293 relations: Acehnese people, Adil Shahi dynasty, Admiral, Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, Akbar, Alauddin Khalji, Albertus Magnus, Alcohol, Alder, Alum, American Civil War, American Revolution, Ammonium carbonate, Anatolia, ANFO, Antoine Lavoisier, Antwerp, Arabs, Ardeer, North Ayrshire, Army of the Mughal Empire, Arsenal, Artillery, Artistic license, Australia, Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, Bali, Ball mill, Ballistics, Bamboo, Batak, Battle of Ain Jalut, Battle of Aspern-Essling, Battle of Chaldiran, Battle of Mohi, Béraud, Belgaum, Belgium, Bengal, Berthold Schwarz, Black powder rocket motor, Black powder substitute, Blank (cartridge), Blunderbuss, Bomb, Bombard (weapon), Bombardier (rank), Bouillon (broth), Brisance, British Empire, Bronze, ..., Brown powder, Brunei, Bulk loaded liquid propellants, Burst charge, Calcium nitrate, California, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Cast iron, Cellulose, Charcoal, Chemical equation, Chhapra, Chile, Christiaan Huygens, Civil engineering, Combustion, Comminution, Confederate States of America, Congreve rocket, Corrosion, Corrosive substance, Dangerous goods, De la pirotechnia, Deflagration, Delhi, Delhi Sultanate, Detonation, Detonator, Dhaka, Dominique Jean Larrey, DuPont, Dynamite, Early modern warfare, East Germany, Elixir of life, Energy density, England, English Civil War, Essonne, Ethnic groups in Europe, Explosive material, Faversham explosives industry, Fire arrow, Fire lance, Firearm, Firecracker, Fireworks, Flare, Flintlock, Fragmentation (weaponry), France, Frangula alnus, Frederick Abel, Fuel, Gasoline, Geological Society of America, George Sarton, Glynneath, Gold rush, Granite, Graphite, Gujarat, Gun, Gun barrel, Gunpowder magazine, Gunpowder Plot, Hand cannon, Hasan al-Rammah, Henry VIII of England, History of Kozhikode, Home Office, Honey, Horse meat, Hulagu Khan, Huolongjing, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Hygroscopy, Ijen, Imperial Chemical Industries, Incendiary device, Indonesia, Internal ballistics, Internal combustion engine, Jack Tar, Javanese people, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin–Song Wars, John Maxson Stillman, Joseph Priestley, Kilogram, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Mysore, Lammot du Pont I, Lantaka, Lead, Liber Ignium, Limestone, Louis XVI of France, Lynn Thorndike, Majapahit, Makassar Strait, Malaysia, Malwa, Mamluk, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Marble, Matchlock, Meal powder, Medical research, Medicine, Medieval Siege Society, Mesh (scale), Methane, Mineral processing, Mining, MIT Press, Model rocket, Mongol invasions of India, Mongols, Mughal Empire, Murshidabad, Musée des familles, Musket, Muslim, Muzzleloader, Naphtha, Napoleonic Wars, Nasir ud din Mahmud, Netherlands, Niter, Nitrate, Nitrogen, Nobel Enterprises, Opus Majus, Oxidizing agent, Parachute mine, Philippines, Pontneddfechan, Populus sect. Aigeiros, Portchester Castle, Portugal, Potash, Potassium carbonate, Potassium chloride, Potassium hydroxide, Potassium nitrate, Potassium oxide, Potassium sulfate, Potassium sulfide, Potassium thiocyanate, Powder tower, Powder-actuated tool, Projectile, Propellant, Pyrolysis, Pyrotechnics, Qizilbash, Quarry, Rajput, Realgar, Rhamnus (genus), Rivet gun, Robert Steele (medievalist), Rocket, Rodman gun, ROF Chorley, Roger Bacon, Rosin, Roslin, Midlothian, Rottweil, Royal Ordnance Factory, Rye, Safavid dynasty, Sapper, Sawdust, Science and technology of the Song dynasty, Scotland, Second Anglo-Mysore War, Semantic change, Seydi Ali Reis, Shah Jahan, Shandong, Shanxi, Shotgun, Sichuan, Siege of Baghdad (1258), Siege of Chittorgarh (1567–1568), Siege of De'an, Siege of Diu (1531), Singhasari, Sir Andrew Noble, 1st Baronet, Smokeless powder, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium nitrate, Sodium oxide, Song dynasty, Soot, Special effect, Srivijaya, Stamford Raffles, Static electricity, Steel, Straw, Stunning, Sulfur, Sultan, Sumatra, Supply chain, Tangut people, Taoism, Tattoo, Thanjavur, The History of Java, Tipu Sultan, TNT, Tower of London, Trade route, Trevithick Society, Turnip, Twig, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, United States Department of Transportation, Vannoccio Biringuccio, Wales, Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills, War of 1812, Water, William Lobb, Willow, Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Wood, World War I, World War II, Wrought iron, Wujing Zongyao, Yugoslavia, Zamorin of Calicut, Zeng Gongliang. Expand index (243 more) » « Shrink index
The Acehnese (also written as Atjehnese and Achinese) are an ethnic group from Aceh, Indonesia on the northernmost tip of the island of Sumatra.
