119 relations: Acacia, Adhesive, Agriculture in Mauritania, Albizia, Aluminium, Ammonium dichromate, Amoxicillin, Arabian Peninsula, Arabinogalactan, Arabinose, Arguin, Artist, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic slave trade, Bakel, Senegal, Binder (material), Black, Brakna Region, Burkina Faso, Calorie, Cameroon, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Ceramic glaze, Chad, Chewing gum, Combretum, Confectionery, Cosmetics, Decolonization, Desert locust, Dietary fiber, Diluent, E number, East Africa, Economy of Chad, Economy of Niger, Economy of Sudan, Emirate of Trarza, Emulsion, Encyclopædia Britannica, Envelope, Eritrea, Etching, Ethiopia, European Food Safety Authority, Finings, Fireworks, Flatulence, Flocculation, Food and Drug Administration, ..., Food industry, Franco-Trarzan War of 1825, French Equatorial Africa, French West Africa, Genus, Glycoprotein, Gum printing, Gumdrop, Icing (food), Ink, Köhler's Medicinal Plants, Kenya, Lithography, M&M's, Mali, Marshmallow, Mauritania, Medication, Mixture, Natural gum, Niger, Nigeria, Paint, Paper, Phosphoric acid, Photography, Pigment, Polysaccharide, Portendick, Postage stamp gum, Potassium dichromate, Prince Henry the Navigator, Printing, Printing press, Probiotic, Pyrotechnics, Red Sea, Redox, Ribose, Rolling paper, Sahara, Sahel, Saint-Louis, Senegal, Sap, Senegal, Senegal River, Senegalia senegal, Shoe polish, Slavery, Soft drink, Somalia, Stabilizer (chemistry), Sudan, Syrup, Tanzania, Toxicity, Transhumance, Trarza Region, Ultraviolet, Vachellia nilotica, Vachellia seyal, Viscosity, Waalo, Watercolor painting, West Africa, Western Asia, Wine, 2004 Africa locust infestation, 8,5'-Diferulic acid. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Located in the Sahelian and Saharan zones, Mauritania has one of the poorest agricultural bases in West Africa.
Albizia is a genus of about 150 species of mostly fast-growing subtropical and tropical trees and shrubs in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Ammonium dichromate is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2Cr2O7.
Amoxicillin, also spelled amoxycillin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabinogalactan is a biopolymer consisting of arabinose and galactose monosaccharides.
Arabinose is an aldopentose – a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group.
Arguin (Arguim) is an island off the western coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin.
An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Bakel is a town of approximately 15,000 inhabitants located in the eastern part of Senegal, West Africa.
A binder or binding agent is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a cohesive whole mechanically, chemically, by adhesion or cohesion.
Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.
Brakna (ولاية البراكنة) is a region in south-west Mauritania.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose gum or tylose powder is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.
Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chewing gum is a soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed.
Combretum, the bushwillows or combretums, make up the type genus of the family Combretaceae.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
The desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) is a species of locust.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
A diluent (also referred to as a filler, dilutant or thinner) is a diluting agent.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
Landlocked Chad's economic development suffers from its geographic remoteness, drought, lack of infrastructure, and political turmoil.
The economy of Niger is based largely upon internal markets, subsistence agriculture, and the export of raw commodities: foodstuffs to neighbors and raw minerals to world markets.
Until the second half of 2002, Sudan's economy boomed on the back of increases in oil production, high oil prices, and large inflows of foreign direct investment.
The Emirate of Trarza was a precolonial state in what is today southwest Mauritania.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An envelope is a common packaging item, usually made of thin flat material.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
FiningsThe term is a mass noun rather than a plural.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
The Franco-Trarzan War of 1825 was a conflict between the forces of the new amir of Trarza, Muhammad al Habib, and France, ruled at the time by Charles X and the ultra comte de Villèle.
French Equatorial Africa (Afrique équatoriale française), or the AEF, was the federation of French colonial possessions in Equatorial Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River into the Sahel, and comprising what are today the countries of Chad, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon.
French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Gum printing is a way of making photographic reproductions without the use of silver halides.
Gumdrops are a type of candy.
Icing, often called frosting in the United States, is a sweet, often creamy glaze made of sugar with a liquid, such as water or milk, that is often enriched with ingredients like butter, egg whites, cream cheese, or flavorings.
Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.
Köhler's Medicinal Plants (or, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen) is a German herbal written principally by Hermann Adolph Köhler (1834 - 1879, physician and chemist), and edited after his death by Gustav Pabst.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water.
M&M's are "colorful button-shaped chocolates", each of which has the letter "m" printed in lower case on one side, surrounding a filling which varies depending upon the variety of M&M's.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
A marshmallow is a sugar-based confectionery that in its modern form typically consists of sugar, water and gelatin whipped to a squishy consistency, molded into small cylindrical pieces, and coated with corn starch.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin, capable of causing a large increase in a solution’s viscosity, even at small concentrations.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Portendick is an abandoned coastal city in western Mauritania.
