarity of the political geography of the United States.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
Padre Island is the largest of the Texas barrier islands and is the world's longest barrier island.
The Paleogene (also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene Period Mya.
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
Pasco County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida.
A passive margin is the transition between oceanic and continental lithosphere that is not an active plate margin.
Pánfilo de Narváez (147?–1528) was a Spanish conquistador and soldier in the Americas.
Pensacola Bay is a bay located in the northwestern part of Florida, United States, known as the Florida Panhandle.
Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle, approximately from the border with Alabama, and the county seat of Escambia County, in the U.S. state of Florida.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
The photic zone, euphotic zone (Greek for "well lit": εὖ "well" + φῶς "light"), or sunlight or (sunlit) zone is the uppermost layer of water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to intense sunlight.
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (16 July 1661 – 9 July 1706) was a soldier, ship captain, explorer, colonial administrator, knight of the order of Saint-Louis, adventurer, privateer, trader, member of Compagnies Franches de la Marine and founder of the French colony of La Louisiane of New France.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Port Fourchon is Louisiana’s southernmost port, located on the southern tip of Lafourche Parish, on the Gulf of Mexico.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
Quincy is a city in Gadsden County, Florida, United States.
Quintana Roo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Quintana Roo (Estado Libre y Soberano de Quintana Roo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
The Rebecca Shoal Light was located on a treacherous coral bank, Rebecca Shoal, west of the Marquesas Keys and east of the Dry Tortugas.
Red beds (or redbeds) are sedimentary rocks, which typically consist of sandstone, siltstone, and shale that are predominantly red in color due to the presence of ferric oxides.
The so-called Richter magnitude scale – more accurately, Richter's magnitude scale, or just Richter magnitude – for measuring the strength ("size") of earthquakes refers to the original "magnitude scale" developed by Charles F. Richter and presented in his landmark 1935 paper, and later revised and renamed the Local magnitude scale, denoted as "ML" or "ML".
In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.
A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault.
The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.
Scorpion Reef (Spanish: Arrecife Alacranes) is a reef surrounding a small group of islands in the Gulf of Mexico off the northern coast of the state of Yucatán, Mexico.
Sea pens are colonial marine cnidarians belonging to the order Pennatulacea.
Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Seebeckwerft A.G. was a German shipbuilding company, located in Bremerhaven at the mouth of the river Weser.
A seiche is a standing wave in an enclosed or partially enclosed body of water.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
Ship Island is the collective name for two barrier islands off the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, part of Gulf Islands National Seashore: East Ship Island and West Ship Island.
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
The Sierra Madre Oriental (Spanish) is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico.
The Sigsbee DeepThe name "Sigsbee Deep" has sometimes been applied to Sigsbee Basin, a U. S. Board on Geographic Names approved name for a feature nominally at in the Gulf of Maine.
The Sigsbee Escarpment is a major bathymetric feature of the Gulf of Mexico, extending for about.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21), was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait (Estrecho de Florida) is a strait located south-southeast of the North American mainland, generally accepted to be between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Florida Keys (U.S.) and Cuba.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill.
Tabasco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tabasco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tabasco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Tallahassee is the capital of the U.S. state of Florida.
Tamaulipas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Tampa Bay is a large natural harbor and shallow estuary connected to the Gulf of Mexico on the west central coast of Florida, comprising Hillsborough Bay, McKay Bay, Old Tampa Bay, Middle Tampa Bay, and Lower Tampa Bay.
Tampa is a major city in, and the county seat of, Hillsborough County, Florida, United States.
Tampico is a city and port in the southeastern part of the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico.
This is a timeline of the territorial evolution of the Caribbean and nearby areas of North, Central, and South America, listing each change to the internal and external borders of the various countries that make up the region.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Tampa Tribune was a daily newspaper published in Tampa, Florida.
Third Coast is an American colloquialism used to describe coastal regions distinct from the West Coast and the East Coast of the United States.
Thomas Kitchin (or Thomas Kitchen) (1718–1784) was an English engraver and cartographer, who became hydrographer to the king.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Tilefishes are mostly small perciform marine fish comprising the family Malacanthidae.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Tristán de Luna y Arellano (1519 – September 16, 1573) was a Spanish explorer and Conquistador of the 16th century.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The Type IX U-boat was designed by Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine in 1935 and 1936 as a large ocean-going submarine for sustained operations far from the home support facilities.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water.
The Usumacinta River (named after the Howler monkey) is a river in southeastern Mexico and northwestern Guatemala.
Venice is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, United States.
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave,In isolation, Veracruz, de and Llave are pronounced, respectively,, and.
Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz.
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
A wellhead is the component at the surface of an oil or gas well that provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment.
Yucatán, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán (Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The Yucatán Channel or Straits of Yucatán (Spanish: Canal de Yucatán) is a strait between Mexico and Cuba.
The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
The 10th U-boat Flotilla (German 10. Unterseebootsflottille) was a German U-boat flotilla used for front-line combat purposes during World War II.
The 4th U-boat Flotilla (German 4. Unterseebootsflottille) was formed in May 1941 in Stettin under the command of Kapitänleutnant Werner Jacobsen.
The meridian 83° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, Central America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Golfo de Mexico, Golfo de México, Gulf Of Mexico, Gulf of Florida, Gulf of México, Gulf of mexico, Gulph of Mexico, Mexican Gulf, Mexican gulf, Mexico Gulf, Mexico, Gulf of, Pollution in the Gulf of Mexico, Pollution of the Gulf of Mexico, The Gulf of Mexico, The Gulf of mexico.