The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim dynasty, founded by Yusuf Adil Shah, that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur, centred on present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka in India, in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India from 1489 to 1686.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Ahmad Yousef Al-Hassan (أحمد يوسف الحسن) (June 25, 1925 – April 28, 2012) was a Palestinian/Syrian/Canadian historian of Arabic and Islamic science and technology, educated in Jerusalem, Cairo, and London with a PhD in Mechanical engineering from University College London.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
ʿAlāʾ ud-Dīn Khaljī was the second and the most powerful ruler of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Ammonium carbonate is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
ANFO (or AN/FO, for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil) is a widely used bulk industrial explosive.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Ardeer was a small town now officially incorporated into Stevenston on the Ardeer peninsula, in the parish of Stevenston, North Ayrshire, originally an island and later its extensive sand dune system became the site of Nobel Explosives, a dominant global supplier of explosives to the mining and quarrying industries and a major player in the design and development of products for the chemical and defence industries during the 20th century.
The Army of the Mughal Empire was the force by which the Mughal emperors established their empire in the 15th century and expanded it to its greatest extent at the beginning of the 18th century.
An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made, maintained and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination, whether privately or publicly owned.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Artistic license (also known as art license, historical license, dramatic license, poetic license, narrative license, licentia poetica, creative license, or simply license) is a colloquial term, sometimes a euphemism, used to denote the distortion of fact, alteration of the conventions of grammar or language, or rewording of pre-existing text made by an artist in the name of art.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Éleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours (24 June 1771 – 31 October 1834), known as Irénée du Pont, or E. I. du Pont, was a French-American chemist and industrialist who founded the gunpowder manufacturer E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
A ball mill is a type of grinder used to grind and blend materials for use in mineral dressing processes, paints, pyrotechnics, ceramics and selective laser sintering.
Ballistics is the field of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, unguided bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
Batak is a collective term used to identify a number of closely related Austronesian ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia who speak Batak languages.
The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in.
In the Battle of Aspern-Essling (21–22 May 1809), Napoleon attempted a forced crossing of the Danube near Vienna, but the French and their allies were driven back by the Austrians under Archduke Charles.
The Battle of Chaldiran (جنگ چالدران; Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire.
The Battle of Mohi (today Muhi), also known as Battle of the Sajó RiverA Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol.
Béraud is a French surname.
Belgaum (also known as Belagavi, Belgavi and Venugrama or "bamboo village") is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka located in its northern part along the Western Ghats.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Berthold Schwarz (sometimes spelled Schwartz), also known as Berthold the Black and der Schwartzer, was a legendary German (or in some accounts Danish or Greek) alchemist of the late 14th century, credited with the invention of gunpowder by 15th- through 19th-century European literature.
A black powder rocket motor propels a model rocket using black powder.
A black powder substitute is a replacement for black powder used in muzzleloading and cartridge firearms.
A blank is a type of cartridge for a firearm that contains gunpowder but no bullet or shot.
The blunderbuss is a firearm with a short, large caliber barrel, which is flared at the muzzle and frequently throughout the entire bore, and used with shot and other projectiles of relevant quantity and/or caliber.
A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.
The bombard is a cannon or mortar used throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
Bombardier is a military rank that has existed since the 16th century in artillery regiments of various armies, such as in the British Army and the Royal Prussian Army.
Bouillon is the French word for broth, and is usually used as a synonym for it.
Brisance is the shattering capability of a high explosive, determined mainly by its detonation pressure.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Brown powder or prismatic powder, sometimes referred as "cocoa powder" due to its color, was a propellant used in large artillery and ship's guns from about the 1870s.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Bulk loaded liquid propellants are an artillery technology that was pursued at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and U.S. Naval Weapons Center from the 1950s through the 1990s.