In philately, gum is the substance applied to the back of a stamp to enable it to adhere to a letter or other mailed item.
Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, is a common inorganic chemical reagent, most commonly used as an oxidizing agent in various laboratory and industrial applications. As with all hexavalent chromium compounds, it is acutely and chronically harmful to health. It is a crystalline ionic solid with a very bright, red-orange color. The salt is popular in the laboratory because it is not deliquescent, in contrast to the more industrially relevant salt sodium dichromate.Gerd Anger, Jost Halstenberg, Klaus Hochgeschwender, Christoph Scherhag, Ulrich Korallus, Herbert Knopf, Peter Schmidt, Manfred Ohlinger, "Chromium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005.
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator (Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
Rolling paper is a specialty paper used for making cigarettes (commercially manufactured filter cigarettes and individually made roll-your-own cigarettes).
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
Saint-Louis, or Ndar as it is called in Wolof, is the capital of Senegal's Saint-Louis Region.
Sap is a fluid transported in xylem cells (vessel elements or tracheids) or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
The Senegal River (نهر السنغال, Fleuve Sénégal) is a long river in West Africa that forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania.
Senegalia senegal (until recently known as Acacia senegal) is a small thorny deciduous tree from the genus Senegalia, which is known by several common names, including Gum acacia, Gum arabic tree, Sudan gum and Sudan gum arabic.
Shoe polish (or boot polish) is a waxy paste, cream, or liquid used to polish, shine, and waterproof leather shoes or boots to extend the footwear's life, and restore, maintain and improve their appearance.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
In industrial chemistry, a stabilizer is a chemical that is used to prevent degradation.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from شراب; sharāb, beverage, wine and sirupus) is a condiment that is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Transhumance is a type of nomadism or pastoralism, a seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.
Trarza (ولاية الترارزة) is a region in southwest Mauritania.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Vachellia nilotica (commonly known as gum arabic tree, babul, thorn mimosa, Egyptian acacia or thorny acacia) is a tree in the family Fabaceae.
Vachellia seyal, the red acacia, known also as the shittah tree (the source of shittim wood), is a thorny, high tree with a pale greenish or reddish bark.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Walo (Waalo was a kingdom on the lower Senegal River in West Africa, in what are now Senegal and Mauritania. It included parts of the valley proper and areas north and south, extending to the Atlantic Ocean. To the north were Moorish emirates; to the south was the kingdom of Cayor; to the east was Jolof. Waalo had a complicated political and social system, which has a continuing influence on Wolof culture in Senegal today, especially its highly formalized and rigid caste system. The kingdom was indirectly hereditary, ruled by three matrilinial families: the Logar, the Tedyek and the Joos, all from different ethnic backgrounds. The Joos were of Serer origin. This Serer matriclan was established in Waalo by Lingeer Ndoye Demba of Sine. Her grandmother Lingeer Fatim Beye is the matriarch and early ancestor of this dynasty. These matrilinial families engaged in constant dynastic struggles to become "Brak" or king of Waalo, as well as warring with Waalo's neighbors. The royal title "Lingeer" means queen or royal princess, used by the Serer and Wolof. Waalo was founded in 1287. The semi-legendary figure NDiadiane Ndiaye, was from this kingdom. The mysterious figure went on to rule the kingdom of Jolof. Under NDdiadian, Jolof made Waalo a vassal. The royal capital of Waalo was first Ndiourbel (Guribel) on the north bank of the Senegal River (in modern Mauritania), then Ndiangué on the south bank of the river, then the capital was moved to Nder on the west shore of the Lac de Guiers. Waalo was subject to constant raids for slaves not only from the Moors but also in the internecine wars. The Brak ruled with a kind of legislature, the Seb Ak Baor, over a complicated hierarchy of officials and dignitaries. Women had high positions and figure promininently in the political and military history. Waalo had lucrative treaties with the French, who had established their base at the island of Saint-Louis (now Saint-Louis, Senegal) near the mouth of the river. Waalo was paid fees for every boatload of gum arabic or slaves that was shipped on the river, in return for its "protection" of the trade. Eventually this protection became ineffective. Vassals of Waalo, like Beetyo (Bethio) split off. In all, Waalo had 52 kings since its founding. Waalo had its own traditional African religion. The ruling class was slow to accept Islam, which had spread in the valley; the Brak converted only in the 19th century.
Watercolor (American English) or watercolour (British English; see spelling differences), also aquarelle (French, diminutive of Latin aqua "water"), is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-based solution.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
In 2004, West and North Africa experienced their largest infestation of locusts in more than 15 years.
8,5'-Diferulic acid is a non cyclic type of diferulic acid.