In fireworks, a burst charge is a pyrotechnic mixture placed in a shell which is ignited when the shell reaches the desired height in order to create an explosion and spread the stars.
Calcium nitrate, also called Norgessalpeter (Norwegian saltpeter), is an inorganic compound with the formula Ca(NO3)2.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.
Chhapra (Chapra) is a city and headquarters of the Saran district in the Indian state of Bihar.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Comminution is the reduction of solid materials from one average particle size to a smaller average particle size, by crushing, grinding, cutting, vibrating, or other processes.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
The Congreve rocket was a British military weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804, based directly on Mysorean rockets.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
Dangerous goods or hazardous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.
De la Pirotechnia is considered to be the first printed book on metallurgy to have been published in Europe.
Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
A detonator, frequently a blasting cap, is a device used to trigger an explosive device.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Dominique Jean Larrey (8 July 1766 – 25 July 1842) was a French surgeon in Napoleon's Grande Armée and an important innovator in battlefield medicine and triage.
Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers.
Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive, including artillery and firearms; for this reason the era is also referred to as the age of gunpowder warfare (a concept introduced by Michael Roberts in the 1950s).
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The elixir of life, also known as elixir of immortality and sometimes equated with the philosopher's stone, is a potion that supposedly grants the drinker eternal life and/or eternal youth.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
Essonne is a French department in the region of Île-de-France.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
The Faversham explosives industry: Faversham, in Kent, England, has claims to be the cradle of the UK's explosives industry: it was also to become one of its main centres.
Fire arrows were one of the earliest forms of weaponized gunpowder.
The fire lance was a very early gunpowder weapon that appeared in 10th century China during the Jin-Song Wars.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
A firecracker (cracker, noise maker, banger, or bunger) is a small explosive device primarily designed to produce a large amount of noise, especially in the form of a loud bang; any visual effect is incidental to this goal.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
A flare, also sometimes called a fusee, is a type of pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an explosion.
Flintlock is a general term for any firearm that uses a flint striking ignition mechanism.
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery or mortar shell, rocket, missile, bomb, grenade, etc.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frangula alnus, commonly known as the alder buckthorn, glossy buckthorn, or breaking buckthorn, is a tall deciduous shrub in the family Rhamnaceae.
Sir Frederick Augustus Abel, 1st Baronet GCVO, KCB, FRS (17 July 18276 September 1902) was an English chemist.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.
George Alfred Leon Sarton (31 August 1884 – 22 March 1956), was a Belgian-born American chemist and historian.
Glynneath (Glyn-nedd), also spelt Glyn Neath, is a small town, community and electoral ward lying on the River Neath in the county borough of Neath Port Talbot, Wales.
A gold rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser guns, spearguns and harpoon guns).
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.
A gunpowder magazine is a magazine (building) designed to store the explosive gunpowder in wooden barrels for safety.
The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries often called the Gunpowder Treason Plot or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I of England and VI of Scotland by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby.
The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance.
Hasan al-Rammah (died 1295) was an Arab chemist and engineer during the Mamluk Sultanate who studied gunpowders and explosives, and sketched prototype instruments of warfare, including what some have maintained is a torpedo.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Kozhikode (Malayalam:കോഴിക്കോട്), also known as Calicut, is a city in the southern Indian state of Kerala.
The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
Horse meat is the culinary name for meat cut from a horse.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Map of Ijen Crater, where sulfur is mined The Ijen volcano complex is a group of composite volcanoes in the Banyuwangi Regency of East Java, Indonesia.
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Internal ballistics (also interior ballistics), a subfield of ballistics, is the study of the propulsion of a projectile.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
Jack Tar (also Jacktar, Jack-tar or Tar) is a common English term originally used to refer to seamen of the Merchant or Royal Navy, particularly during the period of the British Empire.
The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese:, Madya Javanese:,See: Javanese language: Politeness Krama Javanese:, Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Madya Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Krama Gêdrìk: priyantun Jawi, Indonesian: suku Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
Map showing the Song-Jurchen Jin wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).
John Maxson Stillman (1852-1923) was a pioneer of the history of science in the United States.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
Lammot du Pont I (April 13, 1831 – March 29, 1884) was a chemist and a key member of the du Pont family and its company in the mid-19th century.
Lantaka or rentaka were a type of bronze swivel gun mounted on merchant vessels and warships in maritime South East Asia.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The Liber Ignium ad Comburendos Hostes (translated as On the Use of Fire to Conflagrate the Enemy, or Book of Fires for the Burning of Enemies, and abbreviated as Book of Fires) is a medieval collection of recipes for incendiary weapons, including Greek fire and gunpowder, written in Latin and allegedly written by a certain Marcus Graecus ("Mark the Greek")—a person whose existence is debated by scholars.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Lynn Thorndike (born 24 July 1882, in Lynn, Massachusetts, USA – died 28 December 1965, Columbia University Club, New York City) was an American historian of medieval science and alchemy.
The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500.
Makassar Strait is a strait between the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi in Indonesia.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
The matchlock was the first mechanism invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm.
Meal powder is the fine dust left over when black powder (gunpowder) is corned and screened to separate it into different grain sizes.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The Medieval Siege Society is a British living history and Combat reenactment association dedicated to costumed reenactment of Siege warfare, Combat reenactment and events surrounding the history known as the Hundred Years War and the Wars of the Roses (circa 1350–1490).
Mesh is a measurement of particle size often used in determining the particle-size distribution of a granular material.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
In the field of extractive metallurgy, mineral processing, also known as ore dressing, is the process of separating commercially valuable minerals from their ores.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
A model rocket is a small rocket designed to reach low altitudes (e.g., for model) and be recovered by a variety of means.
The Mongol Empire launched several invasions into the Indian subcontinent from 1221 to 1327, with many of the later raids made by the unruly Qaraunas of Mongol origin.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Murshidabad (Pron: ˈmʊəʃɪdəˌbɑ:d/bæd or ˈmɜ:ʃɪdəˌ) is a town in Murshidabad district of West Bengal state in India.
Musée des familles ("Museum of Families") was an illustrated French literary magazine that was published in Paris from 1833 to 1900.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (i.e., from the forward, open end of the gun's barrel).
Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nasir ud din Mahmud, Nasir ud din Firuz Shah (reigned: 1246–1266) was the eighth sultan of the Mamluk Sultanate (Slave dynasty).
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Niter, or nitre (chiefly British), is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter or saltpetre.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nobel Enterprises (phonetic) is a chemicals business that used to be based at Ardeer, in the Ayrshire town of Stevenston, in Scotland.
The Opus Majus (Latin for "Greater Work") is the most important work of Roger Bacon.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
A parachute mine is a naval mine dropped from an aircraft by parachute.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pontneddfechan, spelled Pontneathvaughan (pronounced) in English ("bridge over the Little Neath" in Welsh) is the southernmost village in the county of Brecknockshire, Wales, within the Vale of Neath.
Populus section Aigeiros is a section of three species in the genus Populus, the poplars.
Portchester Castle is a medieval castle built within a former Roman fort at Portchester to the east of Fareham in the English county of Hampshire.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
Potassium oxide (2O) is an ionic compound of potassium and oxygen.
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (in British English potassium sulphate, also called sulphate of potash, arcanite, or archaically known as potash of sulfur) is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water.
Potassium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula K2S.
Potassium thiocyanate is the chemical compound with the molecular formula KSCN.
A powder tower (Pulverturm), occasionally also powder house (Pulverhaus), was a building used by the military or by mining companies, frequently a tower, to store gunpowder or, later, explosives.
A powder-actuated tool (often generically called a "Hilti gun" or a "Ramset gun" after their manufacturing companies) is a type of nail gun used in construction and manufacturing to join materials to hard substrates such as steel and concrete.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.
Qizilbash or Kizilbash, (Kızılbaş - Red Head, sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, قزلباش) is the label given to a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.
A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground.
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Realgar, α-As4S4, is an arsenic sulfide mineral, also known as "ruby sulphur" or "ruby of arsenic".
Rhamnus is a genus of about 110 accepted species of shrubs or small trees, commonly known as buckthorns in the family Rhamnaceae.
A rivet gun, also known as a pneumatic hammer, is a type of tool used to drive rivets.
Robert Steele (1860–1944) was a British scholar, best known for editing between c. 1905 and 1941 the 16-volume Opera hactenus inedita Rogeri Bacon.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Drawing comparing Model 1844 8-inch columbiad and Model 1861 10-inch "Rodman" columbiad. The powder chamber on the older columbiad is highlighted by the red box. The Rodman gun is any of a series of American Civil War–era columbiads designed by Union artilleryman Thomas Jackson Rodman (1815–1871).
ROF Chorley was a UK government-owned, munitions filling, Royal Ordnance Factory (Filling Factory No. 1).
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
Rosin, also called colophony or Greek pitch (pix græca), is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components.
Roslin (formerly spelt Rosslyn or Roslyn) is a village in Midlothian, Scotland, 7 miles (11 km) to the south of the capital city Edinburgh.
Rottweil (Swabian: Rautweil) is a town in southwest Germany in the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Royal Ordnance Factories (ROFs) was the collective name of the UK government's munitions factories in and after World War II.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties such as breaching fortifications, demolitions, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, preparing field defenses as well as building, and working on road and airfield construction and repair.
Sawdust or wood dust is a by-product or waste product of woodworking operations such as sawing, milling, planing, routing, drilling and sanding.
The Song dynasty (960–1279 CE) provided some of the most significant technological advances in Chinese history, many of which came from talented statesmen drafted by the government through imperial examinations.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Second Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company from 1780 to 1784.
Semantic change (also semantic shift, semantic progression, semantic development, or semantic drift) is the evolution of word usage—usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage.
Seydi Ali Reis (1498–1563), formerly also written Sidi Ali Reis and Sidi Ali Ben Hossein, was an Ottoman admiral and navigator.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.
The Siege of Chittorgarh (20 October 1567 – 23 February 1568) was a part of the campaign of the Mughal Empire against the kingdom of Mewar in 1567.
The Siege of De'an (德安之戰) was fought as part of the Jin-Song Wars of China in 1132, during the Jin invasion of Hubei and Shaanxi.
The Siege of Diu occurred when a combined Ottoman-Gujarati force defeated a Portuguese attempt to capture the city of Diu in 1531.
Singhasari was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292 (today Indonesia).
Sir Andrew Noble, 1st Baronet (13 September 1831 – 22 October 1915) was a Scottish physicist noted for his work on ballistics and gunnery.
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.
Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.
Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, FRS (6 July 1781 – 5 July 1826) was a British statesman, Lieutenant-Governor of British Java (1811–1815) and Governor-General of Bencoolen (1817–1822), best known for his founding of Modern Singapore.
Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.
Stunning is the process of rendering animals immobile or unconscious, with or without killing the animal, when or immediately prior to slaughtering them for food.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.
The Tangut first appeared as a tribal union living under Tuyuhun authority and moved to Northwest China sometime before the 10th century to found the Western Xia or Tangut Empire (1038–1227).
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,Pletcher 2010, p. 195 is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
History of Java is a book written by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, and published in 1817.
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
The Trevithick Society is a registered charity named for Richard Trevithick, a Cornish engineer who contributed to the use of high pressure steam engines for transportation and mining applications.
The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot.
A twig is a small thin terminal branch of a woody plant.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT or DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the U.S. government concerned with transportation.
Vannoccio Biringuccio, sometimes spelt Vannocio Biringuccio (c. 1480 – c. 1539), was an Italian metallurgist.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
The Royal Gunpowder Mills, Waltham Abbey, an Anchor Point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage, (ERIH), set in of parkland and containing 21 buildings of major historical importance, mixes history, science, and attractive surroundings.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
William Lobb (1809 – 3 May 1864) was a Cornish plant collector, employed by Veitch Nurseries of Exeter, who was responsible for the commercial introduction to England of Araucaria araucana (the monkey-puzzle tree) from Chile and the massive Sequoiadendron giganteum (Wellingtonia) from North America.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
The Winchester Repeating Arms Company was a prominent American maker of repeating firearms, located in New Haven, Connecticut.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).
The Wujing Zongyao, sometimes rendered in English as the Complete Essentials for the Military Classics, is a Chinese military compendium written from around 1040 to 1044.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zamorin of Calicut (Samoothiri; Portuguese: Samorim, Dutch: Samorijn, Chinese: ShamitihsiMa Huan's Ying-yai Sheng-lan: 'The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores'. Translated and Edited by J. V. G. Mills. Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society (1970).) is the title of the Hindu monarch of the Kingdom of Calicut (Kozhikode) on Malabar Coast, India.
Zeng Gongliang (曾公亮, Tseng Kung-Liang; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chan Kong-liāng) (998–1078) was a Chinese scholar of the Song Dynasty who helped write the Wujing Zongyao.
Black gunpowder, Black powder, Black-powder, Blackpowder, Blasting powder, Gun Powder, Gun powder, Invention of gun-powder, Process of corning black powder, Serpentine powder, The Invention of powder, 火藥.